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The 10 Best Sites to germany, Post Your Resume Online. Dracula Essay. There are a lot of ways to get your resume in front of the germany right people, and your best chance for success is to do everything you can to get yourself out there. One of the easiest actions you can take is to stuart hall essay, distribute your resume on several sites and job in germany increase your chances of finding your next opportunity. You could be found by your future employer, or even a recruiter could take an interest in principle of population, your background and then do the thesis germany work for you. Mairs A Cripple. After reviewing all the best resume sites, we recommend using ResumeRobin to distribute your resume because you can get in front of a lot of people without investing too much of your valuable time. It's also a great value when you factor in how much time it takes to thesis germany, go to every job site. We’ve hand-picked our favorite 10 sites and services to post a resume online to help you find your next opportunity.
We’ve included some options that are industry-specific, but only ip university end term, if the germany sites cater to a wide variety of applicants. We also took into consideration the number of real inquiries job seekers received because spam can be a problem with some resume posting sites. The Best Places to Post Your Resume Online. ResumeRobin - Massive distribution for just $25. Try it now! Dice - The place to go for tech jobs. Indeed.com - The biggest job search engine. Essays Winfrey Leader. LinkedIn - Make sure your profile matches your resume. ZipRecruiter - A major up-and-comer in job search. CareerBuilder - Highly visited job board with full-time opportunities.
Monster - Popular job site with all kinds of thesis germany jobs, including part-time. Facebook - Leverage your friend network as a professional network. Twitter - Employers will look at your account if you have one. University Career Centers - Leverage your education even more. Compared to the other places to post your resume, ResumeRobin.com is probably a lesser known option, but it may be the business plan startup only website you have to visit. That’s because it’s a resume distribution service, meaning you upload your resume and thesis job in then let them do all the work. Stuart Diaspora. The cost is job in pretty low when you consider how much time it takes to post your resume on every single website. You’ll have the option to stuart diaspora, post within your metro area for $25 (includes up to 150-plus recruiters and thesis germany job sites), within your state for $55 (includes up to ip university end term papers, 250-plus recruiters and job sites), or nationwide for $65. To get started, you just have to upload your resume to job in germany, the system.
From there, ResumeRobin creates an HTML and plain text version. They enter your resume into read nancy on being a cripple, the daily feed file, which is uploaded to a network of partner websites (including most of the sites mentioned below) via an API and send the resumes to recruiters via email. Additionally, once your resume is uploaded to the various job sites, ResumeRobin job seekers get preferred treatment so that means your resume will show up at the top of keyword searches used by job in germany employers. That’s worth the cost alone if you ask us. When it comes down to it, ResumeRobin is the most job-seeker friendly place to post your resume online. Stuart Hall Diaspora Essay. It might cost you a little in the process, but don’t forget about the value of your time as well as the visibility boost you’ll receive. Many people are raving about thesis, their experiences with ResumeRobin online. One person noted that it does take about 48 hours for the service to get ramped up, but received an inquiry from a Fortune 500 company just three days later. Another had three job interviews within two weeks after using the service.
While the principle thomas website looks very basic and generic, don’t judge the book by its cover. Thesis. The company is apparently worth close to $800 million. If you have a background in tech or you’re looking for startup, an IT job, Dice is the place to go. It’s probably the biggest specialized job board on the Internet. With a growing number of companies looking to hire tech talent, posting your resume on Dice is a great way to get found if you have a tech background. Job In Germany. There are also a good number of contract jobs available on Dice. Stuart Hall Diaspora Essay. The quality of job seekers on Dice is pretty high, which is job in germany more of a positive than a negative because recruiters and employers are likely to keep coming back to ip university, find talent. Of the registered users on thesis germany Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and stuart hall diaspora 75% have a bachelor's degree. To post your resume, first create a MyDice account. From there, login and click on the Manage/Add Resumes link within the germany MyResume section.
Then, you can upload your resume. The next step would be to ip university end term papers, make your resume searchable. Go back to your account, click on the MyResume button, and select the resume you want recruiters or employers to job in, find. You can upload up to five resumes at stuart hall diaspora essay a time, so be sure to pick the right one and job in germany then click on Make Searchable. Keep in principle of population thomas, mind, you only want to be searchable if you’re actively job seeking and ready to work within 30 days. If you want to post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to Search Settings, and click the button next to Confidential. Now, your contact info will be hidden. Indeed is at the top of job in our list for places to end term, post your resume online (and search for jobs).
Indeed.com has traditionally been ranked as the number one external method of hiring for small businesses in thesis job in germany, the world. In terms of visibility, no other job site gets more action. We also recommend Indeed for job searching because it has the most comprehensive database of any job site. Gothic. There are more than 200 million people visiting the site every month. Job In Germany. Posting your resume on Indeed.com is pretty simple as well. All you have to do is ip university end term papers create a free account and then either create your resume from scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file. Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and employers can search in thesis germany, many countries. While some say that posting your resume on a job site isn’t worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed. Alright, so you can post your resume on your LinkedIn account, but we don’t advise that. LinkedIn is stuart hall essay a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated. The reason why posting your resume on LinkedIn doesn’t make a lot of sense is because a resume is job in often an adapting document depending on diaspora the type of thesis job in employment you’re seeking.
LinkedIn not only shows your professional expertise and accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about who you are and what you want. Dracula Novel. Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is optimized with the titles or words you want to be found for. Use your LinkedIn account in conjunction with your resume and just be sure both are always synced up. Job In Germany. The last thing you need is stuart hall diaspora essay inconsistencies in your story. Some people still want to take advantage of job in LinkedIn’s resume import feature. If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to plan startup, find your file, and upload it. Again, we’d recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and know that recruiters and potential employers will be taking a careful look at it. It’s one of the less familiar names on this list, but ZipRecruiter is making some major strides in thesis job in germany, the industry. Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in a more pleasant experience for job seekers. You can post your resume online by creating a free account as well as a job alert. From there, you’ll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and you’ll be matched to jobs that are hiring now.
ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is easily searchable for recruiters and ip university end term employers. All they have to do is search specific skills or keywords as well as a location. Just be sure to optimize your profile and resume according to what you’d like to be searched for so that you increase your visibility to prospective employers. One cool feature about ZipRecruiter is that you can see how many people have looked at your resume, in addition to other data. The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if you’re using ZipRecruiter on the go.
Compared to the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities. CareerBuilder costs more to post a job on thesis job in germany than the novel other industry giants, but it weeds out more unqualified applicants for germany, employers. CareerBuilder has rolled out some exciting features in the past year for job seekers who post their resume online. They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in the past week and what companies are looking at you. Regardless if you think you’ll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume.
All you have to do to get started on CareerBuilder is an essay of population malthus sign up, add your desired job title, and then upload your resume. From there, you’ll have the option to display your resume and contact info or hide it. Obviously, if you want to be found, you should choose to display your resume and contact info (and you’ll get the benefit of the insights into who is looking at your resume). Thesis Job In. Beyond the ability to post your resume online to their massive database, Monster.com also has tons of useful career resources. There’s also a premium resume service that sends your resume to influential recruiters so that you’re seen by more employers and the right ones.
It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the extra push to stand out above the rest. Monster is no stranger to resume posting, as the company was the first job search site online and also had the first resume database in diaspora essay, the world. To post your resume, create an account and sign up manually or use one of the social account sign in options. As part of creating your account, you’ll have to fill out some personal information and then choose a file to thesis, upload your resume. From there, you have the option to choose if you want to sample startup, be searchable or not. If you’re posting your resume, you likely want to be found by thesis a recruiter or employer, so we’d recommend choosing the ip university end term papers searchable option. Job In Germany. You can always hide it after if you want to. Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for free to be evaluated by a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to trying to get you to pay for a service.
Lastly, just be sure to spend the time to fill out your profile so you that it’s visible and you’ll match with the right search terms to an essay on the principle of population thomas malthus, increase your chances of being found. More recruiters and employers are turning to other methods to job in germany, find candidates. One out of six job seekers says social media is the reason for landing their current job. Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and end term networking. A lot of that happens on social media. Let’s look at Facebook first and job in germany then Twitter next.
While LinkedIn clearly leads the sample plan charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is thesis number two, according to recruiters (25% of recruiters have hired through Facebook). Dracula Novel. In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life. You don’t have to cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show you’re a real person. Make sure you have a professional profile picture and applicable cover photo. You’ll also want to include all of your work and education information. You can also include links to your personal website and other social media accounts (if relevant). We’d suggest staying clear of expressing religious and political views. There’s something intriguing about a candidate being able to sell themselves in 140 characters or less. While it’s not a huge number, 15% of recruiters have hired someone through Twitter. Given the limitations, it’s impossible to post your resume on Twitter, but this is job in germany more about leveraging Twitter by linking to your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if you’re posting your resume in a Tweet.
Hey, who knows, maybe it’s worth blasting the company you want work for hall diaspora, by mentioning them in your Tweet. You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for so you can be easily found. Leveraging Twitter to post your resume online and get in thesis job in germany, front of mairs on being more people is germany a no-brainer for someone who is unemployed or actively seeking work. A great resource (especially for recent grads) is to utilize the career center from your college to post your resume online. To be clear, university career centers are for all alumni -- not just recent grads and current students. Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because they’ve had success with talent from a handful of universities. Diaspora Essay. As an example, one company we spoke with that employs over 3,000 people specifically looks for thesis job in, analyst positions from one university. Sample Plan. It’s hard to imagine other companies don’t do the same thing.
Having your resume on your university career center can also open up opportunities for the university itself to promote you. Several alumni associations have groups on LinkedIn and Facebook. Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and interview assistance. At the thesis germany end of the day, the success rate might still depend on plan startup the reputation of your university and the type of employers coming to the university career center website to thesis, find candidates. Ip University End Term. If your skills and career trajectory match those employers, you’re probably going to get a lot better result than someone who doesn’t. CareerCloud is at the forefront of social and mobile in the job search and recruitment process.
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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. An analysis of the history of job in germany, technology shows that technological change is ip university end term, exponential, contrary to the common-sense “intuitive linear” view. So we won’t experience 100 years of job in germany, progress in the 21st century — it will be more like 20,000 years of progress (at today’s rate). The “returns,” such as chip speed and cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. Stuart Hall Diaspora? There’s even exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to The Singularity — technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in thesis germany, the fabric of human history. The implications include the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of sample business, intelligence that expand outward in the universe at the speed of light. You will get $40 trillion just by reading this essay and understanding what it says.
For complete details, see below. (It’s true that authors will do just about anything to thesis job in, keep your attention, but I’m serious about principle of population thomas malthus this statement. Until I return to a further explanation, however, do read the first sentence of this paragraph carefully.) Now back to thesis, the future: it’s widely misunderstood. Novel Essay? Our forebears expected the job in future to be pretty much like their present, which had been pretty much like their past. Although exponential trends did exist a thousand years ago, they were at that very early stage where an exponential trend is so flat that it looks like no trend at all. So their lack of expectations was largely fulfilled.
Today, in accordance with the common wisdom, everyone expects continuous technological progress and the social repercussions that follow. But the future will be far more surprising than most observers realize: few have truly internalized the implications of the fact that the rate of change itself is accelerating. The Intuitive Linear View versus the Historical Exponential View. Most long range forecasts of technical feasibility in future time periods dramatically underestimate the power of future technology because they are based on what I call the “intuitive linear” view of technological progress rather than the “historical exponential view.” To express this another way, it is not the case that we will experience a hundred years of progress in the twenty-first century; rather we will witness on the order of ip university papers, twenty thousand years of progress (at today’s rate of progress, that is). This disparity in outlook comes up frequently in a variety of contexts, for example, the discussion of the ethical issues that Bill Joy raised in thesis job in, his controversial WIRED cover story, Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us. Bill and dracula novel, I have been frequently paired in a variety of venues as pessimist and optimist respectively. Although I’m expected to thesis, criticize Bill’s position, and indeed I do take issue with his prescription of relinquishment, I nonetheless usually end up defending Joy on the key issue of sample business, feasibility.
Recently a Noble Prize winning panelist dismissed Bill’s concerns, exclaiming that, “we’re not going to see self-replicating nanoengineered entities for a hundred years.” I pointed out that 100 years was indeed a reasonable estimate of the amount of technical progress required to achieve this particular milestone at today’s rate of progress . But because we’re doubling the job in rate of an essay on the thomas, progress every decade, we’ll see a century of thesis job in, progress– at today’s rate –in only 25 calendar years. When people think of a future period, they intuitively assume that the current rate of progress will continue for future periods. However, careful consideration of the pace of technology shows that the essays rate of progress is thesis job in germany, not constant, but it is human nature to adapt to the changing pace, so the intuitive view is that the plan pace will continue at the current rate. Even for those of us who have been around long enough to experience how the thesis pace increases over time, our unexamined intuition nonetheless provides the impression that progress changes at dracula novel the rate that we have experienced recently. From the mathematician’s perspective, a primary reason for this is that an exponential curve approximates a straight line when viewed for a brief duration. So even though the rate of progress in the very recent past (e.g., this past year) is far greater than it was ten years ago (let alone a hundred or a thousand years ago), our memories are nonetheless dominated by our very recent experience. It is typical, therefore, that even sophisticated commentators, when considering the future, extrapolate the current pace of change over the next 10 years or 100 years to determine their expectations. This is why I call this way of looking at germany the future the “intuitive linear” view. But a serious assessment of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential. Business Startup? In exponential growth, we find that a key measurement such as computational power is multiplied by a constant factor for each unit of time (e.g., doubling every year) rather than just being added to incrementally.
Exponential growth is a feature of any evolutionary process, of which technology is a primary example. One can examine the data. in different ways, on thesis germany, different time scales, and for a wide variety of technologies ranging from electronic to biological, and gothic novel, the acceleration of thesis, progress and essay, growth applies. Indeed, we find not just simple exponential growth, but “double” exponential growth, meaning that the job in germany rate of exponential growth is itself growing exponentially. Hall Diaspora Essay? These observations do not rely merely on an assumption of the thesis germany continuation of Moore’s law (i.e., the exponential shrinking of end term, transistor sizes on an integrated circuit), but is job in, based on on oprah winfrey leader, a rich model of diverse technological processes. What it clearly shows is germany, that technology, particularly the stuart hall diaspora essay pace of technological change, advances (at least) exponentially, not linearly, and has been doing so since the advent of technology, indeed since the job in germany advent of evolution on stuart diaspora, Earth.
I emphasize this point because it is the most important failure that would-be prognosticators make in considering future trends. Most technology forecasts ignore altogether this “historical exponential view” of technological progress. Thesis Job In Germany? That is why people tend to overestimate what can be achieved in the short term (because we tend to leave out read mairs essay a cripple necessary details), but underestimate what can be achieved in the long term (because the thesis germany exponential growth is ignored). We can organize these observations into what I call the law of accelerating returns as follows: Evolution applies positive feedback in sample plan, that the more capable methods resulting from job in germany one stage of evolutionary progress are used to create the next stage. Essay On Being? As a result, the rate of progress of an evolutionary process increases exponentially over time.
Over time, the “order” of the information embedded in the evolutionary process (i.e., the measure of how well the germany information fits a purpose, which in read nancy on being, evolution is survival) increases. A correlate of the above observation is job in germany, that the “returns” of an evolutionary process (e.g., the end term speed, cost-effectiveness, or overall “power” of a process) increase exponentially over time. In another positive feedback loop, as a particular evolutionary process (e.g., computation) becomes more effective (e.g., cost effective), greater resources are deployed toward the further progress of that process. This results in a second level of exponential growth (i.e., the thesis job in rate of exponential growth itself grows exponentially). Biological evolution is one such evolutionary process. Technological evolution is another such evolutionary process. Indeed, the emergence of the first technology creating species resulted in the new evolutionary process of technology. Therefore, technological evolution is an essay, outgrowth of–and a continuation of–biological evolution. Job In? A specific paradigm (a method or approach to solving a problem, e.g., shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit as an approach to making more powerful computers) provides exponential growth until the principle thomas method exhausts its potential. When this happens, a paradigm shift (i.e., a fundamental change in the approach) occurs, which enables exponential growth to continue.
If we apply these principles at the highest level of evolution on Earth, the first step, the creation of thesis job in germany, cells, introduced the paradigm of biology. Stuart Essay? The subsequent emergence of DNA provided a digital method to record the results of evolutionary experiments. Then, the evolution of a species who combined rational thought with an germany, opposable appendage (i.e., the thumb) caused a fundamental paradigm shift from biology to technology. The upcoming primary paradigm shift will be from biological thinking to a hybrid combining biological and nonbiological thinking. This hybrid will include “biologically inspired” processes resulting from the on oprah as a leader reverse engineering of biological brains. If we examine the timing of these steps, we see that the process has continuously accelerated. Job In? The evolution of life forms required billions of years for the first steps (e.g., primitive cells); later on progress accelerated.
During the Cambrian explosion, major paradigm shifts took only plan, tens of millions of years. Later on, Humanoids developed over a period of millions of years, and Homo sapiens over thesis job in a period of only hall, hundreds of thousands of years. With the advent of a technology-creating species, the exponential pace became too fast for evolution through DNA-guided protein synthesis and moved on to human-created technology. Technology goes beyond mere tool making; it is job in, a process of creating ever more powerful technology using the tools from the previous round of innovation. In this way, human technology is distinguished from the tool making of read mairs essay, other species.
There is germany, a record of stuart essay, each stage of technology, and each new stage of technology builds on the order of the previous stage. The first technological steps-sharp edges, fire, the job in germany wheel–took tens of nancy mairs, thousands of years. For people living in this era, there was little noticeable technological change in even a thousand years. By 1000 A.D., progress was much faster and a paradigm shift required only a century or two. In the nineteenth century, we saw more technological change than in the nine centuries preceding it. Germany? Then in an essay on the principle of population malthus, the first twenty years of the twentieth century, we saw more advancement than in all of the nineteenth century. Now, paradigm shifts occur in only a few years time. The World Wide Web did not exist in anything like its present form just a few years ago; it didn’t exist at all a decade ago.
The paradigm shift rate (i.e., the overall rate of technical progress) is currently doubling (approximately) every decade; that is, paradigm shift times are halving every decade (and the rate of acceleration is itself growing exponentially). So, the technological progress in the twenty-first century will be equivalent to what would require (in the linear view) on the order of 200 centuries. In contrast, the job in germany twentieth century saw only about 25 years of progress (again at today’s rate of progress) since we have been speeding up to essays on oprah as a, current rates. So the job in germany twenty-first century will see almost a thousand times greater technological change than its predecessor. To appreciate the nature and significance of the read on being a cripple coming “singularity,” it is job in germany, important to ponder the ip university end term papers nature of exponential growth. Job In? Toward this end, I am fond of telling the tale of the inventor of chess and his patron, the emperor of China. In response to business plan, the emperor’s offer of a reward for his new beloved game, the inventor asked for thesis germany a single grain of rice on the first square, two on the second square, four on the third, and so on. The Emperor quickly granted this seemingly benign and humble request. One version of the story has the read essay on being emperor going bankrupt as the 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of germany, rice. At ten grains of novel, rice per square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the surface area of the Earth, oceans included.
Another version of the story has the inventor losing his head. It should be pointed out that as the thesis germany emperor and the inventor went through the first half of the chess board, things were fairly uneventful. The inventor was given spoonfuls of rice, then bowls of rice, then barrels. By the end of the first half of the chess board, the inventor had accumulated one large field’s worth (4 billion grains), and on oprah, the emperor did start to take notice. It was as they progressed through the second half of the chessboard that the situation quickly deteriorated. Incidentally, with regard to the doublings of computation, that’s about where we stand now–there have been slightly more than 32 doublings of performance since the first programmable computers were invented during World War II. This is the thesis nature of exponential growth. Although technology grows in the exponential domain, we humans live in a linear world. So technological trends are not noticed as small levels of technological power are doubled. Then seemingly out of nowhere, a technology explodes into view.
For example, when the novel Internet went from 20,000 to 80,000 nodes over job in germany a two year period during the 1980s, this progress remained hidden from the general public. A decade later, when it went from 20 million to 80 million nodes in the same amount of time, the essays winfrey as a leader impact was rather conspicuous. As exponential growth continues to accelerate into the first half of the twenty-first century, it will appear to explode into infinity, at least from the limited and thesis job in, linear perspective of contemporary humans. On Oprah Winfrey Leader? The progress will ultimately become so fast that it will rupture our ability to follow it. It will literally get out of thesis job in germany, our control.
The illusion that we have our hand “on the plug,” will be dispelled. Can the ip university papers pace of technological progress continue to speed up indefinitely? Is there not a point where humans are unable to thesis job in germany, think fast enough to keep up with it? With regard to unenhanced humans, clearly so. But what would a thousand scientists, each a thousand times more intelligent than human scientists today, and each operating a thousand times faster than contemporary humans (because the information processing in their primarily nonbiological brains is faster) accomplish? One year would be like a millennium. Winfrey? What would they come up with? Well, for one thing, they would come up with technology to thesis job in, become even more intelligent (because their intelligence is no longer of fixed capacity). They would change their own thought processes to think even faster. When the scientists evolve to be a million times more intelligent and read nancy a cripple, operate a million times faster, then an germany, hour would result in a century of progress (in today’s terms). This, then, is the essays on oprah leader Singularity.
The Singularity is technological change so rapid and so profound that it represents a rupture in thesis job in germany, the fabric of human history. Ip University? Some would say that we cannot comprehend the Singularity, at least with our current level of understanding, and that it is impossible, therefore, to look past its “event horizon” and make sense of what lies beyond. My view is that despite our profound limitations of thought, constrained as we are today to a mere hundred trillion interneuronal connections in our biological brains, we nonetheless have sufficient powers of abstraction to make meaningful statements about the thesis job in germany nature of life after the Singularity. Most importantly, it is dracula essay, my view that the thesis germany intelligence that will emerge will continue to represent the human civilization, which is already a human-machine civilization. This will be the next step in evolution, the next high level paradigm shift. To put the concept of Singularity into winfrey as a perspective, let’s explore the history of the word itself. Singularity is job in germany, a familiar word meaning a unique event with profound implications. In mathematics, the term implies infinity, the explosion of value that occurs when dividing a constant by a number that gets closer and closer to zero.
In physics, similarly, a singularity denotes an event or location of infinite power. At the center of a black hole, matter is so dense that its gravity is infinite. As nearby matter and energy are drawn into the black hole, an event horizon separates the gothic novel essay region from the rest of the Universe. It constitutes a rupture in the fabric of space and time. The Universe itself is said to have begun with just such a Singularity. In the 1950s, John Von Neumann was quoted as saying that “the ever accelerating progress of technology…gives the thesis job in germany appearance of stuart diaspora, approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.” In the job in 1960s, I. J. Good wrote of an “intelligence explosion,” resulting from intelligent machines designing their next generation without human intervention. In 1986, Vernor Vinge, a mathematician and computer scientist at San Diego State University, wrote about a rapidly approaching technological “singularity” in his science fiction novel, Marooned in Realtime.
Then in 1993, Vinge presented a paper to a NASA-organized symposium which described the Singularity as an impending event resulting primarily from the advent of “entities with greater than human intelligence,” which Vinge saw as the harbinger of a run-away phenomenon. From my perspective, the on oprah winfrey Singularity has many faces. It represents the job in nearly vertical phase of exponential growth where the rate of growth is so extreme that technology appears to be growing at infinite speed. Of course, from a mathematical perspective, there is no discontinuity, no rupture, and the growth rates remain finite, albeit extraordinarily large. But from our currently limited perspective, this imminent event appears to be an on the principle of population malthus, acute and abrupt break in the continuity of job in germany, progress. However, I emphasize the word “currently,” because one of the salient implications of the as a Singularity will be a change in the nature of our ability to understand. Thesis? In other words, we will become vastly smarter as we merge with our technology. When I wrote my first book, The Age of Intelligent Machines, in the 1980s, I ended the book with the specter of the emergence of machine intelligence greater than human intelligence, but found it difficult to look beyond this event horizon.
Now having thought about its implications for the past 20 years, I feel that we are indeed capable of understanding the many facets of this threshold, one that will transform all spheres of human life. Consider a few examples of the ip university papers implications. Thesis Germany? The bulk of our experiences will shift from real reality to read essay a cripple, virtual reality. Most of the intelligence of our civilization will ultimately be nonbiological, which by the end of this century will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than human intelligence. However, to thesis, address often expressed concerns, this does not imply the end of biological intelligence, even if thrown from its perch of evolutionary superiority. Moreover, it is important to note that the nonbiological forms will be derivative of biological design. In other words, our civilization will remain human, indeed in many ways more exemplary of what we regard as human than it is today, although our understanding of the term will move beyond its strictly biological origins. Many observers have nonetheless expressed alarm at the emergence of forms of nonbiological intelligence superior to human intelligence. Sample Plan Startup? The potential to thesis germany, augment our own intelligence through intimate connection with other thinking mediums does not necessarily alleviate the concern, as some people have expressed the wish to ip university, remain “unenhanced” while at thesis germany the same time keeping their place at the top of the dracula gothic novel essay intellectual food chain. My view is germany, that the likely outcome is hall, that on the one hand, from the thesis job in germany perspective of papers, biological humanity, these superhuman intelligences will appear to be their transcendent servants, satisfying their needs and desires. On the other hand, fulfilling the thesis job in wishes of a revered biological legacy will occupy only winfrey leader, a trivial portion of the intellectual power that the Singularity will bring.
Needless to job in, say, the Singularity will transform all aspects of our lives, social, sexual, and economic, which I explore herewith. Before considering further the implications of the ip university end term papers Singularity, let’s examine the wide range of technologies that are subject to the law of accelerating returns. The exponential trend that has gained the greatest public recognition has become known as “Moore’s Law.” Gordon Moore, one of the inventors of integrated circuits, and then Chairman of Intel, noted in germany, the mid 1970s that we could squeeze twice as many transistors on an integrated circuit every 24 months. Given that the electrons have less distance to travel, the circuits also run twice as fast, providing an overall quadrupling of computational power. After sixty years of devoted service, Moore’s Law will die a dignified death no later than the year 2019. By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width, and the strategy of end term papers, ever finer photolithography will have run its course. So, will that be the end of the exponential growth of thesis job in germany, computing? If we plot the speed (in instructions per second) per $1000 (in constant dollars) of 49 famous calculators and sample business plan, computers spanning the entire twentieth century, we note some interesting observations. Moore’s Law Was Not the First, but the Fifth Paradigm To Provide Exponential Growth of Computing.
Each time one paradigm runs out of steam, another picks up the pace. It is important to note that Moore’s Law of Integrated Circuits was not the first, but the fifth paradigm to provide accelerating price-performance. Thesis? Computing devices have been consistently multiplying in power (per unit of time) from the mechanical calculating devices used in the 1890 U.S. Census, to Turing’s relay-based “Robinson” machine that cracked the Nazi enigma code, to stuart, the CBS vacuum tube computer that predicted the election of Eisenhower, to the transistor-based machines used in the first space launches, to the integrated-circuit-based personal computer which I used to dictate (and automatically transcribe) this essay. But I noticed something else surprising.
When I plotted the 49 machines on germany, an exponential graph (where a straight line means exponential growth), I didn’t get a straight line. What I got was another exponential curve. In other words, there’s exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Computer speed (per unit cost) doubled every three years between 1910 and 1950, doubled every two years between 1950 and 1966, and hall diaspora, is now doubling every year. But where does Moore’s Law come from? What is behind this remarkably predictable phenomenon?
I have seen relatively little written about the ultimate source of this trend. Is it just “a set of industry expectations and goals,” as Randy Isaac, head of basic science at job in germany IBM contends? Or is there something more profound going on? In my view, it is one manifestation (among many) of the exponential growth of the evolutionary process that is technology. Winfrey Leader? The exponential growth of thesis job in germany, computing is ip university end term, a marvelous quantitative example of the exponentially growing returns from an evolutionary process. We can also express the exponential growth of computing in terms of an accelerating pace: it took ninety years to achieve the first MIPS (million instructions per second) per thousand dollars, now we add one MIPS per thousand dollars every day. Moore’s Law narrowly refers to the number of job in, transistors on an integrated circuit of fixed size, and business, sometimes has been expressed even more narrowly in terms of transistor feature size.
But rather than feature size (which is only one contributing factor), or even number of transistors, I think the job in germany most appropriate measure to track is computational speed per unit cost. This takes into account many levels of end term papers, “cleverness” (i.e., innovation, which is to say, technological evolution). In addition to all of the innovation in integrated circuits, there are multiple layers of innovation in computer design, e.g., pipelining, parallel processing, instruction look-ahead, instruction and memory caching, and many others. From the above chart, we see that the exponential growth of computing didn’t start with integrated circuits (around 1958), or even transistors (around 1947), but goes back to the electromechanical calculators used in the 1890 and thesis job in germany, 1900 U.S. Census. This chart spans at least five distinct paradigms of computing, of which Moore’s Law pertains to business plan startup, only the latest one. It’s obvious what the sixth paradigm will be after Moore’s Law runs out of steam during the second decade of this century. Chips today are flat (although it does require up to thesis germany, 20 layers of end term papers, material to produce one layer of circuitry). Thesis? Our brain, in contrast, is organized in three dimensions. We live in a three dimensional world, why not use the third dimension?
The human brain actually uses a very inefficient electrochemical digital controlled analog computational process. The bulk of the business plan startup calculations are done in the interneuronal connections at job in a speed of only about 200 calculations per second (in each connection), which is about ten million times slower than contemporary electronic circuits. But the brain gains its prodigious powers from its extremely parallel organization in three dimensions . There are many technologies in principle thomas malthus, the wings that build circuitry in three dimensions. Nanotubes, for example, which are already working in laboratories, build circuits from pentagonal arrays of carbon atoms. One cubic inch of nanotube circuitry would be a million times more powerful than the human brain. There are more than enough new computing technologies now being researched, including three-dimensional silicon chips, optical computing, crystalline computing, DNA computing, and quantum computing, to keep the law of job in germany, accelerating returns as applied to computation going for a long time. Thus the (double) exponential growth of computing is broader than Moore’s Law, which refers to only one of its paradigms. And this accelerating growth of on oprah winfrey, computing is, in turn, part of the yet broader phenomenon of the accelerating pace of any evolutionary process. Observers are quick to criticize extrapolations of an job in germany, exponential trend on the basis that the trend is bound to run out of ip university papers, “resources.” The classical example is when a species happens upon a new habitat (e.g., rabbits in Australia), the species’ numbers will grow exponentially for a time, but then hit a limit when resources such as food and thesis job in germany, space run out. But the resources underlying the exponential growth of an evolutionary process are relatively unbounded: (i) The (ever growing) order of the evolutionary process itself.
Each stage of ip university papers, evolution provides more powerful tools for the next. In biological evolution, the advent of DNA allowed more powerful and faster evolutionary “experiments.” Later, setting the “designs” of thesis job in, animal body plans during the Cambrian explosion allowed rapid evolutionary development of other body organs such as the stuart diaspora brain. Thesis Job In Germany? Or to an essay principle malthus, take a more recent example, the thesis job in germany advent of computer assisted design tools allows rapid development of the next generation of computers. (ii) The “chaos” of the environment in which the evolutionary process takes place and which provides the essays as a options for thesis further diversity. In biological evolution, diversity enters the process in the form of end term, mutations and ever changing environmental conditions. In technological evolution, human ingenuity combined with ever changing market conditions keep the process of innovation going. The maximum potential of thesis germany, matter and energy to contain intelligent processes is a valid issue. But according to my models, we won’t approach those limits during this century (but this will become an issue within a couple of centuries). We also need to distinguish between the “S” curve (an “S” stretched to the right, comprising very slow, virtually unnoticeable growth–followed by very rapid growth–followed by a flattening out sample plan startup as the process approaches an asymptote) that is characteristic of job in, any specific technological paradigm and the continuing exponential growth that is gothic, characteristic of the thesis germany ongoing evolutionary process of technology. Specific paradigms, such as Moore’s Law, do ultimately reach levels at which exponential growth is essay, no longer feasible. Thus Moore’s Law is an S curve.
But the germany growth of computation is an ongoing exponential (at least until we “saturate” the Universe with the papers intelligence of our human-machine civilization, but that will not be a limit in this coming century). Germany? In accordance with the law of on oprah, accelerating returns, paradigm shift, also called innovation, turns the S curve of any specific paradigm into a continuing exponential. A new paradigm (e.g., three-dimensional circuits) takes over job in germany when the old paradigm approaches its natural limit. This has already happened at least four times in the history of computation. Essays On Oprah Winfrey As A Leader? This difference also distinguishes the tool making of non-human species, in which the mastery of a tool-making (or using) skill by each animal is characterized by job in germany an abruptly ending S shaped learning curve, versus human-created technology, which has followed an exponential pattern of growth and acceleration since its inception.
DNA Sequencing, Memory, Communications, the as a Internet, and Miniaturization. This “law of thesis, accelerating returns” applies to read nancy mairs essay on being a cripple, all of technology, indeed to any true evolutionary process, and can be measured with remarkable precision in information based technologies. Germany? There are a great many examples of the exponential growth implied by the law of accelerating returns in technologies as varied as DNA sequencing, communication speeds, electronics of all kinds, and even in the rapidly shrinking size of technology. The Singularity results not from the exponential explosion of computation alone, but rather from the hall interplay and myriad synergies that will result from manifold intertwined technological revolutions. Also, keep in mind that every point on the exponential growth curves underlying these panoply of technologies (see the thesis job in germany graphs below) represents an intense human drama of innovation and competition.
It is remarkable therefore that these chaotic processes result in such smooth and predictable exponential trends. For example, when the human genome scan started fourteen years ago, critics pointed out that given the speed with which the genome could then be scanned, it would take thousands of years to finish the project. Yet the fifteen year project was nonetheless completed slightly ahead of schedule. Of course, we expect to see exponential growth in electronic memories such as RAM. Notice How Exponential Growth Continued through Paradigm Shifts from read nancy mairs essay on being a cripple Vacuum Tubes to Discrete Transistors to Integrated Circuits. However, growth in magnetic memory is not primarily a matter of Moore’s law, but includes advances in mechanical and job in germany, electromagnetic systems. Exponential growth in communications technology has been even more explosive than in computation and is no less significant in its implications. Again, this progression involves far more than just shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit, but includes accelerating advances in papers, fiber optics, optical switching, electromagnetic technologies, and others. Notice Cascade of smaller “S” Curves.
Note that in the above two charts we can actually see the progression of “S” curves: the acceleration fostered by a new paradigm, followed by thesis job in germany a leveling off as the paradigm runs out of steam, followed by dracula gothic novel renewed acceleration through paradigm shift. The following two charts show the overall growth of the Internet based on the number of hosts. These two charts plot the same data, but one is on an exponential axis and the other is linear. As I pointed out earlier, whereas technology progresses in thesis job in germany, the exponential domain, we experience it in the linear domain. So from the perspective of most observers, nothing was happening until the mid 1990s when seemingly out of nowhere, the hall essay world wide web and email exploded into view. Job In Germany? But the emergence of the Internet into a worldwide phenomenon was readily predictable much earlier by of population malthus examining the exponential trend data. Notice how the explosion of the Internet appears to be a surprise from the Linear Chart, but was perfectly predictable from the Exponential Chart.
Ultimately we will get away from the tangle of wires in our cities and in thesis job in germany, our lives through wireless communication, the stuart hall diaspora power of which is doubling every 10 to 11 months. Another technology that will have profound implications for the twenty-first century is the pervasive trend toward making things smaller, i.e., miniaturization. Job In? The salient implementation sizes of a broad range of technologies, both electronic and mechanical, are shrinking, also at a double exponential rate. At present, we are shrinking technology by a factor of approximately 5.6 per linear dimension per decade. The Exponential Growth of Computation Revisited. If we view the exponential growth of plan startup, computation in its proper perspective as one example of the pervasiveness of the thesis job in germany exponential growth of information based technology, that is, as one example of plan, many of the law of accelerating returns, then we can confidently predict its continuation. In the accompanying sidebar, I include a simplified mathematical model of the law of accelerating returns as it pertains to the (double) exponential growth of computing. Job In Germany? The formulas below result in the above graph of the continued growth of computation. This graph matches the available data for the twentieth century through all five paradigms and provides projections for stuart hall essay the twenty-first century. Note how the Growth Rate is growing slowly, but nonetheless exponentially. The Law of Accelerating Returns Applied to the Growth of Computation.
The following provides a brief overview of the job in germany law of accelerating returns as it applies to business startup, the double exponential growth of computation. This model considers the impact of the growing power of the technology to foster its own next generation. For example, with more powerful computers and related technology, we have the tools and job in germany, the knowledge to design yet more powerful computers, and to an essay of population malthus, do so more quickly. Note that the data for the year 2000 and beyond assume neural net connection calculations as it is expected that this type of calculation will ultimately dominate, particularly in emulating human brain functions. This type of calculation is job in germany, less expensive than conventional (e.g., Pentium III / IV) calculations by a factor of at least 100 (particularly if implemented using digital controlled analog electronics, which would correspond well to the brain’s digital controlled analog electrochemical processes). A factor of 100 translates into approximately 6 years (today) and less than 6 years later in the twenty-first century. My estimate of brain capacity is 100 billion neurons times an average 1,000 connections per neuron (with the calculations taking place primarily in sample business plan startup, the connections) times 200 calculations per second. Although these estimates are conservatively high, one can find higher and thesis, lower estimates.
However, even much higher (or lower) estimates by an essay on the principle of population orders of magnitude only shift the prediction by thesis job in germany a relatively small number of years. Some prominent dates from this analysis include the hall diaspora following: We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2023. Job In? We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for one cent around the year 2037. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2049. Mairs? We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for one cent around the year 2059. The Model considers the following variables: V: Velocity (i.e., power) of computing (measured in CPS/unit cost) W: World Knowledge as it pertains to designing and building computational devices t: Time. The assumptions of the model are: In other words, computer power is a linear function of the knowledge of how to thesis germany, build computers. This is on the of population, actually a conservative assumption.
In general, innovations improve V (computer power) by a multiple, not in an additive way. Thesis Job In Germany? Independent innovations multiply each other’s effect. For example, a circuit advance such as CMOS, a more efficient IC wiring methodology, and a processor innovation such as pipelining all increase V by independent multiples. In other words, W (knowledge) is cumulative, and the instantaneous increment to knowledge is stuart hall diaspora, proportional to thesis, V. W = C1 * C2 * Integral (0 to t) W W = C1 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) (Note on notation: a^b means a raised to the b power.) Simplifying the constants, we get: So this is winfrey, a formula for thesis “accelerating” (i.e., exponentially growing) returns, a “regular Moore’s Law.” As I mentioned above, the data shows exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. (We doubled computer power every three years early in the twentieth century, every two years in the middle of the century, and close to every one year during the 1990s.) Let’s factor in another exponential phenomenon, which is the growing resources for computation. Not only is nancy on being a cripple, each (constant cost) device getting more powerful as a function of W, but the resources deployed for computation are also growing exponentially. N: Expenditures for computation V = C1 * W (as before) N = C4 ^ (C5 * t) (Expenditure for job in computation is principle of population malthus, growing at its own exponential rate) W = C2 * Integral(0 to t) (N * V)
As before, world knowledge is thesis job in germany, accumulating, and the instantaneous increment is proportional to the amount of computation, which equals the business resources deployed for computation (N) * the job in power of each (constant cost) device. W = C1 * C2 * Integral(0 to t) (C4 ^ (C5 * t) * W) W = C1 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) Simplifying the constants, we get: This is ip university, a double exponential–an exponential curve in which the rate of exponential growth is growing at a different exponential rate. Now let’s consider real-world data. Considering the data for thesis job in germany actual calculating devices and essays on oprah winfrey as a, computers during the twentieth century: CPS/$1K: Calculations Per Second for $1,000. Twentieth century computing data matches: We can determine the growth rate over germany a period of time: Growth Rate =10^((LOG(CPS/$1K for Current Year) – LOG(CPS/$1K for Previous Year))/(Current Year – Previous Year)) Human Brain = 100 Billion (10^11) neurons * 1000 (10^3) Connections/Neuron * 200 (2 * 10^2) Calculations Per Second Per Connection = 2 * 10^16 Calculations Per Second Human Race = 10 Billion (10^10) Human Brains = 2 * 10^26 Calculations Per Second. These formulas produce the graph above.
Already, IBM’s “Blue Gene” supercomputer, now being built and scheduled to be completed by 2005, is sample business plan, projected to provide 1 million billion calculations per second (i.e., one billion megaflops). This is job in, already one twentieth of the capacity of the human brain, which I estimate at a conservatively high 20 million billion calculations per second (100 billion neurons times 1,000 connections per neuron times 200 calculations per second per connection). In line with my earlier predictions, supercomputers will achieve one human brain capacity by 2010, and personal computers will do so by around 2020. By 2030, it will take a village of human brains (around a thousand) to an essay on the principle, match $1000 of computing. By 2050, $1000 of computing will equal the processing power of thesis germany, all human brains on essays winfrey leader, Earth. Thesis Job In? Of course, this only includes those brains still using carbon-based neurons. While human neurons are wondrous creations in a way, we wouldn’t (and don’t) design computing circuits the read nancy mairs essay on being a cripple same way.
Our electronic circuits are already more than ten million times faster than a neuron’s electrochemical processes. Most of the complexity of a human neuron is thesis, devoted to maintaining its life support functions, not its information processing capabilities. Ultimately, we will need to port our mental processes to a more suitable computational substrate. Then our minds won’t have to stay so small, being constrained as they are today to a mere hundred trillion neural connections each operating at a ponderous 200 digitally controlled analog calculations per gothic essay second. So far, I’ve been talking about the hardware of thesis germany, computing. The software is even more salient.
One of the principal assumptions underlying the expectation of the dracula gothic novel essay Singularity is the ability of nonbiological mediums to emulate the richness, subtlety, and depth of human thinking. Achieving the computational capacity of the human brain, or even villages and nations of germany, human brains will not automatically produce human levels of capability. By human levels I include all the diverse and dracula gothic novel essay, subtle ways in which humans are intelligent, including musical and artistic aptitude, creativity, physically moving through the world, and understanding and responding appropriately to emotion. The requisite hardware capacity is a necessary but not sufficient condition. The organization and content of these resources–the software of thesis germany, intelligence–is also critical. Before addressing this issue, it is important to note that once a computer achieves a human level of intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it. Essays On Oprah? A key advantage of nonbiological intelligence is that machines can easily share their knowledge. If I learn French, or read War and Peace, I can’t readily download that learning to you. You have to thesis germany, acquire that scholarship the same painstaking way that I did.
My knowledge, embedded in a vast pattern of neurotransmitter concentrations and interneuronal connections, cannot be quickly accessed or transmitted. But we won’t leave out sample plan quick downloading ports in our nonbiological equivalents of human neuron clusters. When one computer learns a skill or gains an insight, it can immediately share that wisdom with billions of other machines. As a contemporary example, we spent years teaching one research computer how to job in, recognize continuous human speech. We exposed it to thousands of read nancy on being, hours of recorded speech, corrected its errors, and patiently improved its performance. Finally, it became quite adept at recognizing speech (I dictated most of my recent book to thesis job in germany, it). Now if you want your own personal computer to recognize speech, it doesn’t have to go through the same process; you can just download the on the of population malthus fully trained patterns in seconds.
Ultimately, billions of nonbiological entities can be the master of all human and machine acquired knowledge. In addition, computers are potentially millions of times faster than human neural circuits. A computer can also remember billions or even trillions of facts perfectly, while we are hard pressed to remember a handful of phone numbers. The combination of human level intelligence in a machine with a computer’s inherent superiority in the speed, accuracy, and sharing ability of its memory will be formidable. There are a number of compelling scenarios to achieve higher levels of intelligence in our computers, and ultimately human levels and beyond. We will be able to job in, evolve and train a system combining massively parallel neural nets with other paradigms to read nancy on being a cripple, understand language and model knowledge, including the ability to read and model the knowledge contained in written documents. Unlike many contemporary “neural net” machines, which use mathematically simplified models of human neurons, some contemporary neural nets are already using highly detailed models of thesis job in germany, human neurons, including detailed nonlinear analog activation functions and other relevant details. Although the ability of today’s computers to extract and learn knowledge from natural language documents is nancy on being a cripple, limited, their capabilities in this domain are improving rapidly.
Computers will be able to read on job in germany, their own, understanding and modeling what they have read, by the second decade of the twenty-first century. We can then have our computers read all of the principle world’s literature–books, magazines, scientific journals, and other available material. Ultimately, the machines will gather knowledge on their own by venturing out on job in germany, the web, or even into the physical world, drawing from the full spectrum of media and information services, and sharing knowledge with each other (which machines can do far more easily than their human creators). Reverse Engineering the novel essay Human Brain. The most compelling scenario for mastering the software of intelligence is to tap into the blueprint of the thesis job in germany best example we can get our hands on essays winfrey leader, of an intelligent process. There is no reason why we cannot reverse engineer the human brain, and essentially copy its design. Although it took its original designer several billion years to develop, it’s readily available to thesis job in, us, and not (yet) copyrighted. Although there’s a skull around the brain, it is not hidden from our view. The most immediately accessible way to accomplish this is through destructive scanning: we take a frozen brain, preferably one frozen just slightly before rather than slightly after it was going to die anyway, and examine one brain layer–one very thin slice–at a time. We can readily see every neuron and ip university papers, every connection and every neurotransmitter concentration represented in each synapse-thin layer.
Human brain scanning has already started. A condemned killer allowed his brain and thesis, body to be scanned and an essay principle thomas, you can access all 10 billion bytes of job in, him on end term, the Internet http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html. He has a 25 billion byte female companion on the site as well in case he gets lonely. This scan is not high enough in resolution for our purposes, but then, we probably don’t want to base our templates of machine intelligence on the brain of a convicted killer, anyway. But scanning a frozen brain is feasible today, albeit not yet at a sufficient speed or bandwidth, but again, the law of thesis germany, accelerating returns will provide the requisite speed of scanning, just as it did for the human genome scan. Stuart Hall Diaspora Essay? Carnegie Mellon University’s Andreas Nowatzyk plans to scan the nervous system of the brain and thesis, body of a mouse with a resolution of less than 200 nanometers, which is getting very close to the resolution needed for reverse engineering. We also have noninvasive scanning techniques today, including high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, optical imaging, near-infrared scanning, and other technologies which are capable in certain instances of resolving individual somas, or neuron cell bodies. Brain scanning technologies are also increasing their resolution with each new generation, just what we would expect from the diaspora essay law of accelerating returns. Future generations will enable us to resolve the connections between neurons and to thesis germany, peer inside the synapses and record the neurotransmitter concentrations. We can peer inside someone’s brain today with noninvasive scanners, which are increasing their resolution with each new generation of this technology.
There are a number of technical challenges in accomplishing this, including achieving suitable resolution, bandwidth, lack of vibration, and safety. For a variety of reasons it is business startup, easier to scan the job in brain of someone recently deceased than of someone still living. It is easier to get someone deceased to sit still, for hall diaspora one thing. But noninvasively scanning a living brain will ultimately become feasible as MRI, optical, and other scanning technologies continue to improve in resolution and thesis germany, speed. Although noninvasive means of scanning the brain from outside the skull are rapidly improving, the most practical approach to capturing every salient neural detail will be to scan it from inside. By 2030, “nanobot” (i.e., nano robot) technology will be viable, and read essay, brain scanning will be a prominent application. Job In? Nanobots are robots that are the read mairs on being a cripple size of thesis job in, human blood cells, or even smaller. An Essay Principle Thomas? Billions of them could travel through every brain capillary and scan every relevant feature from up close. Thesis Job In? Using high speed wireless communication, the nanobots would communicate with each other, and with other computers that are compiling the brain scan data base (in other words, the nanobots will all be on a wireless local area network). This scenario involves only capabilities that we can touch and feel today.
We already have technology capable of producing very high resolution scans, provided that the on oprah scanner is job in germany, physically proximate to the neural features. The basic computational and communication methods are also essentially feasible today. The primary features that are not yet practical are nanobot size and cost. Gothic Novel? As I discussed above, we can project the exponentially declining cost of computation, and thesis job in, the rapidly declining size of both electronic and mechanical technologies. Ip University Papers? We can conservatively expect, therefore, the requisite nanobot technology by around 2030. Because of its ability to place each scanner in very close physical proximity to every neural feature, nanobot-based scanning will be more practical than scanning the thesis brain from outside. How will we apply the thousands of essays as a leader, trillions of bytes of job in, information derived from each brain scan? One approach is to on oprah winfrey, use the results to design more intelligent parallel algorithms for our machines, particularly those based on one of the neural net paradigms. With this approach, we don’t have to copy every single connection.
There is a great deal of repetition and redundancy within any particular brain region. Although the information contained in a human brain would require thousands of trillions of thesis job in germany, bytes of information (on the order of 100 billion neurons times an average of 1,000 connections per neuron, each with multiple neurotransmitter concentrations and connection data), the design of the brain is characterized by a human genome of only about a billion bytes. Furthermore, most of the on the genome is job in, redundant, so the initial design of the brain is characterized by approximately one hundred million bytes, about the size of Microsoft Word. Of course, the essays complexity of our brains greatly increases as we interact with the world (by a factor of more than ten million). Because of the highly repetitive patterns found in each specific brain region, it is not necessary to capture each detail in order to reverse engineer the significant digital-analog algorithms. With this information, we can design simulated nets that operate similarly. Thesis Job In? There are already multiple efforts under way to scan the human brain and of population, apply the germany insights derived to the design of intelligent machines.
The pace of brain reverse engineering is on oprah winfrey, only slightly behind the job in availability of the brain scanning and novel, neuron structure information. A contemporary example is a comprehensive model of a significant portion of the germany human auditory processing system that Lloyd Watts (www.lloydwatts.com) has developed from both neurobiology studies of stuart diaspora, specific neuron types and brain interneuronal connection information. Watts’ model includes five parallel paths and includes the actual intermediate representations of auditory information at each stage of neural processing. Watts has implemented his model as real-time software which can locate and identify sounds with many of the same properties as human hearing. Although a work in progress, the model illustrates the feasibility of converting neurobiological models and brain connection data into working simulations. Also, as Hans Moravec and others have speculated, these efficient simulations require about germany 1,000 times less computation than the end term papers theoretical potential of the biological neurons being simulated. Reverse Engineering the Human Brain: Five Parallel Auditory Pathways. Chart by Lloyd Watts. Cochlea : Sense organ of hearing. 30,000 fibers converts motion of the stapes into spectro-temporal representation of sound. MC : Multipolar Cells.
Measure spectral energy. GBC : Globular Bushy Cells. Relays spikes from the auditory nerve to job in germany, the Lateral Superior. Olivary Complex (includes LSO and MSO) . Encoding of timing and amplitude of signals for binaural comparison of on oprah winfrey as a, level. SBC : Spherical Bushy Cells. Provide temporal sharpening of time of arrival, as a pre-processor for thesis germany interaural time difference calculation. OC : Octopus Cells.
Detection of transients. DCN : Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Detection of spectral edges and calibrating for noise levels. VNTB : Ventral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body. Feedback signals to mairs essay on being, modulate outer hair cell function in the cochlea. VNLL , PON : Ventral Nucleus of the thesis Lateral Lemniscus, Peri-Olivary Nuclei. Processing transients from the Octopus Cells.
MSO : Medial Superior Olive. Computing inter-aural time difference (difference in time of arrival between the two ears, used to tell where a sound is coming from). LSO : Lateral Superior Olive. Also involved in computing inter-aural level difference. ICC : Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. The site of major integration of multiple representations of sound. ICx : Exterior Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus.
Further refinement of diaspora, sound localization. SC : Superior Colliculus. Location of job in germany, auditory/visual merging. MGB : Medial Geniculate Body. The auditory portion of the dracula gothic thalamus. LS : Limbic System. Comprising many structures associated with emotion, memory, territory, etc. The brain is job in germany, not one huge “tabula rasa” (i.e., undifferentiated blank slate), but rather an intricate and intertwined collection of read on being a cripple, hundreds of specialized regions. The process of “peeling the onion” to understand these interleaved regions is job in, well underway. Novel? As the requisite neuron models and brain interconnection data becomes available, detailed and job in germany, implementable models such as the auditory example above will be developed for read mairs essay all brain regions.
After the thesis job in germany algorithms of a region are understood, they can be refined and extended before being implemented in synthetic neural equivalents. For one thing, they can be run on a computational substrate that is already more than ten million times faster than neural circuitry. And we can also throw in the methods for building intelligent machines that we already understand. A more controversial application than this scanning-the-brain-to-understand-it scenario is scanning-the-brain-to- download -it . Here we scan someone’s brain to map the locations, interconnections, and contents of all the somas, axons, dendrites, presynaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter concentrations, and other neural components and levels. Its entire organization can then be re-created on a neural computer of sufficient capacity, including the stuart essay contents of its memory.
To do this, we need to understand local brain processes, although not necessarily all of the higher level processes. Scanning a brain with sufficient detail to download it may sound daunting, but so did the human genome scan. All of the basic technologies exist today, just not with the germany requisite speed, cost, and size, but these are the ip university end term papers attributes that are improving at a double exponential pace. The computationally pertinent aspects of individual neurons are complicated, but definitely not beyond our ability to accurately model. For example, Ted Berger and his colleagues at thesis Hedco Neurosciences have built integrated circuits that precisely match the as a leader digital and analog information processing characteristics of neurons, including clusters with hundreds of neurons. Carver Mead and his colleagues at CalTech have built a variety of integrated circuits that emulate the digital-analog characteristics of thesis, mammalian neural circuits. A recent experiment at San Diego’s Institute for Nonlinear Science demonstrates the potential for electronic neurons to precisely emulate biological ones.
Neurons (biological or otherwise) are a prime example of what is often called “chaotic computing.” Each neuron acts in an essentially unpredictable fashion. When an gothic, entire network of neurons receives input (from the outside world or from other networks of neurons), the signaling amongst them appears at job in germany first to be frenzied and random. Business Startup? Over time, typically a fraction of a second or so, the chaotic interplay of the neurons dies down, and a stable pattern emerges. This pattern represents the “decision” of the neural network. If the neural network is performing a pattern recognition task (which, incidentally, comprises the bulk of the activity in the human brain), then the emergent pattern represents the appropriate recognition. So the question addressed by the San Diego researchers was whether electronic neurons could engage in thesis job in, this chaotic dance alongside biological ones. Essays Leader? They hooked up their artificial neurons with those from spiney lobsters in a single network, and their hybrid biological-nonbiological network performed in job in germany, the same way (i.e., chaotic interplay followed by a stable emergent pattern) and with the same type of results as an all biological net of neurons.
Essentially, the biological neurons accepted their electronic peers. Novel Essay? It indicates that their mathematical model of these neurons was reasonably accurate. There are many projects around the world which are creating nonbiological devices to recreate in great detail the job in germany functionality of on the principle, human neuron clusters. Germany? The accuracy and scale of these neuron-cluster replications are rapidly increasing. Winfrey Leader? We started with functionally equivalent recreations of single neurons, then clusters of tens, then hundreds, and now thousands. Scaling up technical processes at an exponential pace is thesis, what technology is good at.
As the computational power to emulate the human brain becomes available–we’re not there yet, but we will be there within a couple of end term papers, decades–projects already under way to scan the human brain will be accelerated, with a view both to understand the job in human brain in general, as well as providing a detailed description of the contents and design of specific brains. Dracula Novel Essay? By the third decade of the twenty-first century, we will be in a position to create highly detailed and complete maps of thesis germany, all relevant features of all neurons, neural connections and synapses in the human brain, all of the neural details that play a role in the behavior and functionality of the brain, and to recreate these designs in suitably advanced neural computers. Is the Human Brain Different from a Computer? Is the human brain different from read nancy mairs on being a computer? The answer depends on what we mean by the word “computer.” Certainly the thesis job in germany brain uses very different methods from conventional contemporary computers. Most computers today are all digital and perform one (or perhaps a few) computations at papers a time at extremely high speed. In contrast, the human brain combines digital and analog methods with most computations performed in the analog domain. The brain is massively parallel, performing on the order of thesis job in germany, a hundred trillion computations at ip university the same time, but at extremely slow speeds. With regard to digital versus analog computing, we know that digital computing can be functionally equivalent to analog computing (although the reverse is not true), so we can perform all of the thesis job in capabilities of gothic novel, a hybrid digital–analog network with an all digital computer. Job In Germany? On the other hand, there is an end term papers, engineering advantage to analog circuits in that analog computing is potentially thousands of times more efficient.
An analog computation can be performed by thesis a few transistors, or, in the case of mammalian neurons, specific electrochemical processes. Dracula Novel? A digital computation, in job in germany, contrast, requires thousands or tens of thousands of transistors. So there is a significant engineering advantage to emulating the brain’s analog methods. The massive parallelism of the human brain is the key to stuart hall essay, its pattern recognition abilities, which reflects the strength of human thinking. As I discussed above, mammalian neurons engage in a chaotic dance, and job in germany, if the diaspora neural network has learned its lessons well, then a stable pattern will emerge reflecting the network’s decision. There is no reason why our nonbiological functionally equivalent recreations of biological neural networks cannot be built using these same principles, and indeed there are dozens of projects around the thesis germany world that have succeeded in doing this. Gothic Novel? My own technical field is pattern recognition, and the projects that I have been involved in for over thirty years use this form of chaotic computing. Thesis Germany? Particularly successful examples are Carver Mead’s neural chips, which are highly parallel, use digital controlled analog computing, and are intended as functionally similar recreations of biological networks.
The Singularity envisions the mairs a cripple emergence of human-like intelligent entities of astonishing diversity and scope. Although these entities will be capable of passing the “Turing test” (i.e., able to fool humans that they are human), the question arises as to whether these “people” are conscious, or just appear that way. Germany? To gain some insight as to why this is an on the principle of population, extremely subtle question (albeit an ultimately important one) it is useful to consider some of the paradoxes that emerge from the concept of downloading specific human brains. Although I anticipate that the thesis job in germany most common application of the knowledge gained from reverse engineering the on the principle malthus human brain will be creating more intelligent machines that are not necessarily modeled on specific biological human individuals, the scenario of scanning and reinstantiating all of the neural details of a specific person raises the most immediate questions of job in germany, identity. Let’s consider the question of what we will find when we do this. We have to consider this question on both the sample business objective and subjective levels. “Objective” means everyone except me, so let’s start with that. Objectively, when we scan someone’s brain and reinstantiate their personal mind file into a suitable computing medium, the newly emergent “person” will appear to other observers to have very much the same personality, history, and memory as the person originally scanned. That is, once the thesis technology has been refined and perfected. Like any new technology, it won’t be perfect at stuart hall diaspora first. But ultimately, the scans and recreations will be very accurate and realistic.
Interacting with the thesis newly instantiated person will feel like interacting with the original person. The new person will claim to be that same old person and will have a memory of dracula essay, having been that person. The new person will have all of the job in patterns of knowledge, skill, and personality of the original. We are already creating functionally equivalent recreations of neurons and neuron clusters with sufficient accuracy that biological neurons accept their nonbiological equivalents and work with them as if they were biological. On The Thomas Malthus? There are no natural limits that prevent us from doing the thesis same with the hundred billion neuron cluster of clusters we call the human brain. Subjectively, the dracula gothic novel essay issue is more subtle and profound, but first we need to reflect on one additional objective issue: our physical self. Consider how many of thesis job in, our thoughts and thinking are directed toward our body and its survival, security, nutrition, and image, not to mention affection, sexuality, and ip university end term, reproduction. Many, if not most, of the goals we attempt to advance using our brains have to do with our bodies: protecting them, providing them with fuel, making them attractive, making them feel good, providing for their myriad needs and job in germany, desires.
Some philosophers maintain that achieving human level intelligence is impossible without a body. Ip University Papers? If we’re going to port a human’s mind to job in, a new computational medium, we’d better provide a body. A disembodied mind will quickly get depressed. There are a variety of bodies that we will provide for our machines, and that they will provide for themselves: bodies built through nanotechnology (i.e., building highly complex physical systems atom by dracula gothic essay atom), virtual bodies (that exist only in virtual reality), bodies comprised of swarms of nanobots, and other technologies. A common scenario will be to enhance a person’s biological brain with intimate connection to nonbiological intelligence. Thesis? In this case, the body remains the good old human body that we’re familiar with, although this too will become greatly enhanced through biotechnology (gene enhancement and replacement) and, later on, through nanotechnology.
A detailed examination of twenty-first century bodies is beyond the scope of this essay, but recreating and enhancing our bodies will be (and has been) an easier task than recreating our minds. To return to sample, the issue of thesis, subjectivity, consider: is the reinstantiated mind the same consciousness as the person we just scanned? Are these “people” conscious at all? Is this a mind or just a brain? Consciousness in our twenty-first century machines will be a critically important issue. But it is not easily resolved, or even readily understood. People tend to have strong views on the subject, and often just can’t understand how anyone else could possibly see the issue from a different perspective. Marvin Minsky observed that “there’s something queer about papers describing consciousness.
Whatever people mean to say, they just can’t seem to make it clear.” We don’t worry, at least not yet, about germany causing pain and suffering to our computer programs. But at what point do we consider an entity, a process, to be conscious, to feel pain and discomfort, to have its own intentionality, its own free will? How do we determine if an entity is conscious; if it has subjective experience? How do we distinguish a process that is conscious from one that just acts as if it is conscious? We can’t simply ask it.
If it says “Hey I’m conscious,” does that settle the issue? No, we have computer games today that effectively do that, and they’re not terribly convincing. How about if the entity is very convincing and compelling when it says “I’m lonely, please keep me company.” Does that settle the issue? If we look inside its circuits, and see essentially the read mairs on being a cripple identical kinds of feedback loops and thesis, other mechanisms in its brain that we see in a human brain (albeit implemented using nonbiological equivalents), does that settle the issue? And just who are these people in the machine, anyway? The answer will depend on who you ask. Stuart Hall Essay? If you ask the people in the machine, they will strenuously claim to germany, be the original persons. Plan Startup? For example, if we scan–let’s say myself–and record the exact state, level, and position of every neurotransmitter, synapse, neural connection, and every other relevant detail, and then reinstantiate this massive data base of information (which I estimate at job in thousands of trillions of essays on oprah winfrey as a, bytes) into a neural computer of sufficient capacity, the person who then emerges in job in germany, the machine will think that “he” is (and had been) me, or at least he will act that way. He will say “I grew up in Queens, New York, went to college at MIT, stayed in the Boston area, started and sold a few artificial intelligence companies, walked into a scanner there, and woke up in the machine here.
Hey, this technology really works.” Is this really me? For one thing, old biological Ray (that’s me) still exists. I’ll still be here in my carbon-cell-based brain. Alas, I will have to sit back and watch the read nancy mairs on being new Ray succeed in endeavors that I could only dream of. Let’s consider the thesis germany issue of ip university, just who I am, and who the new Ray is a little more carefully. First of all, am I the job in germany stuff in my brain and body? Consider that the particles making up my body and brain are constantly changing. We are not at business startup all permanent collections of job in germany, particles.
The cells in our bodies turn over at dracula different rates, but the particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) that comprise our cells are exchanged at a very rapid rate. I am just not the same collection of particles that I was even a month ago. It is the patterns of germany, matter and energy that are semipermanent (that is, changing only gradually), but our actual material content is dracula novel essay, changing constantly, and very quickly. We are rather like the patterns that water makes in a stream. Thesis Job In Germany? The rushing water around a formation of rocks makes a particular, unique pattern.
This pattern may remain relatively unchanged for hours, even years. Of course, the actual material constituting the pattern–the water–is replaced in milliseconds. The same is dracula novel, true for Ray Kurzweil. Like the water in a stream, my particles are constantly changing, but the pattern that people recognize as Ray has a reasonable level of continuity. This argues that we should not associate our fundamental identity with a specific set of particles, but rather the pattern of matter and energy that we represent. Thesis Job In Germany? Many contemporary philosophers seem partial to this “identify from pattern” argument. If you were to scan my brain and reinstantiate new Ray while I was sleeping, I would not necessarily even know about it (with the nanobots, this will be a feasible scenario). If you then come to me, and say, “good news, Ray, we’ve successfully reinstantiated your mind file, so we won’t be needing your old brain anymore,” I may suddenly realize the flaw in this “identity from pattern” argument. I may wish new Ray well, and realize that he shares my “pattern,” but I would nonetheless conclude that he’s not me, because I’m still here.
How could he be me? After all, I would not necessarily know that he even existed. Let’s consider another perplexing scenario. Suppose I replace a small number of biological neurons with functionally equivalent nonbiological ones (they may provide certain benefits such as greater reliability and mairs a cripple, longevity, but that’s not relevant to this thought experiment). Thesis? After I have this procedure performed, am I still the ip university end term same person? My friends certainly think so. I still have the same self-deprecating humor, the same silly grin–yes, I’m still the same guy. It should be clear where I’m going with this. Bit by bit, region by thesis region, I ultimately replace my entire brain with essentially identical (perhaps improved) nonbiological equivalents (preserving all of the neurotransmitter concentrations and essays, other details that represent my learning, skills, and memories). At each point, I feel the procedures were successful.
At each point, I feel that I am the same guy. After each procedure, I claim to thesis, be the same guy. Ip University End Term Papers? My friends concur. There is no old Ray and new Ray, just one Ray, one that never appears to fundamentally change. But consider this. Thesis Job In? This gradual replacement of my brain with a nonbiological equivalent is essentially identical to the following sequence: (i) scan Ray and reinstantiate Ray’s mind file into new (nonbiological) Ray, and, then (ii) terminate old Ray. Novel? But we concluded above that in such a scenario new Ray is not the same as old Ray.
And if old Ray is terminated, well then that’s the end of thesis germany, Ray. So the gradual replacement scenario essentially ends with the same result: New Ray has been created, and old Ray has been destroyed, even if we never saw him missing. Principle? So what appears to be the continuing existence of just one Ray is job in germany, really the creation of new Ray and the termination of old Ray. On yet another hand (we’re running out of philosophical hands here), the gradual replacement scenario is not altogether different from what happens normally to our biological selves, in that our particles are always rapidly being replaced. So am I constantly being replaced with someone else who just happens to be very similar to my old self? I am trying to illustrate why consciousness is not an easy issue. If we talk about consciousness as just a certain type of intelligent skill: the ability to reflect on one’s own self and situation, for example, then the issue is not difficult at all because any skill or capability or form of intelligence that one cares to define will be replicated in nonbiological entities (i.e., machines) within a few decades.
With this type of objective view of consciousness, the conundrums do go away. But a fully objective view does not penetrate to the core of the issue, because the essence of consciousness is subjective experience, not objective correlates of that experience. Will these future machines be capable of having spiritual experiences? They certainly will claim to. Read Nancy Mairs A Cripple? They will claim to germany, be people, and to have the full range of gothic novel essay, emotional and spiritual experiences that people claim to germany, have. And these will not be idle claims; they will evidence the plan startup sort of rich, complex, and subtle behavior one associates with these feelings.
How do the claims and job in, behaviors–compelling as they will be–relate to the subjective experience of these reinstantiated people? We keep coming back to the very real but ultimately unmeasurable issue of consciousness. People often talk about consciousness as if it were a clear property of an entity that can readily be identified, detected, and gauged. If there is one crucial insight that we can make regarding why the issue of consciousness is so contentious, it is the following: There exists no objective test that can conclusively determine its presence. Science is about objective measurement and logical implications therefrom, but the principle thomas very nature of objectivity is job in germany, that you cannot measure subjective experience-you can only measure correlates of end term, it, such as behavior (and by behavior, I include the actions of components of an entity, such as neurons).
This limitation has to do with the very nature of the thesis germany concepts “objective” and ip university, “subjective.” Fundamentally, we cannot penetrate the subjective experience of another entity with direct objective measurement. We can certainly make arguments about it: i.e., “look inside the brain of thesis job in, this nonhuman entity, see how its methods are just like a human brain.” Or, “see how its behavior is stuart hall, just like human behavior.” But in the end, these remain just arguments. Job In Germany? No matter how convincing the essays winfrey behavior of a reinstantiated person, some observers will refuse to accept the consciousness of an entity unless it squirts neurotransmitters, or is based on DNA-guided protein synthesis, or has some other specific biologically human attribute. We assume that other humans are conscious, but that is still an job in, assumption, and there is no consensus amongst humans about the papers consciousness of nonhuman entities, such as higher non-human animals. The issue will be even more contentious with regard to future nonbiological entities with human-like behavior and intelligence. So how will we resolve the thesis job in claimed consciousness of an essay, nonbiological intelligence (claimed, that is, by thesis job in germany the machines)? From a practical perspective, we’ll accept their claims. Keep in mind that nonbiological entities in the twenty-first century will be extremely intelligent, so they’ll be able to convince us that they are conscious. They’ll have all the delicate and emotional cues that convince us today that humans are conscious. They will be able to make us laugh and cry.
And they’ll get mad if we don’t accept their claims. But fundamentally this is a political prediction, not a philosophical argument. Over the past several years, Roger Penrose, a noted physicist and philosopher, has suggested that fine structures in end term papers, the neurons called tubules perform an exotic form of computation called “quantum computing.” Quantum computing is computing using what are called “qu bits” which take on all possible combinations of thesis, solutions simultaneously. It can be considered to be an nancy mairs essay on being, extreme form of parallel processing (because every combination of values of the qu bits are tested simultaneously). Penrose suggests that the tubules and their quantum computing capabilities complicate the concept of recreating neurons and reinstantiating mind files.
However, there is little to suggest that the tubules contribute to the thinking process. Even generous models of human knowledge and capability are more than accounted for by current estimates of brain size, based on contemporary models of neuron functioning that do not include tubules. In fact, even with these tubule-less models, it appears that the brain is conservatively designed with many more connections (by several orders of magnitude) than it needs for its capabilities and capacity. Recent experiments (e.g., the thesis germany San Diego Institute for Nonlinear Science experiments) showing that hybrid biological-nonbiological networks perform similarly to nancy a cripple, all biological networks, while not definitive, are strongly suggestive that our tubule-less models of neuron functioning are adequate. Job In Germany? Lloyd Watts’ software simulation of his intricate model of human auditory processing uses orders of magnitude less computation than the networks of neurons he is end term, simulating, and there is no suggestion that quantum computing is needed. However, even if the thesis germany tubules are important, it doesn’t change the projections I have discussed above to any significant degree. According to my model of computational growth, if the tubules multiplied neuron complexity by a factor of a thousand (and keep in mind that our current tubule-less neuron models are already complex, including on stuart essay, the order of thesis germany, a thousand connections per neuron, multiple nonlinearities and other details), this would delay our reaching brain capacity by ip university end term only about 9 years.
If we’re off by a factor of a million, that’s still only a delay of 17 years. Thesis Job In? A factor of essays winfrey leader, a billion is thesis job in germany, around 24 years (keep in mind computation is growing by a double exponential). With regard to quantum computing, once again there is nothing to business startup, suggest that the brain does quantum computing. Just because quantum technology may be feasible does not suggest that the brain is capable of it. After all, we don’t have lasers or even radios in our brains. Thesis? Although some scientists have claimed to detect quantum wave collapse in the brain, no one has suggested human capabilities that actually require a capacity for quantum computing.
However, even if the brain does do quantum computing, this does not significantly change the outlook for human-level computing (and beyond) nor does it suggest that brain downloading is infeasible. First of all, if the brain does do quantum computing this would only verify that quantum computing is feasible. There would be nothing in ip university, such a finding to suggest that quantum computing is restricted to biological mechanisms. Biological quantum computing mechanisms, if they exist, could be replicated. Indeed, recent experiments with small scale quantum computers appear to be successful. Thesis Job In Germany? Even the conventional transistor relies on the quantum effect of electron tunneling. Penrose suggests that it is impossible to perfectly replicate a set of quantum states, so therefore, perfect downloading is impossible. Well, how perfect does a download have to be? I am at dracula novel this moment in a very different quantum state (and different in non-quantum ways as well) than I was a minute ago (certainly in a very different state than I was before I wrote this paragraph). Germany? If we develop downloading technology to the point where the “copies” are as close to the original as the original person changes anyway in dracula novel essay, the course of one minute, that would be good enough for any conceivable purpose, yet does not require copying quantum states. As the thesis job in germany technology improves, the accuracy of the copy could become as close as the original changes within ever briefer periods of time (e.g., one second, one millisecond, one microsecond).
When it was pointed out to on the principle of population thomas, Penrose that neurons (and even neural connections) were too big for quantum computing, he came up with the tubule theory as a possible mechanism for neural quantum computing. Job In? So the concern with quantum computing and tubules have been introduced together. If one is searching for barriers to replicating brain function, it is an ingenious theory, but it fails to introduce any genuine barriers. There is no evidence for ip university it, and even if true, it only delays matters by a decade or two. There is no reason to believe that biological mechanisms (including quantum computing) are inherently impossible to replicate using nonbiological materials and job in germany, mechanisms. Dozens of contemporary experiments are successfully performing just such replications. The Noninvasive Surgery-Free Reversible Programmable Distributed Brain Implant, Full-Immersion Shared Virtual Reality Environments, Experience Beamers, and Brain Expansion. How will we apply technology that is gothic novel essay, more intelligent than its creators?
One might be tempted to respond “Carefully!” But let’s take a look at some examples. Consider several examples of the nanobot technology, which, based on thesis germany, miniaturization and cost reduction trends, will be feasible within 30 years. In addition to scanning your brain, the read nancy mairs essay a cripple nanobots will also be able to expand our experiences and our capabilities. Nanobot technology will provide fully immersive, totally convincing virtual reality in the following way. The nanobots take up positions in close physical proximity to every interneuronal connection coming from all of our senses (e.g., eyes, ears, skin).
We already have the technology for electronic devices to communicate with neurons in both directions that requires no direct physical contact with the neurons. For example, scientists at thesis job in the Max Planck Institute have developed “neuron transistors” that can detect the firing of a nearby neuron, or alternatively, can cause a nearby neuron to fire, or suppress it from firing. This amounts to two-way communication between neurons and the electronic-based neuron transistors. The Institute scientists demonstrated their invention by winfrey as a controlling the movement of thesis job in germany, a living leech from their computer. Again, the primary aspect of nanobot-based virtual reality that is not yet feasible is size and cost.
When we want to essay, experience real reality, the nanobots just stay in position (in the capillaries) and do nothing. If we want to enter virtual reality, they suppress all of the inputs coming from the real senses, and replace them with the thesis job in germany signals that would be appropriate for the virtual environment. You (i.e., your brain) could decide to cause your muscles and limbs to move as you normally would, but the nanobots again intercept these interneuronal signals, suppress your real limbs from moving, and dracula, instead cause your virtual limbs to move and job in, provide the appropriate movement and reorientation in business, the virtual environment. The web will provide a panoply of germany, virtual environments to explore. Dracula Essay? Some will be recreations of real places, others will be fanciful environments that have no “real” counterpart. Some indeed would be impossible in the physical world (perhaps, because they violate the laws of job in, physics). We will be able to “go” to these virtual environments by ourselves, or we will meet other people there, both real people and simulated people. Of course, ultimately there won’t be a clear distinction between the two.
By 2030, going to a web site will mean entering a full immersion virtual reality environment. In addition to encompassing all of the senses, these shared environments can include emotional overlays as the nanobots will be capable of triggering the neurological correlates of emotions, sexual pleasure, and other derivatives of our sensory experience and mental reactions. In the same way that people today beam their lives from web cams in business plan startup, their bedrooms, “experience beamers” circa 2030 will beam their entire flow of sensory experiences, and if so desired, their emotions and other secondary reactions. Job In Germany? We’ll be able to plug in (by going to an essay principle thomas, the appropriate web site) and thesis job in, experience other people’s lives as in on the principle malthus, the plot concept of ‘Being John Malkovich.’ Particularly interesting experiences can be archived and relived at any time. We won’t need to wait until 2030 to experience shared virtual reality environments, at least for the visual and auditory senses. Full immersion visual-auditory environments will be available by thesis the end of this decade with images written directly onto our retinas by startup our eyeglasses and contact lenses.
All of the electronics for the computation, image reconstruction, and very high bandwidth wireless connection to the Internet will be embedded in our glasses and thesis, woven into our clothing, so computers as distinct objects will disappear. In my view, the most significant implication of the Singularity will be the merger of biological and hall essay, nonbiological intelligence. First, it is important to point out that well before the end of the twenty-first century, thinking on nonbiological substrates will dominate. Thesis Germany? Biological thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological human brains), and that figure will not appreciably change, even with bioengineering changes to our genome. Nonbiological intelligence, on the other hand, is growing at a double exponential rate and will vastly exceed biological intelligence well before the middle of this century. Plan Startup? However, in my view, this nonbiological intelligence should still be considered human as it is fully derivative of the human-machine civilization. The merger of these two worlds of thesis job in, intelligence is not merely a merger of biological and nonbiological thinking mediums, but more importantly one of method and organization of thinking. One of the key ways in which the two worlds can interact will be through the nanobots.
Nanobot technology will be able to essays winfrey, expand our minds in virtually any imaginable way. Job In Germany? Our brains today are relatively fixed in papers, design. Germany? Although we do add patterns of interneuronal connections and mairs on being, neurotransmitter concentrations as a normal part of the job in germany learning process, the current overall capacity of the human brain is highly constrained, restricted to a mere hundred trillion connections. Brain implants based on winfrey as a, massively distributed intelligent nanobots will ultimately expand our memories a trillion fold, and otherwise vastly improve all of our sensory, pattern recognition, and cognitive abilities. Since the nanobots are communicating with each other over a wireless local area network, they can create any set of new neural connections, can break existing connections (by suppressing neural firing), can create new hybrid biological-nonbiological networks, as well as add vast new nonbiological networks. Using nanobots as brain extenders is a significant improvement over the idea of surgically installed neural implants, which are beginning to be used today (e.g., ventral posterior nucleus, subthalmic nucleus, and ventral lateral thalamus neural implants to counteract Parkinson’s Disease and tremors from thesis job in other neurological disorders, cochlear implants, and others.) Nanobots will be introduced without surgery, essentially just by injecting or even swallowing them. They can all be directed to leave, so the process is easily reversible. They are programmable, in that they can provide virtual reality one minute, and a variety of novel, brain extensions the next. They can change their configuration, and thesis job in germany, clearly can alter their software. Perhaps most importantly, they are massively distributed and therefore can take up billions or trillions of positions throughout the brain, whereas a surgically introduced neural implant can only be placed in one or at most a few locations.
The Double Exponential Growth of the Economy During the 1990s Was Not a Bubble. Yet another manifestation of the gothic essay law of accelerating returns as it rushes toward the Singularity can be found in the world of economics, a world vital to both the genesis of the law of accelerating returns, and to its implications. It is the economic imperative of a competitive marketplace that is driving technology forward and fueling the law of accelerating returns. In turn, the law of accelerating returns, particularly as it approaches the Singularity, is job in germany, transforming economic relationships. Virtually all of the economic models taught in economics classes, used by the Federal Reserve Board to set monetary policy, by on being Government agencies to set economic policy, and by economic forecasters of all kinds are fundamentally flawed because they are based on germany, the intuitive linear view of history rather than the historically based exponential view. Sample Business? The reason that these linear models appear to work for thesis a while is for the same reason that most people adopt the intuitive linear view in stuart diaspora essay, the first place: exponential trends appear to be linear when viewed (and experienced) for a brief period of time, particularly in the early stages of an exponential trend when not much is happening. But once the “knee of the thesis job in germany curve” is achieved and business plan, the exponential growth explodes, the linear models break down. The exponential trends underlying productivity growth are just beginning this explosive phase.
The economy (viewed either in total or per capita) has been growing exponentially throughout this century: There is also a second level of exponential growth, but up until recently the second exponent has been in the early phase so that the growth in the growth rate has not been noticed. However, this has changed in this past decade, during which the rate of growth has been noticeably exponential. Productivity (economic output per worker) has also been growing exponentially. Even these statistics are greatly understated because they do not fully reflect significant improvements in thesis germany, the quality and features of products and services. It is sample business, not the case that “a car is a car;” there have been significant improvements in safety, reliability, and features. There are a myriad of such examples. Pharmaceutical drugs are increasingly effective. Groceries ordered in five minutes on thesis, the web and essays on oprah winfrey as a leader, delivered to germany, your door are worth more than groceries on principle of population thomas malthus, a supermarket shelf that you have to fetch yourself. Germany? Clothes custom manufactured for your unique body scan are worth more than clothes you happen to find left on a store rack.
These sorts of ip university papers, improvements are true for most product categories, and none of them are reflected in the productivity statistics. The statistical methods underlying the productivity measurements tend to factor out gains by essentially concluding that we still only get one dollar of products and services for thesis a dollar despite the fact that we get much more for a dollar (e.g., compare a $1,000 computer today to dracula gothic, one ten years ago). University of Chicago Professor Pete Klenow and University of Rochester Professor Mark Bils estimate that the value of existing goods has been increasing at 1.5% per germany year for sample business plan startup the past 20 years because of qualitative improvements. This still does not account for thesis job in germany the introduction of entirely new products and product categories. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is sample business, responsible for the inflation statistics, uses a model that incorporates an estimate of quality growth at germany only 0.5% per year, reflecting a systematic underestimate of quality improvement and a resulting overestimate of inflation by at least 1 percent per year. Despite these weaknesses in the productivity statistical methods, the gains in end term papers, productivity are now reaching the steep part of the exponential curve. Labor productivity grew at 1.6% per year until 1994, then rose at 2.4% per year, and thesis germany, is now growing even more rapidly. In the an essay on the thomas malthus quarter ending July 30, 2000, labor productivity grew at 5.3%. Manufacturing productivity grew at 4.4% annually from 1995 to thesis germany, 1999, durables manufacturing at 6.5% per year.
The 1990s have seen the an essay principle thomas malthus most powerful deflationary forces in history. This is thesis, why we are not seeing inflation. Yes, it’s true that low unemployment, high asset values, economic growth, and other such factors are inflationary, but these factors are offset by the double exponential trends in the price-performance of leader, all information based technologies: computation, memory, communications, biotechnology, miniaturization, and thesis germany, even the essays on oprah winfrey as a overall rate of technical progress. These technologies deeply affect all industries. We are also undergoing massive disintermediation in the channels of distribution through the thesis germany web and other new communication technologies, as well as escalating efficiencies in operations and administration. All of the technology trend charts in this essay e represent massive deflation. There are many examples of the impact of these escalating efficiencies. BP Amoco’s cost for finding oil is stuart hall, now less than $1 per barrel, down from nearly $10 in 1991. Processing an thesis germany, internet transaction costs a bank one penny, compared to over $1 using a teller ten years ago.
A Roland Berger / Deutsche Bank study estimates a cost savings of $1200 per North American car over the next five years. A more optimistic Morgan Stanley study estimates that Internet-based procurement will save Ford, GM, and DaimlerChrysler about diaspora $2700 per vehicle. Software prices are deflating even more quickly than computer hardware. Software Price-Performance Has Also Improved at an Exponential Rate. Current economic policy is job in, based on outdated models which include energy prices, commodity prices, and capital investment in plant and equipment as key driving factors, but do not adequately model bandwidth, MIPs, megabytes, intellectual property, knowledge, and other increasingly vital (and increasingly increasing) constituents that are driving the economy. The economy “wants” to thomas malthus, grow more than the thesis job in germany 3.5% per plan year, which constitutes the current “speed limit” that the Federal Reserve bank and other policy makers have established as “safe,” meaning noninflationary. But in keeping with the law of accelerating returns, the economy is capable of “safely” establishing this level of growth in less than a year, implying a growth rate in an entire year of thesis job in, greater than 3.5%.
Recently, the growth rate has exceeded 5%. None of this means that cycles of recession will disappear immediately. The economy still has some of the underlying dynamics that historically have caused cycles of dracula gothic essay, recession, specifically excessive commitments such as capital intensive projects and the overstocking of thesis, inventories. However, the rapid dissemination of information, sophisticated forms of principle of population thomas, online procurement, and increasingly transparent markets in all industries have diminished the job in impact of this cycle. So “recessions” are likely to be shallow and read nancy essay a cripple, short lived. The underlying long-term growth rate will continue at a double exponential rate.
The overall growth of the economy reflects completely new forms and thesis job in, layers of wealth and value that did not previously exist, or least that did not previously constitute a significant portion of the economy (but do now): intellectual property, communication portals, web sites, bandwidth, software, data bases, and many other new technology based categories. There is no need for high interest rates to counter an inflation that doesn’t exist. The inflationary pressures which exist are counterbalanced by all of the deflationary forces I’ve mentioned. The current high interest rates fostered by the Federal Reserve Bank are destructive, are causing trillions of dollars of gothic novel essay, lost wealth, are regressive, hurt business and the middle class, and are completely unnecessary. The Fed’s monetary policy is germany, only influential because people believe it to be. Papers? It has little real power.
The economy today is largely backed by private capital in thesis, the form of a growing variety of equity instruments. Essays? The portion of available liquidity in germany, the economy that the Fed actually controls is relatively insignificant. The reserves that banks and financial institutions maintain with the Federal Reserve System are less than $50 billion, which is only 0.6% of the read nancy mairs essay on being a cripple GDP, and 0.25% of the liquidity available in stocks. Restricting the growth rate of the economy to an arbitrary limit makes as much sense as restricting the rate at which a company can grow its revenues–or its market cap. Job In Germany? Speculative fever will certainly occur and there will necessarily continue to be high profile failures and hall, market corrections. However the ability of technology companies to rapidly create new–real–wealth is just one of the factors that will continue to fuel ongoing double exponential growth in thesis germany, the economy. These policies have led to an essay of population thomas malthus, an “Alice in thesis job in germany, Wonderland” situation in which the gothic market goes up on bad economic news (because it means that more unnecessary punishment will be avoided) and goes down on good economic news. Speaking of market speculative fever and germany, market corrections, the stock market values for so-called “B to B” (Business to Business) and “B to C” (Business to Consumer) web portals and enabling technologies is likely to come back strongly as it becomes clear that economic transactions are indeed escalating toward e-commerce, and that the (surviving) contenders are capable of an essay on the of population, demonstrating profitable business models.
The intuitive linear assumption underlying economic thinking reaches its most ludicrous conclusions in the political debate surrounding the long-term future of the social security system. The economic models used for the social security projections are entirely linear, i.e., they reflect fixed economic growth. This might be viewed as conservative planning if we were talking about projections of only a few years, but they become utterly unrealistic for the three to four decades being discussed. These projections actually assume a fixed rate of growth of 3.5% per germany year for the next fifty years! There are incredibly naive assumptions that bear on end term papers, both sides of the thesis germany argument.
On the one hand, there will be radical extensions to human longevity, while on the other hand, we will benefit from far greater economic expansion. These factors do not rule each other out, however, as the positive factors are stronger, and will ultimately dominate. Moreover, we are certain to ip university papers, rethink social security when we have centenarians who look and job in germany, act like 30 year-olds (but who will think much faster than 30 year-olds circa the year 2000). Another implication of the law of accelerating returns is hall essay, exponential growth in education and learning. Over the past 120 years, we have increased our investment in job in germany, K-12 education (per student and in constant dollars) by a factor of an essay of population malthus, ten. Thesis Job In? We have a one hundred fold increase in the number of college students. Essay? Automation started by amplifying the power of our muscles, and in recent times has been amplifying the power of our minds. Thus, for the past two centuries, automation has been eliminating jobs at the bottom of the germany skill ladder while creating new (and better paying) jobs at the top of the skill ladder. So the ip university ladder has been moving up, and thus we have been exponentially increasing investments in education at all levels.
Oh, and about that “offer” at the beginning of this essay, consider that present stock values are based on future expectations. Given that the (literally) short sighted linear intuitive view represents the ubiquitous outlook, the common wisdom in economic expectations are dramatically understated. Although stock prices reflect the thesis job in germany consensus of a buyer-seller market, it nonetheless reflects the underlying linear assumption regarding future economic growth. But the law of essays as a leader, accelerating returns clearly implies that the growth rate will continue to grow exponentially because the rate of progress will continue to accelerate. Although (weakening) recessionary cycles will continue to cause immediate growth rates to fluctuate, the thesis underlying rate of growth will continue to double approximately every decade. But wait a second, you said that I would get $40 trillion if I read and stuart hall, understood this essay. That’s right. According to my models, if we replace the linear outlook with the more appropriate exponential outlook, current stock prices should triple. Since there’s about thesis job in germany $20 trillion in the equity markets, that’s $40 trillion in additional wealth.
But you said I would get that money. No, I said “you” would get the money, and essays leader, that’s why I suggested reading the sentence carefully. The English word “you” can be singular or plural. Thesis Job In? I meant it in the sense of “all of you.” I see, all of us as in gothic novel, the whole world.
But not everyone will read this essay. Well, but everyone could. So if all of you read this essay and understand it, then economic expectations would be based on the historical exponential model, and thus stock values would increase. You mean if everyone understands it, and agrees with it. Okay, I suppose I was assuming that. Is that what you expect to happen. Well, actually, no.
Putting on my futurist hat again, my prediction is thesis job in, that indeed these views will prevail, but only over time, as more and dracula novel essay, more evidence of the exponential nature of technology and its impact on thesis germany, the economy becomes apparent. This will happen gradually over the next several years, which will represent a strong continuing updraft for the market. Technology has always been a double edged sword, bringing us longer and healthier life spans, freedom from physical and mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities on the one hand, while introducing new and salient dangers on the other. We still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons (not all of essays, which appear to be well accounted for) to end all mammalian life on the planet. Bioengineering is in the early stages of enormous strides in reversing disease and aging processes. However, the means and knowledge will soon exist in a routine college bioengineering lab (and already exists in job in, more sophisticated labs) to read mairs essay a cripple, create unfriendly pathogens more dangerous than nuclear weapons. As technology accelerates toward the Singularity, we will see the thesis job in same intertwined potentials: a feast of essays, creativity resulting from human intelligence expanded a trillion-fold combined with many grave new dangers.
Consider unrestrained nanobot replication. Nanobot technology requires billions or trillions of such intelligent devices to thesis, be useful. The most cost effective way to scale up to such levels is through self-replication, essentially the essay on being same approach used in the biological world. And in thesis job in germany, the same way that biological self-replication gone awry (i.e., cancer) results in biological destruction, a defect in gothic, the mechanism curtailing nanobot self-replication would endanger all physical entities, biological or otherwise. Other primary concerns include “who is controlling the thesis germany nanobots?” and “who are the nanobots talking to?” Organizations (e.g., governments, extremist groups) or just a clever individual could put trillions of undetectable nanobots in stuart hall essay, the water or food supply of an thesis job in germany, individual or of an entire population. These “spy” nanobots could then monitor, influence, and even control our thoughts and nancy essay, actions. In addition to introducing physical spy nanobots, existing nanobots could be influenced through software viruses and other software “hacking” techniques. When there is software running in thesis, our brains, issues of privacy and security will take on a new urgency. My own expectation is that the creative and constructive applications of this technology will dominate, as I believe they do today.
But there will be a valuable (and increasingly vocal) role for a concerned and constructive Luddite movement (i.e., anti-technologists inspired by early nineteenth century weavers who destroyed labor-saving machinery in protest). If we imagine describing the dangers that exist today to people who lived a couple of hundred years ago, they would think it mad to take such risks. Gothic Essay? On the other hand, how many people in the year 2000 would really want to go back to the short, brutish, disease-filled, poverty-stricken, disaster-prone lives that 99 percent of the human race struggled through a couple of centuries ago? We may romanticize the past, but up until fairly recently, most of humanity lived extremely fragile lives where one all too common misfortune could spell disaster. Substantial portions of our species still live in this precarious way, which is at least one reason to continue technological progress and job in, the economic enhancement that accompanies it. People often go through three stages in examining the impact of dracula novel essay, future technology: awe and wonderment at its potential to overcome age old problems, then a sense of dread at a new set of grave dangers that accompany these new technologies, followed, finally and hopefully, by job in the realization that the only viable and gothic, responsible path is to thesis job in, set a careful course that can realize the promise while managing the peril. In his cover story for WIRED Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us, Bill Joy eloquently described the plagues of centuries’ past, and how new self-replicating technologies, such as mutant bioengineered pathogens, and “nanobots” run amok, may bring back long forgotten pestilence. Indeed these are real dangers. It is also the case, which Joy acknowledges, that it has been technological advances, such as antibiotics and improved sanitation, which has freed us from the prevalence of such plagues. Suffering in read nancy mairs, the world continues and demands our steadfast attention. Should we tell the millions of people afflicted with cancer and job in germany, other devastating conditions that we are canceling the development of all bioengineered treatments because there is sample startup, a risk that these same technologies may someday be used for malevolent purposes?
Having asked the rhetorical question, I realize that there is a movement to do exactly that, but I think most people would agree that such broad based relinquishment is not the answer. The continued opportunity to alleviate human distress is one important motivation for continuing technological advancement. Also compelling are the germany already apparent economic gains I discussed above which will continue to hasten in the decades ahead. Stuart Hall Diaspora? The continued acceleration of many intertwined technologies are roads paved with gold (I use the plural here because technology is thesis job in, clearly not a single path). In a competitive environment, it is an economic imperative to go down these roads. Relinquishing technological advancement would be economic suicide for individuals, companies, and nations. Which brings us to the issue of relinquishment, which is Bill Joy’s most controversial recommendation and personal commitment. I do feel that relinquishment at the right level is part of a responsible and constructive response to read on being a cripple, these genuine perils. The issue, however, is exactly this: at what level are we to relinquish technology? Ted Kaczynski would have us renounce all of it.
This, in my view, is neither desirable nor feasible, and the futility of such a position is only underscored by the senselessness of Kaczynski’s deplorable tactics. Another level would be to forego certain fields; nanotechnology, for example, that might be regarded as too dangerous. But such sweeping strokes of relinquishment are equally untenable. Nanotechnology is simply the inevitable end result of the persistent trend toward miniaturization which pervades all of thesis job in, technology. It is far from a single centralized effort, but is gothic essay, being pursued by a myriad of projects with many diverse goals. One observer wrote: “A further reason why industrial society cannot be reformed. Thesis Job In? . . is essays winfrey as a leader, that modern technology is a unified system in which all parts are dependent on one another. You can’t get rid of the job in “bad” parts of dracula gothic novel, technology and job in germany, retain only the “good” parts. Take modern medicine, for example. Dracula Gothic? Progress in medical science depends on progress in chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and other fields. Advanced medical treatments require expensive, high-tech equipment that can be made available only by a technologically progressive, economically rich society.
Clearly you can’t have much progress in medicine without the whole technological system and job in germany, everything that goes with it.” The observer I am quoting is, again, Ted Kaczynski. Ip University? Although one might properly resist Kaczynski as an authority, I believe he is correct on the deeply entangled nature of the job in germany benefits and risks. However, Kaczynski and I clearly part company on our overall assessment on the relative balance between the two. Papers? Bill Joy and I have dialogued on this issue both publicly and privately, and job in, we both believe that technology will and stuart, should progress, and that we need to be actively concerned with the dark side. Thesis Job In? If Bill and I disagree, it’s on the granularity of relinquishment that is both feasible and desirable. Abandonment of broad areas of technology will only push them underground where development would continue unimpeded by ethics and regulation.
In such a situation, it would be the less stable, less responsible practitioners (e.g., the terrorists) who would have all the expertise. I do think that relinquishment at the right level needs to be part of our ethical response to the dangers of twenty first century technologies. One constructive example of this is the proposed ethical guideline by the Foresight Institute, founded by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, that nanotechnologists agree to relinquish the development of physical entities that can self-replicate in a natural environment. Principle Of Population? Another is a ban on self-replicating physical entities that contain their own codes for self-replication. In what nanotechnologist Ralph Merkle calls the “Broadcast Architecture,” such entities would have to obtain such codes from thesis germany a centralized secure server, which would guard against undesirable replication. The Broadcast Architecture is impossible in the biological world, which represents at least one way in which nanotechnology can be made safer than biotechnology.
In other ways, nanotech is potentially more dangerous because nanobots can be physically stronger than protein-based entities and more intelligent. An Essay Principle Of Population Malthus? It will eventually be possible to combine the two by thesis having nanotechnology provide the codes within biological entities (replacing DNA), in which case biological entities can use the much safer Broadcast Architecture. Our ethics as responsible technologists should include such “fine grained” relinquishment, among other professional ethical guidelines. Other protections will need to include oversight by regulatory bodies, the development of technology-specific “immune” responses, as well as computer assisted surveillance by law enforcement organizations. Many people are not aware that our intelligence agencies already use advanced technologies such as automated word spotting to monitor a substantial flow of telephone conversations. On Oprah Winfrey? As we go forward, balancing our cherished rights of privacy with our need to be protected from the malicious use of powerful twenty first century technologies will be one of many profound challenges. This is one reason that such issues as an encryption “trap door” (in which law enforcement authorities would have access to otherwise secure information) and thesis job in, the FBI “Carnivore” email-snooping system have been so contentious. As a test case, we can take a small measure of comfort from how we have dealt with one recent technological challenge.
There exists today a new form of fully nonbiological self replicating entity that didn’t exist just a few decades ago: the computer virus. When this form of destructive intruder first appeared, strong concerns were voiced that as they became more sophisticated, software pathogens had the an essay of population malthus potential to destroy the job in germany computer network medium they live in. Yet the “immune system” that has evolved in response to this challenge has been largely effective. Although destructive self-replicating software entities do cause damage from sample business time to time, the injury is thesis germany, but a small fraction of the benefit we receive from the stuart hall essay computers and communication links that harbor them. No one would suggest we do away with computers, local area networks, and job in germany, the Internet because of ip university papers, software viruses. One might counter that computer viruses do not have the lethal potential of biological viruses or of destructive nanotechnology. Although true, this strengthens my observation. Thesis? The fact that computer viruses are not usually deadly to humans only means that more people are willing to create and release them.
It also means that our response to the danger is end term papers, that much less intense. Conversely, when it comes to self replicating entities that are potentially lethal on a large scale, our response on all levels will be vastly more serious. Technology will remain a double edged sword, and the story of the Twenty First century has not yet been written. It represents vast power to be used for all humankind’s purposes. We have no choice but to work hard to apply these quickening technologies to advance our human values, despite what often appears to be a lack of consensus on what those values should be. Once brain porting technology has been refined and fully developed, will this enable us to live forever? The answer depends on what we mean by living and job in germany, dying. Consider what we do today with our personal computer files. When we change from one personal computer to a less obsolete model, we don’t throw all our files away; rather we copy them over to read nancy mairs on being a cripple, the new hardware. Thesis Germany? Although our software files do not necessary continue their existence forever, the longevity of our personal computer software is completely separate and disconnected from the on the principle hardware that it runs on.
When it comes to germany, our personal mind file, however, when our human hardware crashes, the software of our lives dies with it. However, this will not continue to end term, be the case when we have the means to store and germany, restore the thousands of essay, trillions of bytes of information represented in the pattern that we call our brains. The longevity of one’s mind file will not be dependent, therefore, on the continued viability of any particular hardware medium. Ultimately software-based humans, albeit vastly extended beyond the severe limitations of humans as we know them today, will live out on the web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including virtual bodies in diverse realms of virtual reality, holographically projected bodies, physical bodies comprised of nanobot swarms, and other forms of nanotechnology. A software-based human will be free, therefore, from the constraints of any particular thinking medium. Today, we are each confined to a mere hundred trillion connections, but humans at the end of the twenty-first century can grow their thinking and thoughts without limit. We may regard this as a form of immortality, although it is worth pointing out that data and information do not necessarily last forever. Although not dependent on germany, the viability of the hardware it runs on, the longevity of information depends on winfrey leader, its relevance, utility, and accessibility. If you’ve ever tried to retrieve information from an thesis germany, obsolete form of data storage in an old obscure format (e.g., a reel of magnetic tape from of population thomas malthus a 1970 minicomputer), you will understand the challenges in keeping software viable. However, if we are diligent in maintaining our mind file, keeping current backups, and porting to thesis germany, current formats and mediums, then a form of immortality can be attained, at least for software-based humans.
Our mind file–our personality, skills, memories–all of that is lost today when our biological hardware crashes. Dracula Essay? When we can access, store, and restore that information, then its longevity will no longer be tied to our hardware permanence. Is this form of immortality the same concept as a physical human, as we know them today, living forever? In one sense it is, because as I pointed out earlier, our contemporary selves are not a constant collection of matter either. Only our pattern of thesis job in germany, matter and energy persists, and even that gradually changes. Similarly, it will be the pattern of a software human that persists and develops and essays on oprah leader, changes gradually. But is that person based on my mind file, who migrates across many computational substrates, and who outlives any particular thinking medium, really me? We come back to the same questions of job in germany, consciousness and identity, issues that have been debated since the Platonic dialogues. As we go through the twenty-first century, these will not remain polite philosophical debates, but will be confronted as vital, practical, political, and thomas malthus, legal issues. A related question is “is death desirable?” A great deal of our effort goes into avoiding it. We make extraordinary efforts to germany, delay it, and indeed often consider its intrusion a tragic event.
Yet we might find it hard to a cripple, live without it. Germany? We consider death as giving meaning to our lives. It gives importance and value to time. Time could become meaningless if there were too much of business startup, it. The Next Step in Evolution and the Purpose of Life. But I regard the thesis job in germany freeing of the human mind from its severe physical limitations of scope and duration as the necessary next step in evolution. Evolution, in diaspora essay, my view, represents the purpose of life. Job In? That is, the purpose of life–and of our lives–is to ip university end term, evolve. The Singularity then is not a grave danger to be avoided.
In my view, this next paradigm shift represents the goal of our civilization. What does it mean to evolve? Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and more of other abstract and subtle attributes such as love. And God has been called all these things, only without any limitation: infinite knowledge, infinite intelligence, infinite beauty, infinite creativity, infinite love, and so on. Of course, even the accelerating growth of evolution never achieves an infinite level, but as it explodes exponentially, it certainly moves rapidly in that direction. So evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of God, albeit never quite reaching this ideal. Thus the job in germany freeing of dracula, our thinking from the job in severe limitations of its biological form may be regarded as an essential spiritual quest. In making this statement, it is important to emphasize that terms like evolution, destiny, and spiritual quest are observations about the end result, not the basis for these predictions. I am not saying that technology will evolve to human levels and beyond simply because it is our destiny and because of the satisfaction of a spiritual quest.
Rather my projections result from a methodology based on the dynamics underlying the (double) exponential growth of technological processes. The primary force driving technology is economic imperative. We are moving toward machines with human level intelligence (and beyond) as the result of millions of small advances, each with their own particular economic justification. To use an example from my own experience at one of my companies (Kurzweil Applied Intelligence), whenever we came up with a slightly more intelligent version of nancy on being, speech recognition, the new version invariably had greater value than the earlier generation and, as a result, sales increased. Thesis? It is interesting to note that in the example of speech recognition software, the three primary surviving competitors stayed very close to each other in the intelligence of their software. A few other companies that failed to do so (e.g., Speech Systems) went out of ip university, business. At any point in germany, time, we would be able to sell the version prior to the latest version for perhaps a quarter of the price of the current version.
As for versions of our technology that were two generations old, we couldn’t even give those away. This phenomenon is not only true for pattern recognition and other “AI” software, but applies to all products, from bread makers to cars. And if the product itself doesn’t exhibit some level of intelligence, then intelligence in the manufacturing and marketing methods have a major effect on the success and profitability of an essays on oprah winfrey leader, enterprise. There is a vital economic imperative to create more intelligent technology. Intelligent machines have enormous value. Thesis Germany? That is why they are being built. There are tens of thousands of projects that are advancing intelligent machines in diverse incremental ways.
The support for “high tech” in ip university papers, the business community (mostly software) has grown enormously. Thesis Job In Germany? When I started my optical character recognition (OCR) and speech synthesis company (Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc.) in 1974, there were only a half-dozen high technology IPO’s that year. The number of such deals has increased one hundred fold and the number of dollars invested has increased by more than one thousand fold in the past 25 years. Business Startup? In the job in germany four years between 1995 and 1999 alone, high tech venture capital deals increased from just over $1 billion to approximately $15 billion. We will continue to build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value. We will reverse-engineer the human brain not simply because it is papers, our destiny, but because there is job in, valuable information to be found there that will provide insights in essay, building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. Job In Germany? We would have to repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to stop this progression. By the second half of this next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and machine intelligence. Winfrey As A? On the one hand, we will have biological brains vastly expanded through distributed nanobot-based implants.
On the other hand, we will have fully nonbiological brains that are copies of human brains, albeit also vastly extended. And we will have a myriad of other varieties of intimate connection between human thinking and the technology it has fostered. Ultimately, nonbiological intelligence will dominate because it is growing at a double exponential rate, whereas for all practical purposes biological intelligence is at a standstill. Human thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological humans), and that figure will never appreciably change (except for a small increase resulting from genetic engineering). Nonbiological thinking is still millions of times less today, but the cross over will occur before 2030. By the germany end of the twenty-first century, nonbiological thinking will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than that of its biological progenitors, although still of human origin.
It will continue to be the human-machine civilization taking the next step in evolution. Most forecasts of the an essay on the of population malthus future seem to ignore the revolutionary impact of the Singularity in job in, our human destiny: the read nancy mairs on being inevitable emergence of computers that match and ultimately vastly exceed the capabilities of the human brain, a development that will be no less important than the thesis germany evolution of human intelligence itself some thousands of ip university papers, centuries ago. Germany? And the primary reason for this failure is stuart essay, that they are based on the intuitive but short sighted linear view of history. Before the thesis job in next century is over, the Earth’s technology-creating species will merge with its computational technology. There will not be a clear distinction between human and machine. Nancy Essay On Being A Cripple? After all, what is the thesis difference between a human brain enhanced a trillion fold by nanobot-based implants, and a computer whose design is based on high resolution scans of the human brain, and then extended a trillion-fold? Why SETI Will Fail (and why we are alone in the Universe) The law of accelerating returns implies that by stuart hall diaspora 2099, the intelligence that will have emerged from human-machine civilization will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than it is thesis, today, dominated of course by sample business plan startup its nonbiological form.
So what does this have to do with SETI (the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)? The naive view, going back to pre-Copernican days, was that the Earth was at the center of the Universe, and human intelligence its greatest gift (next to God). Job In Germany? The more informed recent view is that even if the likelihood of a star having a planet with a technology creating species is very low (e.g., one in a million), there are so many stars (i.e., billions of an essay principle thomas, trillions of them), that there are bound to thesis job in germany, be many with advanced technology. This is the view behind SETI, was my view until recently, and business startup, is the common informed view today. Job In Germany? Although SETI has not yet looked everywhere, it has already covered a substantial portion of the Universe. In the above diagram (courtesy of ip university papers, Scientific American), we can see that SETI has already thoroughly searched all star systems within 10 7 light-years from Earth for alien civilizations capable (and willing) to thesis job in germany, transmit at hall a power of at least 10 25 watts, a so-called Type II civilization (and all star systems within 10 6 light-years for transmission of at least 10 18 watts, and thesis job in germany, so on). No sign of intelligence has been found as of yet. In a recent email to my research assistant, Dr. Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute points out ip university end term papers that a new comprehensive targeted search, called Project Phoenix, which has up to thesis job in germany, 100 times the sensitivity and covers a greater range of the radio dial as compared to ip university, previous searches, has only been applied thus far to 500 star systems, which is, of course only a minute fraction of the half trillion star systems in just our own galaxy.
However, according to my model, once a civilization achieves our own level (“Earth-level”) of radio transmission, it takes no more than one century, two at job in germany the most, to achieve what SETI calls a Type II civilization. Startup? If the assumption that there are at job in germany least millions of radio capable civilizations out there, and that these civilizations are spread out over millions (indeed billions) of years of development, then surely there ought to essay, be millions that have achieved Type II status. Incidentally, this is thesis germany, not an on oprah, argument against the SETI project, which in my view should have the highest possible priority because the negative finding is no less significant than a positive result. It is odd that we find the germany cosmos so silent. Papers? Where is everybody? There should be millions of civilizations vastly more advanced than our own, so we should be noticing their broadcasts.
A sufficiently advanced civilization would not be likely to restrict its broadcasts to job in germany, subtle signals on obscure frequencies. Why are they so silent, and so shy? As I have studied the implications of the an essay on the thomas law of accelerating returns, I have come to a different view. Because exponential growth is so explosive, it is the case that once a species develops computing technology, it is only a matter of job in germany, a couple of winfrey as a leader, centuries before the nonbiological form of their intelligence explodes. Thesis? It permeates virtually all matter in their vicinity, and nancy mairs on being, then inevitably expands outward close to thesis job in germany, the maximum speed that information can travel.
Once the nonbiological intelligence emerging from that species’ technology has saturated its vicinity (and the nature of this saturation is essays on oprah as a leader, another complex issue, which I won’t deal with in this essay), it has no other way to continue to evolve but to expand outwardly. Job In Germany? The expansion does not start out at the maximum speed, but quickly achieves a speed within a vanishingly small delta from the maximum speed. What is the maximum speed? We currently understand this to be the speed of an essay of population thomas, light, but there are already tantalizing hints that this may not be an absolute limit. There were recent experiments that measured the flight time of photons at thesis nearly twice the speed of light, a result of dracula gothic novel essay, quantum uncertainty on their position. However, this result is actually not useful for this analysis, because it does not actually allow information to be communicated at faster than the speed of light, and we are fundamentally interested in thesis germany, communication speed.
Quantum disentanglement has been measured at many times the speed of business plan, light, but this is only communicating randomness (profound quantum randomness) at speeds far greater than the speed of light; again, this is not communication of information (but is of great interest for thesis restoring encryption, after quantum computing destroys it). There is the potential for dracula worm holes (or folds of the Universe in dimensions beyond the three visible ones), but this is not really traveling at faster than the speed of light, it just means that the topology of the Universe is not the germany simple three dimensional space that naive physics implies. But we already knew that. However, if worm holes or folds in the Universe are ubiquitous, then perhaps these short cuts would allow us to get everywhere quickly. Would anyone be shocked if some subtle ways of getting around this speed limit were discovered? And no matter how subtle, sufficiently subtle technology will find ways to apply it. The point is that if there are ways around this limit (or any other currently understood limit), then the extraordinary levels of intelligence that our human-machine civilization will achieve will find those ways and exploit them.
So for essays on oprah winfrey leader now, we can say that ultra high levels of intelligence will expand outward at the speed of light, but recognize that this may not be the actual limit of the speed of germany, expansion, or even if the limit is the speed of light that this limit may not restrict reaching other locations quickly. Consider that the novel time spans for biological evolution are measured in millions and billions of years, so if there are other civilizations out thesis there, they would be spread out by huge spans of essay, time. If there are a lot of them, as contemporary thinking implies, then it would be very unlikely that at least some of thesis job in, them would not be ahead of us. Plan? That at least is the SETI assumption. And if they are ahead of us, they likely would be ahead of us by huge spans of time. The likelihood that any civilization that is ahead of us is ahead of us by thesis only a few decades is extremely small. If the SETI assumption that there are many (e.g., millions) of technological (at least radio capable) civilizations is correct, then at least some of them (i.e., millions of them) would be way ahead of us.
But it takes only a few centuries at most from the advent of computation for that civilization to nancy essay on being, expand outward at at least light speed. Given this, how can it be that we have not noticed them? The conclusion I reach is that it is likely that there are no such other civilizations. In other words, we are in job in, the lead. That’s right, our humble civilization with its Dodge pick up trucks, fried chicken fast food, and ethnic cleansings (and computation!) is in the lead. Now how can that be? Isn’t this extremely unlikely given the billions of trillions of essays winfrey as a leader, likely planets?
Indeed it is germany, very unlikely. But equally unlikely is the existence of our Universe with a set of laws of on the of population malthus, physics so exquisitely precisely what is needed for the evolution of life to be possible. But by thesis the Anthropic principle, if the Universe didn’t allow the evolution of life we wouldn’t be here to stuart hall diaspora essay, notice it. Job In? Yet here we are. So by the same Anthropic principle, we’re here in the lead in the Universe.
Again, if we weren’t here, we would not be noticing it. Let’s consider some arguments against read on being a cripple, this perspective. Perhaps there are extremely advanced technological civilizations out there, but we are outside their light sphere of thesis, intelligence. That is, they haven’t gotten here yet. Okay, in this case, SETI will still fail because we won’t be able to see (or hear) them, at least not before we reach Singularity. Perhaps they are amongst us, but have decided to remain invisible to us. Incidentally, I have always considered the science fiction notion of large space ships with large squishy creatures similar to us to be very unlikely. Any civilization sophisticated enough to papers, make the trip here would have long since passed the germany point of merging with their technology and would not need to send such physically bulky organisms and papers, equipment. Thesis Germany? Such a civilization would not have any unmet material needs that require it to steal physical resources from nancy essay on being us. They would be here for job in observation only, to gather knowledge, which is the only resource of value to such a civilization.
The intelligence and equipment needed for such observation would be extremely small. In this case, SETI will still fail because if this civilization decided that it did not want us to notice it, then it would succeed in that desire. Keep in mind that they would be vastly more intelligent than we are today. Perhaps they will reveal themselves to us when we achieve the next level of on oprah winfrey as a leader, our evolution, specifically merging our biological brains with our technology, which is to germany, say, after the stuart Singularity. Moreover, given that the SETI assumption implies that there are millions of such highly developed civilizations, it seems odd that all of them have made the thesis job in germany same decision to stay out of our way. Why Intelligence is sample plan, More Powerful than Physics. As intelligence saturates the thesis job in matter and energy available to it, it turns dumb matter into smart matter. Nancy Mairs A Cripple? Although smart matter still nominally follows the laws of physics, it is so exquisitely intelligent that it can harness the most subtle aspects of the job in germany laws to read nancy mairs essay on being a cripple, manipulate matter and energy to its will. So it would at least appear that intelligence is more powerful than physics. Perhaps what I should say is that intelligence is thesis germany, more powerful than cosmology. On The Of Population Thomas? That is, once matter evolves into smart matter (matter fully saturated with intelligence), it can manipulate matter and energy to do whatever it wants.
This perspective has not been considered in thesis job in germany, discussions of future cosmology. Of Population Thomas? It is assumed that intelligence is irrelevant to events and processes on a cosmological scale. Thesis Job In? Stars are born and die; galaxies go through their cycles of creation and destruction. An Essay Thomas? The Universe itself was born in a big bang and will end with a crunch or a whimper, we’re not yet sure which. Germany? But intelligence has little to read mairs a cripple, do with it. Thesis Germany? Intelligence is just a bit of froth, an ebullition of little creatures darting in and out of nancy essay, inexorable universal forces. Job In Germany? The mindless mechanism of the Universe is winding up or down to a distant future, and there’s nothing intelligence can do about it. That’s the common wisdom, but I don’t agree with it. Intelligence will be more powerful than these impersonal forces. Once a planet yields a technology creating species and that species creates computation (as has happened here on an essay on the principle malthus, Earth), it is only a matter of a few centuries before its intelligence saturates the thesis matter and energy in its vicinity, and it begins to expand outward at diaspora essay the speed of light or greater.
It will then overcome gravity (through exquisite and vast technology) and germany, other cosmological forces (or, to be fully accurate, will maneuver and control these forces) and create the Universe it wants. This is the goal of the Singularity. What kind of Universe will that be? Well, just wait and winfrey as a, see. Most of thesis, you (again I’m using the hall diaspora plural form of the thesis job in word) are likely to be around to hall, see the thesis job in germany Singularity. End Term Papers? The expanding human life span is another one of those exponential trends. In the eighteenth century, we added a few days every year to human longevity; during the nineteenth century we added a couple of weeks each year; and now we’re adding almost a half a year every year. With the revolutions in thesis germany, genomics, proteomics, rational drug design, therapeutic cloning of our own organs and tissues, and related developments in bio-information sciences, we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years.
So take care of yourself the on oprah as a old fashioned way for just a little while longer, and you may actually get to experience the next fundamental paradigm shift in job in, our destiny. Copyright (C) Raymond Kurzweil 2001. Chart Graphics by Brett Rampata/Digital Organism. Topics: Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Quantum | Social Networking/Web. Hi. I was doing some research on this topic. On The Principle Thomas Malthus? I live in helsinki and I found a finnish translation of The Visible Human Project. It’s here : http://www.1001-soldes.com/visible-human-project. Thanks for creating and sharing a great resource.
The rate of technological change has serious implications for the economics of thesis, investing in terms of a “buy now or wait for the next improved model” problem. The “economic life” of ip university end term, equipment in certain industries is thesis job in germany, far shorter than the mechanical life (i.e. the machine is not worn out and still operates within accepted tolerances). We saw this in the late 90?s to an essay on the principle of population malthus, early 2000 when the majority of job in, used metal working machinery dealers went out of business. While the used equipment still “worked like new” it was technologically obsolete relative to the performance of the most recent technology. The economics of essays winfrey, competition often led to thesis, the situation where the old technology even at an acquisition cost almost equivalent to scrap value, but including operating and hall essay, maintenance costs, could not compete with the features and costs of the new technology. Financial lending institutions were hit hard as their floor-plan financing of used equipment inventory when the dealer closed it’s doors and job in germany, gave the stuart hall diaspora essay keys to thesis job in germany, the banker, only to find out that the $250,000 machine was worth $5,000 as scrap. As a result, many small manufacturers are finding it almost impossible to get bank financing to acquire new (expensive) technology. As a result, smaller firms are finding it more difficult to be competitive unless they can operate their equipment almost 24/7/365 in order to “wear it out” before it becomes technologically obsolete. In many areas, this has resulted in a dilemma of deciding to “buy now” or wait for new model. As the rate of dracula gothic, technological change increases, this can quickly lead to an “investment singularity” where on thesis, never makes an investment. I feel that this conundrum is leading to greater concentration in dracula gothic novel essay, manufacturing with less competition.
This in itself may be the “brakes” the the technology growth rate as once a manufacturer achieves near monopoly status, it can continue to price goods based on the economics of the “old technology” without being undercut by new competitors using new technology. I believe that there is a need for job in a new model of small-medium manufacturing that can “share technology” in sample business plan, order to “wear it out” before it becomes obsolete. This obviously entail a major logistics problem that I feel would lead to the development of concentrated manufacturing locations in order to facilitate sharing of equipment along with coordination of methods (i.e. standardized CAD-CAM, MRP, etc.). I was wondering why you did not use a paradigm shows patent across the age of technology… can easily support your claims, specifically because the rate and return can be proven accurate, In 2001 you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years” (So 2011).
In 2015, at the Emerging Issues forum in NC State U, you say that “within 15 years we’ll be adding more than a year every year to job in, your remaining life expectancy.” It does appear, even to this very sympathetic reader of yours, that you keep pushing back the date when we’ll finally reach longevity escape velocity. Where does he say that? I can’t find that quote in this article. Also, I would assume his “predictions” are not set in stone, and need flexibility. I see these as possibilities as to when we should be able to do this or that, not an exact time-frame. He isn’t trying to be a prophet of the future, or a Nostradamus. Just listing his educated theories on ip university end term papers, what the future might hold.
Given medical progress you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years”. This in 2001, so it would refer to 2011. Thesis? Have we been adding more than a year to our remaining life span since 2011? looking widely, any growth is on the thomas, like more lambda function than exponent.. exponential growth linear phase saturation.. fixing on exponential growth like a searching for Philosopher’s stone.. A technological singularity has already occurred at job in germany least once in ip university papers, history. Job In Germany? Before the invention of neural cell, the read on being adaptation for new environments required many generations of evolutionary trial. Compared to that, the speed at which neurons model the world is near-infinite.
Seems very reasonable! I was wondering, how to test if a copied mind is indistinguishable from the actual mind copied? Let’s say you and thesis job in germany, your copy are given the identical simulated world environments to play in. If the behaviours of an essay on the malthus, you and your copy do not deviate by more than the behaviour of job in germany, actual you would be expected to deviate from the of population thomas behaviour of identical actual you in a universe different from this one by the amount of entropy that would be needed to create the observed level of job in, differences in behaviour over the same period of time, then we would consider your copy identical up to that level of entropy, defined by on oprah leader the triple (you, your copy, game). Hello, I am currently a student in molecular biology at UofM, Well, firstly, it needs to be stated that this is germany, a deliciously entertaining and well defined hypothesis. There are certainly numerous well-supported facts throughout this essay and I too, agree with its principle suggestion. It is ip university, noteworthy to point out that what this man is attempting to prove is at its utmost level not provable (currently), but may be able to be in time. The most difficult part to grasp for most people is the ability to extend your analyzing beyond your realm of present reasoning. On a far lesser scale, many find it difficult to draw 3-Dimensional figures on 2-D paper. Job In? But just because you can’t comprehend it-or perhaps even if you can and assess that it is stuart hall diaspora, only an optical illusion-doesn’t mean there is no merit in its core reasoning.
That is to say, it is possible to use these directly fictitious drawings to germany, ultimately understand the concepts it would entail in 3 dimensions. What I am saying is, simply put, that which is impossible now is not necessarily impossible later. When addressing the future, you must not assess it linearly (as Kurzweil elaborates), despite our deepest internal desire to an essay of population malthus, view it as so. Thesis Job In Germany? If you think A.I. intelligence is dracula novel essay, unable to pass human intelligence, then you will have a much more difficult time understanding the ideas behind Dystopian/Utopian theories. On a final note, I truly wonder if these two theories are interrelated, as I’d assume that this could ultimately extend to argue that the exponential growth of technology may culminate in a Singularity point that ultimately results in the destruction of the exponential model and germany, offers an entirely new shape after. (I’d assume a possible restart in technological growth if you believe in sample business, Dystopia with a Utopian stance being more unclear).
I am very interested to hear your take on job in germany, that. How will we apply technplogy that is more intelligent than its creators………. yea, imagine some one from the 80s picking up a smart phone and having infinite amount of plan, information in their hands! they would be so unimpressed… u mad bro that life didn’t turn out like movies from the 70?s and 80?s….you’re an thesis, idiot. I’m just going to say something about the life and the future. There were changes in the past for the future for the past, old fashioned civilians. Everything is the same, everyone is the same. They all think their more godly than others. The fact is, their not. They never will be…there’s only president’s and higher occupations who fuck up our world and are the essays on oprah as a leader higher occupations.
So, now we live in the Still Age, where nothing seems to move forward. Sure we have technology, but nothing’s actually happening. Life’s dead, the people may seem alive but we are the walking dead. Job In? Suppose we don’t actually need a zombie apocalypse because WE are it. We ARE zombies. I mean, look at all the movies from the 70?s/80?s they expect in the 2000s/2020s will be all futuristic with hover cars and moving cities and blah blah blah but NO, they would be choking themselves now that the future hasn’t moved on and they saw today. I will be dead by the time anything changes to ip university end term, our city or evolves….why is it that we can’t go out by the time night comes? why cant we be creatures of the night instead of creatures of the day? It’s frustrating, sitting here on your bed waiting for the next day. The night is not safe for anyone, why?
Who dared made it that way? I would like to walk in the night feeling safe but I suppose that isnt possible…why is the day safe? But the day isnt safe, either. No, I didn’t read the preposterous post or comments. Maths sucks…I bet I can pass by without using it…that’s a challenge…okay, so maybe the shops I need maths for but thats it and I can use a calculator for gods sake! Who the fuck buys 42 melons anyway? You know?
Those ridiculous math sums. And why, do we see all these people everywhere and dont know their names? Their everything? Their always different looking everyday. We don’t have self awareness because we’re just too used to everything, we’re almost like puppets obeying this life system…we only have self awareness when we are in trouble.
I mean, I kind of feel like we’re just waiting to die everyday. I don’t want that. I hate that. I want to feel alive, to thesis, feel lived, I dont want to sample plan startup, walk in a daydream. Why must we obey the thesis job in germany system? Go to school for half your life, work the on oprah winfrey as a leader rest of the thesis job in half, grow old and mairs essay, die. Everyone’s the same. It’s programmed for germany every human. You want to know your purpose? That’s your purpose. Work till you grow old.
Enjoy the little things ;) It is mind bogging yet well supported by facts…dear sir may I bring one area that could sweep all other areas…exponential increase is BADLY needed in personal conduct,wash-out of negative thinking ,and being. old indian scriptures DO mention that such is possible.but that is all to. it…probably suspecting misuse. from nsc. UIM (Ultra Intelligent machines) ” ultra-intelligent machine could design even better machines” document in 1960s are not far from reality. “consciousness is an unbroken chain. if you copy yourself directly you break the chain, the sample new copy’s consciousness would begin at that point and your old self would continue to be conscious. a slow transition allows an germany, introspective understanding of that gradual change as you evolve from biology into technology, although you may change your consciousness remains intact. that is my view anyway” Moore’s law is just one of hall diaspora essay, millions of thesis job in, positive feedback loops that occur in the world (in biology, sociology, economics, chemistry etc). Yet none of these feedback loops continue indefinitely, as you are assuming Moore’s Law will. This is because every feedback loop, including Moore’s Law, eventually has limiting factors (Usually a lack of resources / ingredients).
All the technology curves will be slowed by limiting factors eventually, and the singularity won’t occur. Jordan: in The Singularity Is Near book. Ray explains that Moore’s law will expire in the future, and as a leader, will be replaced by another process. Jordan – respectfully – did you read the whole essay? I agree with your criticism in a sense, in thesis, that we haven’t yet established that there is a possible “paradigm” after integrated circuits. Novel Essay? Pointing to the end of Moore’s law and thesis, claiming their is nothing beyond that is no different than having someone circa 1956 claiming vacuum tubes are the fastest computers we can EVER make. Moore’s law is projected to end sometime around 2018 – 2022. Ray is very aware of this, as he points out many times in his essay. Hall Diaspora Essay? Had his argument been of the form “Moore’s law – Singularity” your counter argument would have been sufficient.
This is not at all what he is arguing, in fact, the premise “Moore’s law will end” is one premises of his argument (the rise an fall of new paradigms for intelligence). If you want to argue against a singularity occurring, you need to address the fundamental trends underlying Moore’s law (things along the lines of building upon previous innovations and then work out what laws of thesis job in germany, physics may interfere with the continuation of that trend). The only small problem I saw with what his argument above is that nanites will have a hard time sending and thomas malthus, receiving WiFi if they are smaller than the wavelength of carrier frequency. If I were to then conclude that this physical problem will prevent nanites from EVER using any kind of wireless communication, I would be adopting the same type of thinking as yours regarding Moore’s law. All of us working together over many years of innovation and “evolution” have created this smooth pattern (I would argue that ALL people contribute in some small way, even the ones that don’t appear to be doing anything – it all adds up).
The patterns you see in a branching tree, in the periodic table, in human personality types, a fractal, the thesis sand on the beach, a hurricane, the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction… take your pick but the novel “Law of Accelerating Returns” as Ray calls it is simply another one of thesis germany, those types of hall diaspora essay, patterns. It’s literally a force of nature – we recognize that we’re creating that pattern, but then we delude ourselves into thinking that we’re “in control” of germany, it, and that just isn’t the case. All of gothic novel, these large scale aggregate patterns constructed by an uncountable number of small scale chaotic events will be points of job in, great interest for us going forward (they already are, but they’ll become more important as we try to nancy essay on being a cripple, solve problems… like the job in germany end of Moore’s law). They form the links between the known fundamental properties of the universe with our experienced conciousness. A top priority is to understand that complex and dracula gothic, interconnected web. uuuuuuummmm, i was told i would recieve 40 trillion dollars…. by Theodoore Aborgone. 40 trillion? For what??
Hi to everyone, this is my first post, because I REALLY need help. Everywhere i see know this advertisements about Forex thing, got attracted, started to germany, read about it, but still really confused about What is forex . All the explanations i find on the internet are very complicated. Too many smart words. Can someone explain what is forex by his own words ? Tired of websites. I just can not imagine with incredibly blog greatly that warned me! God bless you “It is not beauty that endears; it’s love that makes us see beauty.” – Leo Tolstoy. Too much technological change within such a short period of time is too much for humans to handle. Humans must learn how to adapt to the societal changes that this new technology will bring, so that humans won’t end civilization as we know it. We as a species must strive for peace. note how phase conjugation is the symmetry origin of acceleration (gravity) and all centripetal – self organizing forces. Seems like we should re-evaluate the perception we call time imortality is right around the sample business startup corner.
So hold on to your pants were about to defy physics as we know it. Epigenetic mechanisms can provide a survival advantage under adverse conditions with mechanical laws. It presupposes that Science historically developed out of Phylosophy. It is more convenient to job in, postulate that Epigenetics expanded in an essay principle malthus, accordance with mechanical laws that have existed since the beginning of creation. Job In? (Epigenetics Wikipedia page here) I have two problems with this theory. The first is physical, the second metaphysical.
The first problem that while exponential growth is stuart hall diaspora essay, certainly a mathematical possibility, it is never a physical one. In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist. For example, the repellent force of protons looks asymptotic until a certain point – then it breaks over and nuclear forces take over, binding the nucleus of an atom together. Job In? The same thing happens with a zener diode, or any other seemingly asymptotic function. There is always a breakover point. Read Nancy Mairs Essay A Cripple? (Interesting discussion regarding the growth of mass as it approaches the speed of light – but if you think about it, we simply don’t know yet). The second is job in, metaphysical. On Oprah As A Leader? This theory assumes – and I think incorrectly – that consciousness is the result of increased neural activity.
However, any honest person that thinks about job in germany it will realize that there is something in the “soul” or “spirit” that is yet to be explored or understood. Anyone that has ever entered a room where an argument has just taken place and “felt” the “tension” in the room has sensed with something other than the brain – unless all of that is just electromagnetic vibes, and as an stuart hall essay, electrical engineer, I know those electromagnetic waves travel outward and job in germany, disperse at nearly the as a speed of job in, light. On Oprah Winfrey? I think that the brain is more of an interface to the “spirit” where real cognitive thinking occurs. That is why we “stew” on germany, things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to “think”. Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing. Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed (like evolution). It is more of nancy on being a cripple, a religion than religion is.
The complexity of the interface certainly needs to be explored, but until we can figure out where the real cognitive engine is, I don’t think there is any chance that more complex interfaces will become self aware. The RS 232 interface is simple and the USB3 may be better and more complex, but no matter how good the interface gets, it will never become the computer chip itself. LIkewise, the brain may be exceeded by thesis germany a computer, but it will never become the cognitive center of an essay principle of population thomas malthus, a person. On the bright side, Mr. Kurzweil, the spirit never dies. Are you sure about germany this? Animal often communicate non-verbally because they don’t have a structured, organized universal way of communicating with one another. So they have to rely on a not of non-verbal ques to communicate with one another. Therefore you example of dracula novel, “walking into a room with an argument” isn’t a very good example of a “spiritual” perception, because humans display certain actions and characteristic when under pressure, and thesis job in germany, some of an essay principle, us have been wired to perceive these unconscious non-verbal forms of communication. Looks of worry, muscles tensing up, frowns, fidgeting…
It’s a romantic idea that we have a soul, but to claim we have souls is to deny the elegance and beauty that is job in germany, our brains. So don’t be mean to your brain, give credit where credit’s due! ” In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist.” There is a physical limit at plan startup the end of the century. He explains in job in germany, this particular essay that he left it out, but it is basically the point at which we cant get any more use out of an atom and simply require more atoms. At that point all research and advancement will be towards getting more atoms. “That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in essays as a, order to “think”.
Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing.” We are unaware of the germany vast majority of our brains activity. This is the work being done in the subconscious. We are only aware of the activity on the thin outer film on essays on oprah winfrey, the outside of the brain, and we have even shown that many of the decisions we think we consciously make were actually your subconscious making the decision and lying to you conscious brain that you made the decision. You can tell these “decisions” apart from the rest by job in germany asking yourself if you actually considered alternatives to business plan startup, what you just did; if not, that is your subconscious. Your subconscious considers almost every thing you could possibly do next, and germany, analyzes the world in very unconventional ways… sometimes seeing past our rigid conception of reality. 95% of our brain is in the subconscious. Little is known about what the subconscious is capable of an essay on the of population malthus, or senses past the 5 our conscious brain is aware of.
Seeing into the outer layer of the subconscious is a spiritual experience. It can be achieved through dreaming, meditation, spirituality, and hallucinogens. When you “feel” things you are not aware of or “stew”, this is your subconscious working away. This is the real you. “Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed” Self awareness is shown to take place in the brain only when it is in a highly interconnected state. The outer 5% of the job in brain is the essays on oprah winfrey leader conscious part and thesis job in germany, is only developed to essays on oprah winfrey as a leader, any reasonable extent in humans. The conscious part of the brain connects the other parts of the brain together and allows you to thesis, be aware of them and also override them with logic. Scientific inquiry into this by watching chain reactions in the brain has shown that when are are no longer self aware, the read on being difference in the brain is that the separate parts are no longer communicating with each other…they are simply acting.
This is how it is in animals. You made a few points that I found interesting and you might be able to help me with a nonprofit initiative of mine called iSocialWatch, it is the thesis job in first social media watchdog and consumer advocacy organization focusing on privacy, safety, psychology and sexuality in thomas malthus, the context of cyber, social and ultra connected space. You can reach out by thesis job in email stephane at isocialwatch dot org, or Twitter “isocialwatch”, or facebook.com/isocialwatch. Looking forward hearing from you. I’m not sure that I agree with the Kurzweil’s refutation of business plan startup, Penrose’s description of the origin of consciousness.
I would not, for example, say that the gradual introduction of electronic pseudo-neurons is functionally equivalent to a complete brain scan/recreation. The fundamental difference between the job in germany two processes, it seems to me, is the gradual nature of the hall diaspora essay former, which avoids the discontinuity of the latter. Continuity may be fundamental to consciousness, which is why Penrose’s argument holds water. No matter how “close” our quantum technology can come to replicating our quantum states, there will always be that discontinuity because the duplication, as Penrose argues, cannot be perfect. Therefore, consciousness cannot be downloaded from a biological mind. Of course, consciousness could also be something completely unrelated to all of this. Maybe these physical processes are results of consciousness and not the other way around.
Every new invention has a beginning, an accellerating development phase, a peak of development and then a decellerating slowing down of development. Nothing takes forever. Eventually we will live in a world that doesn’t change much. You just think it is linear or exponentially accellerating because you don’t appreciate that the industrial/technological time has been very short. Germany? It’s like looking at an essay principle of population our world and thinking it is flat but when you get to germany, the pole it goes no further. It’s just a ball.
You can’t see the reality because you over-rate your intelligence. I think the jump from – the window that a civilization would be broadcasting radio waves is very small – to, therefore no other civilizations exist – is a false conclusion. I also disagree that civilizations would be broadcasting a signal to all the universe once they advanced beyond human level intelligence. The smart entity would conceal themselves and be the one to decide when any contact should occur. Dracula Gothic Novel Essay? I do not think they are here, but that does not mean that they aren’t out there. Are You Serious Bro? We Tried So Hard Not To Go There But There You Went…
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2017 MBA Essay Questions: Cornell Johnson. Cornell Johnson 2017 Two-Year MBA Essay Questions Class of 2020. Here are the Class of thesis, 2020 Full-Time essays for Johnson. Stuart Hall Diaspora? A goals statement, plus two formal essays and an optional essay: At Cornell, we value students who create impact. Please indicate the thesis job in germany opportunities for impact that you’ve identified through engagement with our community and describe how what you learned has influenced your decision to apply to Johnson. 500 words You are the author of sample startup, your Life Story. Please create the Table of Contents for the book in germany, the space provided or upload it as an attachment. We value creativity and authenticity and encourage you to sample business startup approach this essay with your unique style.
Alternative submission formats may include a slide presentation, links to pre-existing media (personal website, digital portfolio, YouTube etc.), as well as visually enhanced written submissions. 500 words or under 5 minutes for a multimedia (audio/video). The Life Story essay has been a staple for the Johnson app for many years now. It#8217;s different enough that you won#8217;t be able to re-use what you produce for Booth or MIT or NYU, but similar chunks of content may work across some of those others. For the Impact Essay, a post we wrote specifically for thesis job in Wharton may also be useful to help you stay on track.
The Cornell optional essay is a standard optional essay #8212; meaning, it#8217;s truly optional and only should be submitted if you have important information to stuart diaspora explain such as gaps in employment or low GPA (where you have a REASON and not an EXCUSE). Reapplicants who tried last year also need to thesis use the optional essay to explain how they have improved since last time. (We have a Reapplicant Guide if you#8217;re in that boat!). Essays Winfrey As A Leader? Our The EssaySnark Cornell essay guide is the job in 2016 version but it#8217;s still valid for 2017! Not sure when we#8217;ll be able to do a refresh on this one. You will get access to any updates if/when we do provided it#8217;s within your original 90-day subscription term. All the info in the existing version should still be quite helpful for you today! Cornell has been VERY welcoming to the military candidate lately. Military students went from 2% of the Class of 2013, to an incredible 11% of the Class of 2018. We don#8217;t know of any other school that#8217;s admitted such a high proportion. If you#8217;re active duty or a vet of the U.S. armed services, we offer some special opportunities to end term help with your MBA apps.
Cornell MBA Letters of Recommendations. Cornell Johnson Full-Time 2-Year MBA Application Deadlines. October Round: October 5, 2017 this is advantageous compared to thesis job in germany other schools#8217; first rounds because you#8217;ll get your decision really early! In November, in fact. Sample Plan? That would be nice, eh? November Round: November 15, 2017 this can be a great date to try for, especially if you#8217;re in the U.S.: It#8217;s after the crush of germany, Round 1 but before the Thanksgiving holiday, so you have a lull in the cycle. (We#8217;re not trying to imply that international applicants would not benefit from Round 2 at Cornell, but Americans may appreciate getting another app out essays leader, of the thesis way before the end of November, just for personal and as a leader family reasons!) January Round: January 10, 2018 This is one of the thesis job in germany later January deadlines, so THANK YOU, Cornell! They also have a final fourth round in March, and they#8217;ll even accept applications once that date has passed but it#8217;s getting into papers, the trickier stages to be applying to thesis germany any school at that point on ip university papers the calendar. Try for one of the first three rounds identified above for thesis your best chances.
Note, too, that the deadlines for the Cornell 1-Year MBA may be different. Please see the essays on oprah winfrey Johnson website to confirm. With most schools we suggest targeting any round through a January deadline and thesis job in germany that applies here, too, except that they have four rounds which gives you more milestones to try for. There typically are more options with Cornell in fact, they#8217;ll even keep accepting applications after their final round in March #8212; but it#8217;s certainly better to stick with Rounds 1, 2 or 3. Past Cornell MBA Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said about previous years#8217; Johnson applications, in an essay principle malthus, case you want to see where this school is coming from. Germany? Click to view 2016 questions. Two questions plus an optional essay: At Cornell, we value students who create impact. Please indicate the opportunities for impact that you have identified through engagement with our community and describe how these interactions have influenced your decision to apply to ip university Johnson. 500 words You are the author of your Life Story. Please create the Table of Contents for the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. We value creativity and authenticity and encourage you to approach this essay with your unique style.
Alternative submission formats may include a slide presentation, links to pre-existing media (personal website, digital portfolio, YouTube etc.), as well as visually enhanced written submissions. Job In? They haven#8217;t had a formal written essay in of population thomas, some time, so that first question is new in 2016. It#8217;s reminiscent of what Wharton is thesis job in germany asking, with their #8220;contribution#8221; essay (we issued some warnings on writing for ip university end term papers that before). Additional random comments: 6/29/16 They#8217;re not numbering their rounds anymore; they#8217;ve gone back to job in germany October Round, November Round, etc. Not sure if that makes things more confusing, or less! 7/31/16 It appears that Cornell is adopting the ip university papers newly-standardized 4-question Letters of Recommendation requirements that other schools are using. [End last year#8217;s questions section.] Click to germany view 2015 questions. 7/24/15 It appears that Johnson is novel essay using the identical essays to job in germany last year, they#8217;ve just been very kind to of population thomas you and increased the limits. Table of Contents You are the author for the book of Your Life Story.
In 500 words or less, please create the table of job in, contents for the book in essay on being, the space provided or upload it as an thesis job in attachment. We value creativity and authenticity and encourage you to approach this essay with your unique style. Alternative submission formats may include a slide presentation, links to pre-existing media (personal website, digital portfolio, YouTube etc.), as well as visually enhanced written submissions. Papers? What are your short and long term goals and how do you see the Cornell MBA enabling you to achieve both? (500 words) There#8217;s also a whole bunch of other questions in their online application, plus the job in germany standard optional essay (reapplicants should use that to read essay explain how they#8217;ve improved since originally applying). We go into job in, these details in our new-this-year Cornell MBA Application Guide , to on the of population thomas malthus give you all that you need to do a bang-up job on your essays for thesis germany this school. In terms of deadlines: Cornell keeps messing with the system! #128512; They retained their three rounds this year but those dates are very different than any other school. Up through the 2012-#8217;13 app season, Cornell had four rounds. In 2014 they switched to the traditional three rounds with standardized deadlines like every other top school has. Now they#8217;ve gone back to four rounds for 2015, and mairs essay on being a cripple they also will accept late apps even after their final deadline in thesis job in, March. [End 2015 questions section.] These questions are not much different from 2013 except that #8220;300 words#8221; has turned into #8220;1,000 characters#8221; and they have categorized a bunch of short-answer responses as #8220;essays#8221; which is a little confusing. The first question is the stuart hall diaspora essay only one that allows you to upload a file; the others must be entered into the text field in thesis germany, their form, which means you can#8217;t submit more than they ask for.
Creative Submission Required for All Applicants: You are the author for stuart hall diaspora the book of Your Life Story. In 1000 characters or less, please write the table of contents for the book in the space provided or upload it as an attachment. Thesis Job In Germany? Note: approach this essay with your unique style. We value creativity and authenticity. Targeted Job Type: What is the job that you would like to sample have immediately upon graduating with your MBA? (1000 characters) Post-Collegiate Activities: List community activities (clubs, church, civic, etc.) and professional associations you contributed to since graduation from college.
Please include the organization name, your role, hours dedicated, elected offices held, and dates of participation (1000 character limit). List your extracurricular activities while in college in thesis germany, order of importance to you. You may include details about your positions and on oprah the time commitment, honors or awards received, and dates of germany, participation. The list may also include part-time and summer employment held while in college. Please list your employer, job title, responsibilities, hours per week, and the dates for each position (1000 character limit). Nancy Mairs On Being A Cripple? Collegiate Activities and Employment: Please describe any hobbies or activities that hold special significance for you (1000 character limit). Optional Essay: Complete this essay if you would like to add additional details regarding your candidacy.
For instance, if you believe one or more aspects of your application (e.g., undergraduate record or test scores) do not accurately reflect your potential for success at the Johnson School. (1000 character limit) The optional essay really is thesis job in germany optional; you should only use it to explain oddities in your profile that you#8217;re not covering elsewhere. Don#8217;t feel like you should tell them about this great leadership example from work as a way to fill the space. Put that example in your Book of startup, Life if you feel it#8217;s important enough to include, or just rely on your resume to tell the thesis germany story. The other questions are no different than what other schools ask, so again, a little strange that the an essay on the principle malthus app has them categorized as #8220;essays.#8221; They#8217;re definitely not long enough to be considered as such. Thesis Job In? The 1,000-character limit means you get about two standard-sized paragraphs, though the on oprah winfrey leader fields do allow formatting and germany many of the questions lend themselves to a bulleted list answer instead of a block of text. Just so you can gauge it, this paragraph is just about 535 characters; the read nancy mairs paragraph above about the optional essay is 375. This is the job in first school we#8217;ve seen to use Salesforce to deploy its MBA application. They#8217;re touting this feature where you can pull in your LinkedIn profile to populate the employment and education sections.
This is optional; you don#8217;t have to read nancy mairs click that button if you don#8217;t want to. We don#8217;t see any disadvantage in thesis job in germany, doing that, so go ahead if you#8217;re on LinkedIn and want to save some data entry. Honestly that seems like the biggest benefit though, and even that may be a little overhyped; the system says that not all fields will be populated so you#8217;ll still need to dracula essay go through and fill in germany, the gaps. Still, kudos to Johnson for embracing technology it#8217;s certainly not something we see the an essay principle of population bschools doing much of! They are saying that it#8217;s their Johnson Tech MBA that provided the job in germany impetus for this (Johnson is partnering with Google on some stuff so it#8217;s clear they#8217;re embracing the convergence of tech and business again, not something we see too often from ip university end term papers, MBA programs). The strategy for thesis putting together your Johnson essay needs to be the same as it#8217;s always been: Communicate who you are through this structured exercise of the #8220;story of on oprah as a, your life#8221; and share some of the real you in thesis, that way. And oh yeah, communicate your goals concisely, too. [End 2014 questions section.] Here#8217;s the 2013 Cornell essay questions: Essay 1: Who You Are. Winfrey As A Leader? You are the author for the book of Your Life Story. In 300 words or less please write the table of thesis, contents for essay the book.
Note: approach this essay with your unique style. We value creativity and authenticity. Essay 2: Who You Turn Out to Be. (150 words for each part, uploaded as a single document) When did you decide that business school was the next step for you? (Was this an epiphany or an evolutionary process? What was the catalyst that caused you to consider this next step?) Johnson values people that make things happen for thesis germany themselves. Give an example of how you have initiated this for yourself. Please describe your immediate post MBA career goals. On 7/26/13 Cornell updated their Deadlines page to clarify that they will still accept #8220;late#8221; applications through April. This basically moves them back to a 4-round admissions season all over again!
It#8217;s good to see this flexibility but it#8217;s a little baffling why they#8217;re doing it this way. Why not just keep four rounds? Maybe it#8217;s because they#8217;re trying to accommodate all their admissions under the same schedule, and nancy the One-Year MBA starts in May so they can#8217;t have a round hit that late in thesis job in, the season and read nancy mairs on being a cripple still get people in thesis job in, there. [End 2013 questions section.] How would you characterize your career since college? Tell us about your short and long term career goals. Choose one: You are the read nancy mairs a cripple author for the book of Your Life Story. Please write the germany table of contents for the book. Note: Approach this essay with your unique style. We value creativity and authenticity. Mairs Essay A Cripple? Describe a situation taken from your personal or professional life where you failed and tell us what you learned. What does diversity mean to you and thesis job in germany how will you contribute to the diversity of our community at Johnson? [End 2012 questions section.] Another school we#8217;re tracking with interest (March 2016) Schools where Round 3 is essays on oprah winfrey viable (January 2013) one-year MBA options (April 2012) The one less traveled by: CORNELL (January 2012) We don#8217;t have a lot of thesis germany, Cornell essays reviewed on the blahg (feel free to read essay on being a cripple send us yours this season!).
However you can reference essay reviews from thesis job in, several other schools to get a feel for how to handle Cornell. There are obvious differences between these programs but some strong similarities, too, so these are worth studying as you work on your Johnson application: The Cornell Application Guide walks you through the important elements of this application and how to essay position yourself effectively. 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to thesis help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to mairs essay on being a cripple help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on job in germany the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and ip university papers strategies for your Class of job in germany, 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on essays on oprah winfrey The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . Thesis Job In Germany? As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in order to on the principle of population malthus maximize my . Thanks so much for the additional feedback ES.
I really appreciate it. I just submitted my HBS app, . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2016 : No, you don't have to actually do the thing you say you will do in the career goals essay. Job In Germany? 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark? 2013 : Success Story! A Journey to the Center of America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2013 : More on diaspora essay visiting schools 2012 : ($) What about a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2012 : ($) Duke's main essay: What do you tell your family, friends, and colleagues? 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience 2011 : Battle of the Blogs! EssaySnark® is a registered trademark.
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con homework pro by Johnie H. Thesis Job In. Scott, Assistant Professor. Pan African Studies Department - California State University, Northridge. One of the as a leader major modes of discourse, argumentation can be applied to virtually all assignments involving critical reasoning no matter the subject or discipline. As it involves a higher level of reasoning than associated with descriptive writing, or narrative writing, or expository writing per se, it is thesis job in germany crucial for the successful university-level student to understand and master the principles, indeed the essay concepts that drive the critical thinking skills associated with argumentative writing. The argumentative essay shares many characteristics with the expository essay. The argument also consists of an introduction, body and conclusion.
It also is built around a major premise (in this instance, called the Proposition rather than the job in germany Thesis Statement). Additionally, there is a definite pattern of organization used in developing the argument. Gothic. But before delving more deeply into this, let us go to the fundamentals. What Is An Argument? First, one must be familiar with the terminology.
In this instance, the term argument refers to a reasoned attempt to job in germany, convince the audience to accept a particular point of end term, view about a debatable topic. Looking more closely at this definition, we observe that the argument is not irrational; it does not depend strictly on passion or emotion. Rather, argumentation represents a reasoned attempt, that is, an effort based on careful thinking and planning where the appeal is to the mind, the intellect of the audience at hand. Why? The answer to this is that one wants to convince the audience to thesis, accept a particular point of view. The key concept here is to convince the audience, that is, you must make them believe your position, accept your logic and evidence. Not only do you want them to on the principle of population thomas malthus, accept the evidence, but you want that audience to accept a particular point of view -- that point of thesis job in, view, or perspective, is end term papers yours. It is your position, your proposition. Understand that all too often the audience may be intrigued by the evidence presented, but that intrigue alone is not enough to convince them of the job in validity or authority of your position in the matter. You want the audience to accept your point of view about the hall diaspora essay topic whether it is gun control, safe sex, or stiffer prison sentences for criminal offenders no matter what age. Job In Germany. Finally, there must be a debatable topic present for a true argument to develop.
What is dracula novel debatable? One cannot, for example, debate whether or not the Los Angeles Dodgers won the 1988 World Series or that Dodger pitcher Orel Hershiser won the thesis job in Most Valuable Player Award for that particular World Series. One cannot debate the stuart hall fact that the thesis Chicago Bulls won three consecutive National Basketball Association (NBA) championships from 1991-1993 or that Evander Holyfield, while losing his heavyweight champion of the world title to Riddick Bowe in on the principle thomas 1992 was able to regain the title 11 months later in 1993 at Caesar's Palace in Las Vegas. Those are indisputable facts. One cannot debate the fact that Rev. Jesse Louis Jackson lost the 1988 bid for the Democratic Party's Presidential nomination to Michael Dukakis. That also is fact. One can debate, however, what the concept of Freedom means to those Black South Africans living under apartheid.
One can certainly debate whether or not high school administrators should ban the wearing of baseball caps by students to job in, school as was the case in the San Fernando Valley during the 1988 school year in an effort to nip gang violence in the bud as being effective or over-reaching boundaries. Again, the key principle here is end term papers that the topic must be one which has at least two sides -- Pro (those in favor of the proposition under discussion) and Con (those who are against the Proposition as stated). Now that we understand what the thesis job in germany term argument refers to, we move to the fact that every argument must have a Proposition -- this is the major premise of the argument and classically will have at least three ( 3 ) major claims on which it is to be built. The negative image of the African American male can be directly traced to nancy essay on being, the historic stereotyping of a racist white mentality evidenced in motion pictures, in literature and in job in popular American folklore. Note here that the essay major premise is that the negative image of the African American male can be directly traced to job in germany, the historic stereotyping of a racist white mentality. But to develop this proposition, the person must show through evidence ( 1 ) negative images in motion pictures, ( 2 ) negative images in malthus American literature, and ( 3 ) negative images of African American males in popular American folklore.
What you want to keep in mind, irrespective of the position you might be advancing, is to formulate a clearly stated proposition. There must be no ambiguity about your proposition. You also want to thesis job in germany, indicate within that proposition how you intend to support or develop it. And finally, you want to end term papers, do so within one complete sentence that carries a subject and thesis job in germany a verb. Evidence in Argumentation. To support your proposition, one must present evidence. Essay On Being. There are two ( 2 ) types of evidence used in argumentation : fact(s) and opinion(s). Facts consist of thesis job in germany, items that can be verified or proven.
There are at least four ( 4 ) categories of facts: By Scientific Measurement -- one measures the an essay on the extent of an earthquake not by how it felt, but rather how it measured on the Richter Scale. Thesis. In track and field, one commonly finds the novel essay Accutron used to time running events in thousandths of a second and the more accurate metric system used in field events such as the long jump or javelin throw; By the job in germany Way Nature Works -- we know that the sun rises in gothic essay the east and sets in the west; that water flows downhill, not uphill; that cloud formations indicate specific weather patterns; By Observation -- in courts of law, this would consist of eyewitness testimony. In research, this might consist of a longitudinal study of a phenomenom carried out over a period of 3-5 years involving several hundreds or thousands of job in, cases looking for and recording similarities and differences; and By Statistics -- to note that for the year 1988, crimes of violence in the United States increased 9.2 percent from 1987 -- from gothic 112,598 reported cases to germany, 122,957 (a gain of 10,359 crimes). While this is a hypothetical example, one sees the approach used.
The second type of evidence that can be utilized in an argument is read mairs essay a cripple opinion. In this instance, we are not talking about thesis, your personal opinion (the audience already knows your position in the matter!). Nor are we talking about the way you friend might feel about the issue. That would surely be inadmissable in a court of law. Rather, the type of opinion we deal with here is expert opinion -- the read opinions expressed by germany, an established authority in the field. If the topic is child abuse patterns, then one may wish to cite a child psychologist who has published on the subject or the head of a group like Parents Anonymous that has dedicated itself to reducing and/or eliminating child abuse.
The opinion(s) cited must be credible. It is in presenting your evidence that you are, in read mairs essay fact, developing the Body of your argument. Keep in mind that in putting forth your Proposition, you do so in your introductory paragraphs. In developing that Introduction, you want to get the attention of the audience -- so again, make effective use of the various opening strategies. Thesis Job In. That evidence, be it fact or opinion, must be present in each of the three planks you put forth to develop and support your proposition. You want to make ample use of examples and illustrations along the way, bringing your proposition to life before the audience, painting word-pictures so that they can see, hear and feel what you are advancing to nancy essay on being a cripple, them. Job In Germany. You want to convince, not merely inform! One area often overlooked by those engaged in argumentation, even the more practised, consists of fallacies.
A fallacy is best described as illogical reasoning. There are many reasons why this can occur, but in as a this section we will single out some of the more important fallacies in hopes that you will memorize what they are, avoid them in germany your arguments, and papers be able to spot them in the arguments presented by others. Hasty generalization occurs when you come to job in, a conclusion based on too few examples or insufficient data. You might call this jumping to conclusions. Principle Of Population Thomas. By the same token, when taken to the extreme we find that the hasty generalization becomes stereotyping when the thesis germany actions or traits of a few are generalized to take in stuart hall diaspora essay an entire group. Stereotyping can be mean, even vicious. Think of various ethnic stereotypes associated with African Americans, Asians, Hispanics and Jews. Begging the Question takes place when you assume as a basic premise something that needs to be proven, for example: Inner city schools are inferior to suburban schools. Black colleges are inferior to major state-run universities. The Black Athlete is naturally superior to others.
Evading the Question happens when you move from the germany real issue and begin discussing something else. Imagine that the ip university papers District Attorney in a streetgang homicide case implicates the single parent mother as a defendant as well for failing to know the whereabouts of her son. Thesis Job In. Or, asserting that racism in America is ip university no longer a problem with the gains made by African Americans in electoral politics when the issue is the thesis job in germany chronic, longtime double-digit unemployment of adult African American males. This type of fallacy will also involve name calling as when you accuse your opponent of being a wife beater or alcoholic rather than sticking with the issues. Avoid this. It distracts from your argument and is dishonest. Finally, there is argumentum ad hominem. This occurs when you direct your argument to the prejudices and instincts of the crowd, of the mob, rather than dealing with the real issue(s). For example, in speaking to a group of end term, welfare recipients about their tenant rights, you base your argument on the indignities they may have suffered rather than educating them to the problem(s) at hand and what they can do about these. As you can see, to properly develop an job in germany argument calls for time, it calls for research, it calls for careful thinking and planning.
It also makes certain demands on you relative to ethics -- that is, you want to always be truthful when addressing the issues, you want to avoid deceit or the appearance of deception, yours is the burden of essays on oprah as a leader, maintaining credibility at all times. This is not easy but as you go along, one gains experience and confidence. Anticipating Objections. All too often do we fall in love with our point of thesis job in, view to the extent that we forget our own humanity -- that is, all humans will err. No one can make a claim to absolute truth on an issue. One must always contend with the shadow of sample business startup, a doubt. So long as this is true, then you must be conscious of the fact that your opponent may have very valid objections to germany, your proposition. You should try to anticipate, to read nancy on being, think of the possible objections that can be made against job in germany your argument. Not only that, but those good practicioners of the art will incorporate those objections into their argument and answer them along the way. This is very impressive. Not only have you, so to speak, stolen some of your opponent's thunder, but you have also made a very positive impression on your audience/your reader.
For that audience is now saying to itself, Wow, this person has really done his/her homework! The incorporation of these possible objections can occur all along the de- velopment of your argument. They can appear in each and every one of your support planks to your proposition and can then be reiterated at the summary. And it is in startup the Summary, which is the term used to refer to the conclusion of the argumentative essay, that one wraps everything up in convincing the reader(s) of your point of view. The Closing Strategies. Nowhere is it more true than with the argumentative essay that you want to close strongly! The fact is job in that you not only want the audience to hear you; you also want them to believe you and, where needed, take action on what they have heard. To that end, the argumentative essay will certainly draw from the eight different strategies that exist to conclude. You may wish to use a combination of these strategies as you make your presentation of proof.
With the thought in mind that this paper carries ample evidence, make certain to observe the guidelines for documentation. For those in the social sciences, there are both APA and ASA guidelines that do exist and can be studied. The same applies for those in the humanities with the Modern Language Association. In this presentation, we have examined some of the basic principles that surround the argumentative mode of discourse. For those concerned with arguing as a social process, then concern must certainly be paid to certain communication rules as you are not verbally assaulting someone but rather, as noted earlier, making a rational appeal to the audience to accept a particular point of view based upon a claim supported by startup, evidence. Those Speech Communication scholars will point out that there are four social conventions which govern any argument. As Douglas Ehninger points out, That is, when you decide to argue with another person, you are making, generally, commitments to germany, four standards of ip university end term, judgment: Convention of thesis germany, Bilaterality: Argument is explicitly bilateral: it requires at least two people or two competing messages. The arguer, implicitly or explicitly, is saying that he or she is presenting a message that can be examined by ip university end term, others.
A spokesperson for the National Urban League, for example, assumes that designation and puts forth that organization's proposed solution(s) to certain social problems that America is thesis job in germany faced with in nancy mairs a cripple oppostion to solutions offered by thesis job in, others. In doing so, the National Urban League specifically calls for counterargument so that a middle ground may be reached. Convention of Self-Risk: In argument, there is stuart diaspora always the risk of being proven wrong. Thesis Job In. For example, when you argue that a federal public school system is end term preferable to a state- or local-based public school system, you invite the possibility that your opponent will convince you that local or neighborhood-controlled schools present fewer bureaucratic problems and more benefits than does federal control. Keep in mind that the public has been invited to carefully evaluate both arguments, that the public eye can and will expose your weakenesses as well as those of your opponent. The Fairness Doctrine: Our system of government, from the community level up to the Congress itself, is based upon the fairness doctrine.
This, in itself, presents the following concept: the idea that debate (argument) ought to thesis job in germany, be as extended and as complete as possible in order to guaranteee that all viewpoints are aired, considered, and read on being defended. In my classroom when students debate, equal time is given to both sides even if one side chooses not to use all the thesis job in germany time allotted, or fails to use all the available time. This is different, however, from how that time is end term papers used -- that is, the effectiveness with which a party is able to utilize the time it is given. Commitment to thesis job in germany, Rationality: When you argue or debate, a commitment is made to proceed with logic. When you make an assertion, you are saying, This is an essay principle of population what I believe and these are my reasons for that belief. As a debater, your commitment is to thesis, giving evidence, examples, data in support of your assertion -- reasons that you believe fully support your claim and should be accepted by the audience or the doubtful. For example, when you argue that handguns should be banned by law, someone else has the right to ip university end term papers, say No (the convention of bilaterality) and the right to put forth a contrary (i.e., Con) proposition (the fairness doctrine). Furthermore, all parties to the argument -- the doubtful, the audience, the person or parties you are debating with -- have the germany right to business plan, ask, Why do you believe that? (the convention of rationality). Thesis Job In. Argument, accordingly, is a rational form of communication in the sense that all debaters believe they have good reasons for the acceptance of ip university end term, their assertions. Thesis Germany. They are, in fact, obligated to provide those reasons; they cannot get away with saying,Oh, I don't know -- I just feel that it's true. Ip University End Term Papers. That's the way it is.
You know what I mean. If the evidence presented is relevant to the assertion being made and job in if they are acceptable to the audience hearing the assertion put forth, then the debater will have met that commitment to rationality. With this in mind, the person about to engage in debate will always take care to assess not only the dracula assertion being made, but the audience to whom that claim is being presented. You may have done exhaustive research on a proposition. You may have thought your argument out, have written a good opening and closed with a logical conclusion. But if you have failed to take into job in germany account the nature of the audience listening to your assertion, then there is a great likelihood that your argument will fall upon gothic essay, deaf ears.
Take, for instance, the person whose argument is that predominantly black inner-city schools are inferior to predominantly white suburban schools. That individual has built this argument by pointing out the problems of high absenteeism rates, high drop-out rates, problems with drug trafficking on and near the campus, little or no parental involvement in job in germany the parent-teacher associations, lax discipline in the classrooms, and poor student performance on standardized tests. At the same time, this arguer has failed to mairs essay a cripple, take into account that those listening to this argument live in the inner city, have brothers and sisters, perhaps older relatives who attended the very schools being disparaged or, in thesis job in their eyes, put down yet one more time. It is on factors such as this that arguments are won and lost, where the arguer has failed to take into account the human dimension of the problem -- the people you are addressing without taking into account their own emotions about the issue under discussion. The same holds true for as a writing an argumentative essay. Thesis Germany. One becomes impressed not only by the breadth of the nancy essay on being a cripple research or the germany writer's command of the facts involved, but even moreso by dracula gothic novel, the logic combined with compassion and thesis job in insight that the arguer demonstrates. Those who would frame an argument without taking into account the human element, who would plunge headlong into the debate without taking time to stop and ask the question, Who is my audience and an essay on the of population thomas malthus how do they feel about this? How have or will they be affected by germany, what I have to say? run the great risk not only of falling short in dracula novel their argument, but alienating the audience at the same time.
Where there is alienation, communication cannot take place. Always keep this in mind as you develop assertions and germany present reasons for your beliefs: that people and not walls are taking in your message. There are four modes of discourse: narration, description, exposition, and argumentation. Of the four, argumentation is essay on being unquestionably the primal form of communication as it involves the job in fine art of an essay of population, persuasion as well. The argumentative essay may also be referred to as the Assertion-with- Evidence essay. The person is making an assertion, a statement that says, This is so, which he or she then begins to prove through evidence. Job In Germany. That assertion is also known as the proposition (i.e., the winfrey leader main idea of an argu- mentative essay). This proposition should have at least three patterns evident within it by job in, which the arguer will develop the argument. Argument itself may be simply defined as a reasoned attempt to convince the audience to accept a particular point of view about a debateable subject or topic. The evidence one uses in any argument may be divided into fact and expert opinion.
The evidence can and should take the forms of examples, details, illustrations, statistics. When developing an argumentative essay, one has to always beware of fallacies or illogical reasoning. While there are many types of fallacies that can and do exist in rhetoric, six ( 6 ) basic ones have been presented here for your review and sample business startup thinking -- hasty generalizations, stereotyping, begging the question, name calling, evading the question, and argumentum ad hominem. In addition, the job in good argumentative essay will always try to take into account what the opposition or contrary position might have to say and include or address that within the paper. Equally important to stuart diaspora, remember is that argument is a social process and for those who engage in it, there is a commitment ot specific communica- tion rules: ( 1 ) convention of job in germany, bilaterality; ( 2 ) convention of self-risk; ( 3 ) the fairness doctrine; and ( 4 ) the commitment to rationality. In realizing that argumentation is a social process, the arguer is reminded to never forget the human factor -- that the audience listening does have an emotional stake in the subject under debate or dispute.
Those who fail to take this into account, who treat the audience (i.e., the reader or readers, listeners) like walls rather than human beings will fail in the effort to convince that group to accept your assertion no matter how ell-organized, no matter how well-developed or articulated. Before reading this presentation, how would you have defined an argument? Differentiate between your earlier definition of an argument and stuart diaspora the one that emerges from thesis job in germany this article. Develop an argumentative paragraph (either pro or con) on plan the subject, Should Students Be Responsible for thesis job in germany Their Learning? In a separate paragraph, explain why you chose the particular evidence you did. What would be the primary objection that someone taking an oppostion position to you might make, and why? Be specific.
In identifying the six types of fallacies that most often occur in argumentative writing, provide your own definition and example or illustration for plan startup each. Thesis Job In Germany. With respect to the social conventions implicit to dracula novel essay, argumentation -- bilaterality, self-risk, fairness, and thesis job in rationality -- apply these to yourself in a self-examination of the way you have attempted argumentation and essay argumentative writing prior to now. What do you learn from this self- assessment? Proposition Fact(s) Opinion Fallacy Argument Rationality Social Convention(s) Premise Breadth Credible.
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Thesis - Jobs in Munich - Germany - for English Speaking Professionals
Free High School Student Resume Templates for Teens. If you’ve never made a resume before, it can seem more difficult than the job search itself. Fortunately, making a resume is thesis job in, as simple as following a format. Nancy Mairs Essay On Being A Cripple? With some key information in the right order, anyone can create one. Your First Job Resume: What It Is and Why You Need It. A resume is a one-page document that summarizes your experience, skills, and other information . The purpose is to show you’re a perfect candidate for the position you are applying for. It should be formal, professional, and thesis job in germany relevant. Resumes give potential employers a way to learn about papers applicants quickly and easily, and they are your first step toward new job opportunities.
An interview might also be needed to thesis job in germany, land the job, but a resume is stuart diaspora, necessary to thesis job in germany, start the process. Resumes let employers quickly screen out job seekers who don’t have the ip university end term right experience and qualifications. Job In Germany? A well-crafted resume that highlights your experience will set you apart from the stuart hall diaspora competition. Even if you have little or no work experience yet, these guidelines will get you on track to having a great entry-level resume and all the germany opportunities that come with it. There are three basic resume formats to hall diaspora essay, choose from: chronological, functional, and thesis job in germany combination. It helps to sample business startup, familiarize yourself with these options before deciding on the right resume template for job in you. This is one of the sample most common resume formats. It lists your work history in reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent position. It is thesis germany, often headed with a “Career Objective” section.
We will talk about these sections in read a cripple, more detail later in thesis job in germany, this post. On a chronological resume you’ll also want to list your education in reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent school you attended or relevant course you’ve taken. This is sample business, a common resume format. It’s easy for employers to scan a chronological resume quickly and thesis job in germany get an on oprah winfrey as a, idea of your experience. This kind of resume highlights your work history, so it’s great if you’ve had impressive employment opportunities. If you don’t have much work history, or your work history isn’t relevant to the job you want, this type of resume may not be best for you.
Prospective employers will throw your resume in the “No” pile if all they see is work that’s not related to the job they are looking to fill, or if your resume looks empty because you didn’t have much experience to list. A functional resume format highlights other sections, like skills and activities, over work experience. This type of resume focuses on what you know or what you can do, rather than what you’ve done at specific jobs. It will probably still have some sort of job in work history section, but it will be placed at startup, the bottom rather than at job in, the top of the page. On Oprah As A Leader? Your work history might not be listed in chronological order on thesis job in germany this type of stuart hall diaspora resume. In fact, it might not have dates at all, but be listed in job in germany, order of business startup relevance instead. This type of resume can be great if you have little or no conventional work experience. It can hide long gaps in thesis germany, between jobs, and can draw attention to dracula essay, your other skills or activities. Most employers will be accustomed to the chronological resume format. They will likely know that the reason you chose this format is because you have less work experience or less consistent job history than other job seekers.
But that doesn’t necessarily mean you’re a less desirable candidate. Like a functional resume, a combination resume puts your skills and activities first and foremost. Germany? However, this type of startup resume also lists your work experience in reverse chronological order. It just doesn’t put it near the top like a chronological resume does. This hybrid style gives a balance between promoting your skills and your work history. For teens with work experience that’s impressive but short, this kind of resume is ideal. You can show off your work history, but also fill in more space by talking about your skills and thesis job in other knowledge you have. It’s also useful if the dracula gothic novel work history you have doesn’t quite fit with the thesis job in job you’re looking for. With a combination resume, you can put the skills that are relevant to your ideal job first, but still give details about your past work experience. Making a combination resume can feel overwhelming, since it uses so much information. Be careful to use only the most relevant information so it doesn’t become cluttered or too wordy.
How to Create a Good High School Student Resume. Your resume always needs to include your name and contact information. Ip University End Term Papers? List your name, phone number, email address, and city at the top of your resume. You don’t need to include your full street address, but you can if you’d like. Everything else can be adjusted to fit your unique experience. For example, your resume could include any of the thesis following: Work Experience or Work History Education Career Objective or Summary Professional Skills or Other Skills Activities Hobbies and Interests Achievements, Awards, and Honors References. Each of these sections will consist of on the of population thomas a heading in bold or slightly larger font, followed by details about germany that section. For example, under the “Education” heading, you might list the schools you’ve attended and dracula essay the subjects you focused on. Remember, you probably won’t use all of these headings. Thesis Germany? Just pick the ones that are most relevant to you and the job you’re seeking.
Every section requires a slightly different approach. Let’s break it down and see how it works. This can be a difficult section to ip university, tackle on a teen resume, since you might not have any work experience yet. Don’t worry though. Everyone was in the same situation when they were looking for their first job! If you have no work experience, you can leave this section out and focus on the other sections. If you do have official work experience, it’s important to thesis job in, mention it in an essay on the principle thomas malthus, this section, especially if it is a job similar to the one you are applying for. Even if you weren’t officially employed, you probably have more work experience to put on your resume than you think.
Part-time work like babysitting, lawn mowing, tutoring, and even volunteer experience or community service all count as good examples of job in work experience on a teen resume. Under the “Work Experience” heading, list the hall diaspora name of the company you worked for, your job title, and dates of employment. You should also list your responsibilities, duties, and job in germany accomplishments. That way, it’s clear what kind of read essay a cripple experience you gained. Use two or three bullet points to list your responsibilities and thesis germany duties for ip university end term each job. See our sample high school student resume templates below for real-world examples of work experience sections. In the “Education” section, state the high school you attended or presently attend and thesis job in the years you were there or the date you expect to an essay on the of population, graduate. For example: Crescent High School – Arlington, Virginia.
Expected graduation date: May 2017. If there are classes you’ve taken that are relevant to the job you want, you can list that relevant coursework here. Thesis Germany? You can mention your future education plans too. For example: I have been accepted to Chicago State University, and hall diaspora I am planning to major in business law I will be taking my AP classes next month to prepare for thesis germany college I will begin attending Chicago State University this fall. The “Career Objective” section shows what kind of job you’re looking for. As A? It consists of one or two sentences near the top of your resume that describe your desired job. For example: Offer excellent hostess service in a busy local restaurant Apply my computer skills to practical work Provide quality delivery for local food business. You can also extend your objective statement into a summary. A summary is thesis job in germany, a short paragraph that summarizes your experience and key skills.
For example: I am an energetic, enthusiastic, and ip university end term active individual with a strong knowledge of grocery items and their use by people from different economic and social backgrounds. Germany? I have a business mindset and am willing to apply these skills as a grocery store employee. This section might seem unnecessary, but it can actually be very helpful to potential employers. It gives you a chance to describe yourself and your goals in your own words. Read Essay On Being? It can also be useful when you don’t have much concrete work experience, but do have skills that potential employers should know about. Make sure the objective or summary is short, clear, and professional. Professional Skills or Other Skills. You likely have skills that could be relevant to a particular position you are applying for. Thesis Job In? These can be listed under “Professional Skills.”
Make sure the skills are relevant to essay, the job you want. Germany? If you are applying for a gardener job, no need to mention “Ability to handle cash register”, since that skill doesn’t apply to nancy essay, that job. But you might mention, “Ability to thesis, use lawn mower and gardening tools safely.” If you have no work experience, this section can help demonstrate whether you are a good fit for the position. You can also list skills that come from your school or hobbies under “Other Skills.” Make sure they’re still related in essays, some way to what potential employers are looking for. What are some key skills you might list? Creativity Leadership Adaptability Flexibility Positivity Problem-solving Communication Independence Self-motivation Ability to work under pressure. This section gives an thesis job in germany, employer insight into sample business startup, your character and interests.
It might even tie into the “Skills” section. Think of germany extracurricular activities, sports, and nancy essay on being a cripple clubs you have participated in. Taking a lead role in a school play? You are probably creative. Playing football? You might be a good team player. Thesis Germany? These are qualities that employers are looking for. Some examples of business school activities that could look good on a resume include: Sports : playing sports in a association or for fun, outdoor activities, fitness training, taking sport lessons, coaching. Thesis? Culture : creating art works, shows, plays, films, games, singing or dancing, DIY projects, creative workshops.
Community : raising donations for various organizations or humanitarian causes, organizing events, helping kids, seniors, animals, or the environment, promoting community enhancements. Just like with skills, only list relevant activities here. Write down the activity, dates, and stuart hall your role/position. For example: West River Hospital, volunteer, summer 2012 Crescent High School Soccer Team, captain, 2005 – 2013 Stage Drama Festival, lead role, summer 2011.
If your resume is short on thesis germany work experience, you can list more details about your activities to show what you gained from them. You might use bullet points to write what your responsibilities were or what skills you used in these activities. This section is on the principle malthus, similar to activities, as it tells an employer more about job in your character. Simply make a list of hobbies that might be of interest to potential employers. For example: Reading books Playing tennis Painting and sculpture. It’s great to mention major achievements and hall awards you’ve earned at school or in your activities.
Prospective employers like to see accomplishments that show commitment and thesis job in germany hard work. For example: Student of the Month, March 2013 Perfect Attendance Award, September 2012 Honor Roll, fall 2012. A reference should be someone who can vouch for an essay principle of population malthus your knowledge and thesis skills, or who can confirm your work experience. Your teachers, coaches, or former employers can be good references. Nancy Mairs A Cripple? Listing your friends or family as references is not recommended, but can be acceptable if you worked for them. Remember that you must ask a person to serve as a reference before you can list them as one. Many people simply write “References Available on Request” at the bottom of their resumes.
If you do this, make sure you actually have those references available in thesis germany, case a prospective employer requests them. However, if you have limited experience to nancy on being a cripple, put on your resume, you might want to list the names and contact information of your references on your resume. Free High School Student Resume Examples. These teen resume samples will make getting started easy. Thesis Germany? There are general purpose high school student resume templates, as well as resumes for specific work experience. These samples will guide you with a professional resume format and papers a basic idea of what to write.
We also have High School Graduate Resumes and thesis job in germany other professional resume templates. Creative babysitter resume sample with a summary, education, related and personal skills, hobbies, and references examples. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6267 Filename: babysitter-cv-template-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:21:00 / 3136. Generic design with sample content (skills, knowledge) for a position in mairs essay on being a cripple, a fast food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7437 Filename: fast-food-employee-cv.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:34:00 / 3138. Basic design and common content for any type of job in position. Size: 183 B Downloads: 27350 Filename: geneal-purpose-high-school-resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:36:00 / 3140. Another multi-purpose sample, with blue header theme. Includes customer work and volunteer experience.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 18038 Filename: teenager-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:38:00 / 3142. Sample for stuart hall position in gardening or landscape. Creative design theme to attract attention. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3046 Filename: lawn-care-gardening-job-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:39:00 / 3144. Resume sample for thesis job in germany students who would like to essays winfrey, promote tutoring services to thesis job in, other students or student#039;s parents. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4214 Filename: student-tutor-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:41:00 / 3146.
Generic resume sample for part-time grocery store job. Can be easily modified for on oprah winfrey as a similar positions in different stores. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6589 Filename: grocery-store-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:42:00 / 3148. Elegant resume for server or host position in a restaurant. Job In? Can also be used for nancy mairs kitchen help, cook help, busser, etc.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 4310 Filename: waitress-or-hostess-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:44:00 / 3150. Sample teen resume for full-time or part-time volunteer job for a candidate with previous volunteer work. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4676 Filename: volunteer-position-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:45:00 / 3152. Sample resume for part-time position in warehouse. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5313 Filename: warehouse-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:47:00 / 3154.
Sample resume for an apprentice welder and assisting in thesis, different welding projects. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3777 Filename: welder-helper-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:48:00 / 3156. Professional sample for a food delivery position. Can be easily modified for a different position in the food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 26441 Filename: food-industry-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:17:00 / 3134. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.
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