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4.1 explain types of questions that lead to critical thinking

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4.1 explain types of questions that lead to critical thinking

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bios resume by to critical ring Aby mozliwe bylo korzystanie z komputera, pamiec CMOS RAM musi zawierac informacje dotyczace dostepnych w nim dyskow oraz innych jego mozliwosci. Program Setup, w ktory jest wyposazony komputer, umozliwia aktywacje funkcji uruchamianych po jego starcie. Essay! Uruchomienie i dostep do programu BIOS Setup. Types! Aby otworzyc program BIOS Setup, zazwyczaj konieczne jest ponowne uruchomienie komputera i nastepnie, w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST, nacisniecie okreslonego klawisza lub kombinacji klawiszy. Glowni producenci ukladow BIOS okreslili standardowe kombinacje klawiszy umozliwiajace otwarcie programu BIOS Setup: AMI w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST nacisnij klawisz Delete.

Phoenix w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST nacisnij klawisz F2. Presentation! Award w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST nacisnij klawisz Delete lub kombinacje Ctrl+Alt+Esc. Microid Research w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST nacisnij klawisz Esc. Jesli jednak system nie bedzie reagowal na zaden z wymienionych klawiszy, wtedy, w celu znalezienia wlasciwych klawiszy lub ich kombinacji, moze okazac sie konieczne skontaktowanie sie z producentem lub zajrzenie do dokumentacji dolaczonej do komputera. Of Questions! Ponizej wymieniono niektore systemy, w ktorych wykorzystuje sie niestandardowe klawisze: IBM Aptiva/Valuepoint lub Thinkpad w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST lub w momencie uruchamiania komputera nacisnij klawisz F1. Komputery przenosne firmy Toshiba w momencie uruchamiania komputera nacisnij klawisz Esc, a nastepnie po wyswietleniu odpowiedniego komunikatu klawisz F1. Starsze wersje BIOS-u firmy Phoenix uruchom system w trybie awaryjnym, a nastepnie nacisnij kombinacje klawiszy Ctrl+Alt+Esc lub Ctrl+Alt+S. Compaq w trakcie wykonywania procedury POST nacisnij klawisz F10.

Po wyswietleniu glownego okna programu BIOS Setup zazwyczaj powinno byc dostepne glowne menu, ktore pozwala na wybranie innych menu dodatkowych powodujacych otwarcie roznych sekcji lub ekranow. Presentation! Jako przykladem posluzymy sie plyta glowna Intel DB815EEA i dokonamy przegladu wszystkich menu umozliwiajacych konfiguracje tej plyty. 4.1 Explain Thinking! Chociaz inne plyty glowne moga byc wyposazone w troche inny zestaw ustawien, to statement human's behavior, jednak w wiekszosci przypadkow sa one podobne. Wiekszosc nowszych wersji BIOS-u po uruchomieniu programu BIOS Setup w gornej czesci ekranu wyswietla pasek menu sluzacy do nawigacji pomiedzy roznymi zestawami menu podstawowych. Musze zaznaczyc ze w roznych wersjach BIOS-u rozne menu i opcje moga miec rozne nazwy. Of Questions That Lead! Wiec radze abyscie szukali waszych opcji pod roznymi nazwami i w roznych menu. On Thirteen Days! Standardowe menu programu BIOS Setup. Pozwala okreslic czestotliwosc magistrali procesora i skasowac hasla dostepu do konfiguracji. 4.1 Explain That To Critical Thinking! Menu dostepne jest tylko w trybie Configure ustawianym za pomoca zworki umieszczonej na plycie glownej. Research Paper! Pozwala przydzielic zasoby komponentom systemowym.

Pozwala okreslic zaawansowane funkcje chipsetu. 4.1 Explain Types! Pozwala ustawic hasla i opcje zabezpieczen. Writing! Pozwala zdefiniowac funkcje zwiazane z zarzadzaniem energia. Pozwala okreslic opcje inicjalizacji i funkcje dotyczace zasilania. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions Lead! Zapisuje lub wycofuje zmiany ustawien programu Setup.

Wybranie dowolnego z wymienionych menu spowoduje przejscie do innego menu oferujacego szczegolowe ustawienia. Frankenstein! Maintenance jest szczegolnym menu umozliwiajacym ustawienie czestotliwosci magistrali procesora oraz skasowanie hasel programu Setup. Of Questions That To Critical! Ustawienia standardowego menu Maintenance. Pozwala okreslic czestotliwosc magistrali procesora (w MHz lub GHz). Guidelines! W oknie wyswietlane sa tylko czestotliwosci obslugiwane przez procesor zainstalowany na plycie glownej lacznie z czestotliwoscia maksymalna. 4.1 Explain Types To Critical! Clear All Passwords.

Pozwala usunac hasla uzytkownika i administratora. Frankenstein! Pozwala usunac dane autoryzujace uslugi Wired for 4.1 explain of questions lead to critical, Management Boot Integrity Service (BiS). Research! Opcje definiowane przez uzytkownika. Wyswietla menu Extended Configuration Submenu. Types Of Questions Lead! Wyswietla informacje na temat procesora. Privatization Research! CPU Microcode Update Revision.

Wyswietla wersje aktualizacji mikrokodu procesora. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That! CPU Stepping Signature. Wyswietla wersje procesora (ang. Writing Research Economics! stepping). Przy uzyciu menu Main mozna ustawic zegar systemowy oraz wprowadzic parametry dysku twardego i stacji dyskietek, jak rowniez podstawowy typ karty graficznej. Types Thinking! Nowsze wersje BIOS-u sa wyposazone w bardziej zlozony program konfiguracyjny skladajacy sie z wiekszej liczby menu. Edexcel Business! Z tego tez powodu menu Main w porownaniu ze starszymi systemami jest w znacznym stopniu rozbudowane.

W nowszych systemach menu Main zawiera dane dotyczace wersji BIOS-u, typu i szybkosci procesora, pojemnosci pamieci oraz informuje, czy pamiec operacyjna lub podreczna wykorzystuja funkcje kodu korekcji bledow ECC. 4.1 Explain Of Questions That Lead To Critical Thinking! Menu Main moze rowniez posluzyc do ustawienia daty i czasu systemowego. Edexcel Gce Applied Business Coursework! Ustawienia standardowego Menu Main. Types That Lead To Critical Thinking! Wyswietla wersje BIOS-u. Thesis! Wyswietla typ procesora. Of Questions That Thinking! Wyswietla czestotliwosc procesora.

System Bus Freauency. On Thirteen! Wyswietla czestotliwosc magistrali systemowej. Wyswietla pojemnosc pamieci podrecznej L2 oraz jej zgodnosc z funkcja kodu korekcji bledow ECC. Types Of Questions Lead Thinking! Wyswietla calkowita pojemnosc pamieci RAM zainstalowanej na plycie glownej. Research Paper! Memory Bank 0 Memory Bank 1 Memory Bank 2. Wyswietla pojemnosc i typ pamieci DIMM zainstalowanej w kazdym banku. Lead Thinking! English (domyslny), Deutch, Espanol. Introduction Essay! Pozwala wybrac domyslny jezyk wykorzystywany przez BIOS.

Processor Serial Number. Types Of Questions That Lead! Wlacza i wylacza funkcje zwiazana z numerem seryjnym procesora (dostepna tylko w przypadku procesora Pentium III). Presentation! Hour, minute, second. Of Questions Lead To Critical! Pozwala okreslic aktualny czas. Days! Pozwala okreslic aktualna date. Pozwala okreslic zgodnosc z funkcja ECC.

L2 cache ECC Support. Types Of Questions That To Critical! Po wlaczeniu dostepna jest kontrola bledow wystepujacych przy dostepie do danych zawartych w pamieci Cache L2. Edexcel Gce Applied Business! Opcja nie jest dostepna w przypadku procesorow, ktore zawsze maja aktywna funkcje ECC pamieci podrecznej L2. Types Of Questions Lead Thinking! IDE Primary/Secondary Master/Slave. Po wybraniu tego ustawienia dla kazdego urzadzenia dostepne sa dodatkowe opcje. Menu zawierajace opcje dotyczace stacji dyskietek. Gce Applied! Opcja do zignorowania. Okresla tryb graficzny, ale dotyczy to kart graficznych montowanych w komputerach w latach 80-tych zeszlego wieku.

All, But Keyboard. 4.1 Explain That! All, But Diskette. Privatization Research Paper! All, But Disk/Key. Opcja definiujaca reakcje BIOS-u na wystapienie okreslonego problemu wykrytego podczas testow wstepnych (testow POST). All Errors - powoduje zatrzymanie uruchamiania komputera, gdy test POST sygnalizuje blad. Of Questions That Thinking! Mozliwe sytuacje bedace przyczyna zatrzymania procesu bootowania to: brak stacji dyskietek (mimo iz jest ona zadeklarowana w ustawieniach BIOS-u), brak klawiatury czy np. Days! rozladowana bateria podtrzymujaca pamiec ukladu CMOS, w ktorym przechowywane sa ustawienia BIOS-u (w tym ostatnim przypadku najczesciej zobaczymy komunikat CMOS Checksum error), albo. Types Of Questions Lead To Critical! atak wirusa modyfikujacego zawartosc BIOS-u (choc w tym przypadku najczesciej w ogole nie dochodzi do uruchomienia sie chocby testow POST). Research Paper! No Errors - przeciwienstwo wyzej opisanego parametru.

BIOS bedzie kontynuowal procedure uruchamiania komputera bez wzgledu na napotkane w tescie POST bledy. Types Lead To Critical! Oczywiscie z wylaczeniem takich, ktore w ogole uniemozliwiaja dzialania komputera. All, But Keyboard - BIOS zatrzyma proces bootowania, jesli napotka bledy testu POST, z wyjatkiem sytuacji, gdy do komputera nie bedzie podpieta klawiatura. Privatization Paper! All, But Diskette - parametr analogiczny do powyzszego, tym razem ignorowany jestbrak stacji dyskietek (mimo iz jest ona zadeklarowana w BIOS-ie). Of Questions To Critical Thinking! All, But Disk/Key - parametr stanowiacy polaczenie dwoch powyzszych; ignorowanymi bledami sa: brak klawiatury i stacji dyskietek. IDE Primary/Secondary Master/Slave.

IDE HDD Auto-Detection. Wywolanie tej opcji spowoduje automatyczne wykrycie urzadzenia podlaczonego do kontrolera IDE/ATA. Human's Behavior! Najczesciej dyski czy napedy CD DVD wykrywane sa automatycznie juz wczesniej - BIOS sprawdza kontroler IDE/ATA pod katem obecnosci podlaczonych do niego urzadzen podczas uruchamiania komputera. Nie ma wiec potrzeby uzywania tej opcji. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions Lead Thinking! Nazwa tej opcji zalezy do tego, ktora linie wybralismy z glownego ekranu grupy Main.

Jezeli wybralismy linie wlasciwa dla urzadzenia podrzednego (Slave) podlaczonego do pierwszego kanalu interfejsu ramach tej opcji dostepne sa trzy parametry: None, Auto (domyslny) oraz Manual. Essays! Pierwszy spowoduje wylaczenie urzadzenia podlaczonego do kontrolera (nie bedzie ono widoczne w BIOS-ie i w systemach operacyjnych korzystajacych z BIOS-u, ale moze byc widoczne w systemach operacyjnych samodzielnie obslugujacych sprzet). Drugi okresla, ze BIOS samodzielnie dokonuje oceny parametrow urzadzenia i uaktywnia jego obsluge, natomiast trzeci umozliwia reczna zmiane parametrow np. Lead Thinking! dysku twardego w zaleznosci od wybranego trybu dostepu. Presentation! Opcja okresla sposob adresowania dysku twardego. 4.1 Explain Of Questions That Lead To Critical Thinking! Zalecanym ustawieniem jest pozostawienie domyslnego parametru Auto, dzieki czemu BIOS automatycznie okresla sposob adresowania w oparciu o odczytane informacje z firmware (oprogramowania wewnetrznego) dysku. Paper Economics! Inne parametry to: CHS - ustawia adresowanie typu cylinder-glowica-sektor (z ang. 4.1 Explain Types To Critical Thinking! Cylinder-Head-Sector).

Ten typ adresowania uzywany byl w dyskach twardych o pojemnosci ponizej 504 MB. Business Coursework! I nalezy go stosowac tylko dla takich zabytkow. 4.1 Explain Of Questions That Thinking! Dyski o wiekszej pojemnosci nie moga byc adresowane ta metoda (bedzie wykazywana niewlasciwa pojemnosc lub urzadzenie w ogole nie bedzie dzialac). On Thirteen Days! LBA - oznacza Logical Block Addressing, czyli adresowanie, w ktorym sektory dysku sa uporzadkowane numerycznie, bez wzgledu na numer cylindra czy inne parametry majace znaczenie w metodzie CHS. That Lead Thinking! Aktualnie dyski twarde sa wlasnie adresowane za pomoca LBA. Dla nowszych dyskow nie ma znaczenia, czy wybierzemy parametr LBA, czy pozostaniemy przy parametrze Auto.

Oczywiscie uzycie Auto jest po prostu wygodniejsze. Large - metoda przejsciowa miedzy CHS a likwidujacym ograniczenia pojemnosci LBA. Writing Research Paper! Stanowila swego czasu proteze umozliwiajaca korzystanie z dyskow o pojemnosciach wiekszych niz 504 MB. Types Of Questions That Lead To Critical! Obecnie stanowi anachronizm i nie nalezy jej uzywac. Capacity - informacja o wykrytej objetosci dysku (w napedach CD/DVD wartosc tego parametru wynosi 0). Frankenstein! Cylinder, Head, Precomp, Landing Zone, Sector - te opcje maja znaczenie tylko dla bardzo starych dyskow (o pojemnosci mniejszej niz 504 MB). 4.1 Explain Of Questions To Critical Thinking! Wartosci tu wyswietlane sa konfigurowalne tylko wtedy, gdy parametrem opcji IDE Kanal/ Priorytet bedzie Manual, a tryb dostepu jest ustawiony na CHS. Jezeli faktycznie mamy do czynienia z zabytkowym dyskiem, wlasciwe wartosci znajdziemy na nalepce znamionowej na obudowie dysku. Essay! Sluza okresleniu typu stacji dyskietek, jaka mamy w komputerze (w praktyce: 1.44M, 3.5 in.). Opcje te sa uzyteczne jedynie gdy w nasze rece trafi naprawde archaiczne urzadzenie (np. That! stacja dyskietek 5,25 cala o pojemnosci 360 kB) lub nietypowe (np. Essay! 3,5-calowe stacje dyskietek o pojemnosci 2,88 MB).

Oczywiscie jezeli nie mamy dwoch stacji dyskietek, dla opcji Drive B ustawiamy parametr None. 4.1 Explain To Critical! Swap Floppy Drive. Privatization! Opcja uzyteczna (i dostepna), jezeli komputer wyposazony jest w dwie stacje dyskietek. That! Parametr Enabled (wlaczony) powoduje, ze dotychczasowa stacja oznaczona litera A: bedzie stacja B:, a stacja B: stacja A:. Parametr Disabled (wylaczony) przywraca pierwotna konfiguracje. Research Paper! Funkcja ta moze nie dzialac w systemie Windows NT 4.0 bez zainstalowanego dodatku Service Pack 4 dla Windows NT. Types Of Questions Lead To Critical! Nie nalezy jej tez uzywac podczas instalacji Windows NT 4.0. Essay! Boot Up Floppy Seek.

Wlaczenie tej opcji (Enabled) powoduje, ze BIOS podczas uruchamiania komputera i przeprowadzania testow wstepnych (tzw. test POST) poszukuje stacji dyskietek i po jej znalezieniu uaktywnia ja na krotka chwile (co objawia sie zapaleniem diody kontrolnej stacji dyskietek). 4.1 Explain Of Questions Thinking! Opcja bedaca anachronizmem z czasow, gdy komputery PC musialy miec stacje dyskietek. Obecnie zalecanym ustawieniem przyspieszajacym proces uruchamiania jest Disabled (wylaczony). Menu Advanced oferuje zaawansowane opcje zwiazane z konfiguracja chipsetu plyty glownej. Guidelines! Ta czesc programu BIOS Setup jest scisle zalezna od wykorzystywanego typu chipsetu. Obecnie na rynku dostepnych jest wiele chipsetow, z ktorych kazdy charakteryzuje sie wlasnym niepowtarzalnym zestawem ustawien. Czesc programu zwiazana z konfiguracja chipsetu pozwala uzytkownikowi na dostosowanie jej do wlasnych potrzeb i zmiane niektorych parametrow jego pracy. Typowe ustawienia menu Advanced. Jesli pojawi sie opcja Used, oznacza to, ze dla pozycji Extended Configuration znajdujacej sie w menu Maintenance zostala wybrana wartosc User-defined.

Pozwala ustawic priorytet przerwan poszczegolnych gniazd PCI. 4.1 Explain Of Questions That Lead To Critical! Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu PCI Configuration. Thesis! Boot Settings Configuration. Lead To Critical! Sluzy do konfiguracji opcji Numlock i Plug and statement behavior, Play oraz modyfikacji danych konfiguracyjnych. Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu Boot Settings Configuration. Sluzy do konfiguracji portow urzadzen peryferyjnych. Types Of Questions That Lead To Critical! Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu Peripheral Configuration. Essays! Pozwala okreslic typ podlaczonego urzadzenia IDE. Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu Diskette Configuration. 4.1 Explain Of Questions Lead! Sluzy do konfiguracji dziennika zdarzen.

Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu Event Log Configuration. Sluzy do konfiguracji ustawien zwiazanych z karta graficzna. Writing Economics! Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu Video Configuration. Pozwala okreslic, czy jest stosowany system operacyjny zgodny z technologia Plug and Play. 4.1 Explain Types That Lead To Critical Thinking! Opcja No przekazuje do BIOS-u zadanie konfiguracji wszystkich urzadzen. Opcja Yes umozliwia systemowi operacyjnemu skonfigurowanie urzadzen PnP.

W przypadku uzycia systemu obslugujacego funkcje Plug and Play ustawienie nie jest wymagane. Reset Configuration Data. Introduction! Usuwa dane konfiguracji Plug and 4.1 explain of questions, Play BIOS-u. Essays! Zmiana jest uwzgledniana przy najblizszej inicjalizacji systemu. 4.1 Explain Lead Thinking! Pozwala okreslic status klawisza Num Lock znajdujacego sie na klawiaturze numerycznej. Sluzy do konfiguracji blokow pamieci i przerwan starszych urzadzen ISA. Introduction Essay! Po uaktywnieniu pojawi sie menu Resource Configuration. Types That Lead To Critical Thinking! Advanced BIOS FEATURES. Guidelines! Menu zawiera opcje dotyczace obslugi komponentow komputera przez BIOS. 4.1 Explain Types Lead To Critical Thinking! Menu PCI Configuration umozliwia ustawienie wartosci przerwan przypisywanych kartom zainstalowanym w gniazdach magistrali PCI.

Jesli nie ma potrzeby przypisania okreslonym kartom PCI konkretnych wartosci przerwan IRQ, wtedy domyslna wartosc to presentation, AUTO. 4.1 Explain Types Lead Thinking! PCI Slot 1 IRQ Priority. Pozwala na ustawienie priorytetu przerwan. Thesis Human's! PCI Slot 2 IRQ Priority. Pozwala na ustawienie priorytetu przerwan. 4.1 Explain Of Questions That Lead To Critical Thinking! PCI Slot 3 IRQ Priority. Pozwala na ustawienie priorytetu przerwan. Economics! Wartosci priorytetu przerwan IRQ dla gniazda PCI 3 i 5 sa wspolne, natomiast inne opcje ustawione dla gniazda PCI 3 obowiazuja rowniez dla gniazda PCI 5. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That Lead To Critical! PCI Slot 4 IRQ Priority. Pozwala na ustawienie priorytetu przerwan.

PCI Slot 5 IRQ Priority. On Thirteen Days! Zawsze ma ustawiona wartosc Auto (inne wartosci sa identyczne jak w przypadku gniazda PCI 3). Pozwala okreslic, czy jest stosowany system operacyjny zgodny z technologia Plug and of questions to critical thinking, Play. Essays On Thirteen! Opcja No przekazuje do BIOS-u zadanie konfiguracji wszystkich urzadzen. Types Of Questions Lead! Wartosc No nalezy ustawic w przypadku uzycia systemu operacyjnego obslugujacego funkcje PnP. Edexcel Business Coursework! Opcja Yes umozliwia systemowi operacyjnemu skonfigurowanie urzadzen PnP. 4.1 Explain! Reset Config Data. Privatization Paper! Usuwa dane konfiguracji PnP/pCI BIOS-u zapisanej w ukladzie pamieci Flash.

Zmiana jest uwzgledniana podczas najblizszej inicjalizacji systemu. Types Of Questions That Lead To Critical Thinking! Pozwala okreslic status klawisza Num Lock znajdujacego sie na klawiaturze numerycznej. Dodatkowe opcje zaawansowane. Pozwala na wybranie ustawionych przez producenta chipsetu optymalnych wartosci jego parametrow. Frankenstein Essay! Po ustawieniu wartosci Disabled parametry chipsetu z powrotem przyjmuja wartosci konfiguracji zapisanej w pamieci CMOS. Po ustawieniu wartosci Enabled wiele widocznych pol jest niedostepnych. Lead To Critical! EDO DRAM Speed Selection.

Wartosc ustawiona w tym polu musi odpowiadac szybkosci pamieci EDO DRAM zainstalowanej w komputerze. Ustawienie okresla czas dostepu pamieci, dlatego tez im nizsza jego wartosc, tym wyzsza wydajnosc systemu. Presentation! SDRAM RAS-to-CAS Delay. Pola pozwalaja na kontrolowanie liczby cykli wystepujacych pomiedzy wykonaniem operacji aktywacji wiersza i operacji odczytu lub zapisu. Types Lead! SDRAM RAS Precharge Time. Parametr Precharge Time okresla liczbe cykli wymaganych przez adresowanie wierszy pamieci (RAS) do nagromadzenia ladunku przed odswiezeniem modulu DRAM. Frankenstein Introduction Essay! Jesli okreslony czas jest niewystarczajacy, wtedy odswiezanie moze nie zostac zakonczone prawidlowo, wskutek czego z pamieci DRAM moga zniknac dane. 4.1 Explain Lead To Critical! SDRAM CAS Latency Time. Statement! Po zainstalowaniu synchronicznej pamieci DRAM (SDRAM) istnieje mozliwosc zmiany liczby cykli wystepujacych pomiedzy kolejnymi operacjami odczytu oraz w momencie, gdy kontroler wczytuje dane z modulow SDRAM. Types That Thinking! SDRAM Precharge Control.

Po ustawieniu wartosci Enabled wszystkie cykle procesora zwiazane z pamiecia SDRAM powoduja wykonanie na jej interfejsie instrukcji All Banks Precharge. Edexcel Coursework! DRAM Data Integrity Mode. 4.1 Explain Lead! W zaleznosci od typu zainstalowanej pamieci DRAM nalezy ustawic wartosc Non-ECC lub ECC. On Thirteen Days! Wartosc ECC aktywuje funkcje jednobitowej korekcji bledow oraz wielobitowej detekcji bledow, ktore powoduja nieznaczny spadek wydajnosci komputera. Of Questions! DRAM Timing Selectable. Reguluje sposob konfiguracji pamieci RAM. Parametr By SPD oznacza, ze BIOS bedzie pobieral dane dotyczace pamieci bezposrednio z modulow pamieci (z ukladu SPD - Serial Presence Data) -jest to on thirteen, zdecydowanie najbezpieczniejsze ustawienie, natomiast ustawienie Manual umozliwia wprowadzenie modyfikacji w czterech opisanych nizej opcjach, czyli cos dla overclockerow. Of Questions Lead To Critical! CAS Latency Time. Ustawia czas opoznienia sygnalu adresujacego kolumne komorek pamieci (CAS - Column Address Strobe).

Wartosc opoznienia zalezy od timingu pamieci i od mozliwosci samych ukladow. Thesis Human's Behavior! Najbardziej wydajne ustawienie to najmniejsza wartosc opoznienia, jednak moze ono nie zadzialac modulow DRAM sredniej jakosci. Active to Precharge Delay. That To Critical! Okresla opoznienie miedzy aktywnoscia a resetowaniem komorek pamieci, ponownie im mniejsza wartosc, tym lepiej, jednak nie zadziala to frankenstein introduction essay, w kazdym przypadku [8/7/6/5]. DRAM RAS# to 4.1 explain that, CAS# Delay. Introduction Essay! Definiuje opoznienie pomiedzy sygnalem adresujacym kolumny i wiersze komorek pamieci. 4.1 Explain Lead! Mniejsza wartosc oznacza wieksza wydajnosc. Frankenstein Essay! DRAM RAS# Precharge. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That To Critical! Okresla czas przygotowania komorek pamieci na dzialanie. Wartosc mniejsza oznacza lepsza wydajnosc, ale zbyt maly czas zaowocuje bledami i w rezultacie zawieszeniem sie komputera (zjawisko powszechnie wystepujace na komputerach overclockerow).

System BIOS Cacheable. Statement! Pozwala na buforowanie zawartosci systemowego ukladu BIOS ROM znajdujacej sie w pamieci o adresach z zakresu F0000h FFFFFh, co polepsza wydajnosc komputera. Jesli dowolny program sprobuje zapisac w tym obszarze pamieci dane, wtedy moze wystapic blad systemowy. Video BIOS Cacheable. 4.1 Explain! Pozwala na buforowanie zawartosci ukladu BIOS ROM karty graficznej znajdujacej sie w pamieci o adresach z zakresu C0000h - C7FFFh, co polepsza jej wydajnosc. Jesli dowolny program sprobuje zapisac w tym obszarze pamieci dane, wtedy moze wystapic blad systemowy. Video RAM Cacheable (Video Memory Cache Mode) Ustawienie wartosci Enabled pozwala na buforowanie zawartosci pamieci RAM karty graficznej znajdujacej sie w pamieci o adresach z zakresu A0000h - AFFFFh, co polepsza jej wydajnosc.

Jesli dowolny program sprobuje zapisac w tym obszarze pamieci dane, wtedy moze wystapic blad dostepu do pamieci. Research Paper Economics! W niektorych systemach ustawieniu Enabled odpowiada tryb USWC (ang. That To Critical! Uncacheable Speculative Write-Combining). Privatization Research Paper! 8/16 Bit I/O Recovery Time. 4.1 Explain That To Critical Thinking! Mechanizm regeneracji portow I/O dodaje cykle zegara magistrali do cykli wystepujacych pomiedzy portami I/O magistrali PCI i magistrali ISA. Frankenstein Introduction! Dodatkowe opoznienie wynika stad, ze magistrala PCI jest znacznie szybsza od magistrali ISA. 4.1 Explain Types! Memory Hole at presentation, 15M-I6M. Pozostawia 1 MB pustego obszaru pamieci RAM pomiedzy 15 i 16 megabajtem. Starsze aplikacje czasami nie dzialaja prawidlowo, gdy w systemie jest pamiec o pojemnosci 16 MB lub wiekszej. 4.1 Explain Of Questions! W takim przypadku aktywacja tego ustawienia pomaga rozwiazac problem. Standardowo jest ono wylaczone.

Delay Prior to business, Thermal. Funkcja wlasciwa tylko dla procesorow Pentium 4, posiadajacych mechanizm ochrony termicznej, polegajacy na tym, ze podczas przegrzania (przekroczenia okreslonej temperatury) procesor zwalnia prace (w miejsce niektorych cykli roboczych wprowadzane sa cykle puste, w czasie ktorych procesor nie pracuje i chlodzi sie - funkcja ta nosi nazwe throttlingu). Types Of Questions That Lead! Czas ustawiany w tej opcji okresla, po ilu minutach automatyczna ochrona termiczna ma byc aktywowana. Dzieki tej funkcji procesor nie jest spowalniany podczas krotkotrwalych przeciazen, ktore w zadnym razie (o ile sa spowodowane wymogami obliczeniowymi) nie powoduja jego uszkodzenia. Po ustawieniu wartosci Enabled funkcja Passive Release pozwala na dostep do mostka laczacego procesor z magistrala PCI.

Jesli funkcja jest wylaczona, wtedy kontroler zezwala na dostep do lokalnej pamieci DRAM tylko urzadzeniom nadrzednym magistrali PCI. Research Paper! Chipset zawiera 32-bitowy zintegrowany bufor zapisujacy majacy za zadanie obslugiwanie cykli opozniajacych transakcje. Of Questions Thinking! Aby wlaczyc zgodnosc ze specyfikacja PCI 2.1, nalezy ustawic wartosc Enabled. Thesis Statement Human's Behavior! AGP Aperture Size (MB) Pozwala okreslic pojemnosc pamieci przeznaczonej dla karty AGP (ang. accelerated graphics port). Jest to 4.1 explain types lead, czesc przestrzeni adresowej pamieci wykorzystywanej przez magistrale PCI dedykowanej przestrzeni adresowej karty graficznej AGP. Paper Economics! Cykle magistrali, ktore odwoluja sie do dedykowanego zakresu, sa przekierowywane do magistrali AGP bez koniecznosci translacji. Of Questions Thinking! CPU Warning Temperature. W przypadku, gdy komputer jest wyposazony w system monitorowania, ustawienie to frankenstein essay, pozwala okreslic maksymalna i minimalna temperature procesora. Jesli wartosc temperatury zostanie przekroczona, wtedy zostanie wlaczony mechanizm ostrzegawczy zaimplementowany w systemie. Current CPU Temperature. Jesli komputer dysponuje systemem monitorowania, pole wyswietla aktualna temperature procesora.

W przypadku, gdy komputer jest wyposazony w system monitorowania, ustawienie to types that to critical thinking, pozwala okreslic maksymalna i minimalna temperature, przy ktorej nastapi jego wylaczenie. Privatization! Jesli wartosc temperatury zostanie przekroczona, nastapi wylaczenie komputera. 4.1 Explain Of Questions Lead To Critical! CPUFAN Turn On IN Win98. Research! Jesli uzywasz systemu Windows 98 obslugujacego funkcje ACPI, wtedy po ustawieniu wartosci Enabled dysponujesz w trakcie pracy systemu mozliwoscia zmiany parametrow zwiazanych z chlodzeniem. Types Of Questions That! W zaleznosci od podjetej decyzji dotyczacej takich parametrow jak aktywnosc procesora, zuzycie energii przez baterie i dopuszczalny poziom glosnosci, uzytkownik moze wylaczyc lub wlaczyc wentylator procesora. Writing Research Economics! Current System Temperature. Types Of Questions That Lead! Jesli komputer jest wyposazony w system monitorowania, pole wyswietla aktualna temperature panujaca w komputerze. Edexcel! Current CPUFAN 1/2/3 Speed.

Jesli komputer jest wyposazony w system monitorowania, pole wyswietla aktualna ilosc obrotow maksymalnie trzech wentylatorow. Jesli komputer jest wyposazony w system monitorowania, pola wyswietlaja aktualne wartosci napiecia maksymalnie siedmiu zrodel zasilania. 4.1 Explain That To Critical! W sytuacji, gdy generator zegara systemowego pulsuje, wartosci maksymalne impulsu generuja nadmierna wartosc EMI. On Thirteen Days! Wlaczenie modulacji lagodzacej widmo impulsu powoduje obnizenie wartosci maksymalnych, co objawia sie zmiana ksztaltu krzywej z ostrej na plaska, a tym samym nastepuje redukcja wartosci EMI. W niektorych przypadkach uzyskane korzysci moga zostac pomniejszone przez problemy zwiazane z urzadzeniami opierajacymi sie na precyzyjnym taktowaniu, takimi jak karty SCSI. 4.1 Explain Of Questions That Lead To Critical! PCI/VGA Palette Snoop. Pozwala kartom graficznym na odczytywanie danych z pamieci RAM.

Jesli w instrukcji instalacji karty graficznej nie zawarto wymogu aktywacji tej opcji, wtedy nalezy ustawic jej standardowa wartosc Disabled. Writing Paper Economics! Okresla mnoznik procesora. Lead! Opcja ta jest dostepna tylko wtedy, gdy mnoznik nie zostal zablokowany przez producenta procesora. Essays Days! CPU HOST Frequency (MHz) Okresla podstawowa czestotliwosc pracy magistrali FSB. Finalna czestotliwosc procesora jest iloczynem tej wartosci i mnoznika. 4.1 Explain Lead Thinking! Okresla stosunek czestotliwosci taktowania pamieci, do magistrali procesora. DDD Speed (Strobe/Sec) Opcja informacyjna, wyswietlajaca informacje o szybkosci taktowania pamieci. Human's! AGP/pCI Speed Setting. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions! Okresla czestotliwosc pracy AGP, PCI. Frankenstein Introduction! Informacja o szybkosci taktowania szyny AGP.

Informacja o szybkosci taktowania magistrali AGP. Types Of Questions That Thinking! Default CPU Voltage (Volt) Informacyjna, wyswietla domyslne napiecie zasilania procesora. Umozliwia zmiane napiecia zasilania procesora. Essays On Thirteen! Uwaga! Podwyzszenie napiecia moze uszkodzic procesor. Umozliwia zmiane napiecia zasilania szyny AGP. Types Of Questions That Lead! Opcja ryzykowna. Kolejna overclockerska funkcja umozliwiajaca wybor napiecia zasilajacego pamieci. On Thirteen! Podwyzszenie (minimalne!) celem zwiekszenia wydajnosci ma sens jedynie wtedy, gdy dysponujemy dobrymi ukladami z wbudowanym chlodzeniem. Types To Critical Thinking! Menu Peripheral Configuration sluzy do konfigurowania urzadzen zintegrowanych z plyta glowna, takich jak porty szeregowe, rownolegle, USB i wbudowane karty dzwiekowe. Writing Research Paper! Standardowe menu Peripheral Configuration.

Disabled Enabled Auto (domyslnie) Sluzy do konfiguracji portu szeregowego A. Types Of Questions Lead To Critical Thinking! Adres o wartosci 3F8h oraz przerwanie 1RQ4 sa automatycznie przydzielane pierwszemu wolnemu portowi COM (zazwyczaj COM 1). Znak * wyswietlony przy adresie wskazuje na wystapienie konfliktu z innym urzadzeniem. Okresla adres bazowy I/O portu szeregowego A. IRQ3 IRQ 4 (domyslnie) Okresla przerwanie portu szeregowego A. Writing Research Economics! Disabled Enabled Auto (domyslnie) Sluzy do konfiguracji portu szeregowego B. Adres o wartosci 2F8h oraz przerwanie IRQ3 sa automatycznie przydzielane pierwszemu wolnemu portowi COM (zazwyczaj COM 2). Of Questions Thinking! Znak * wyswietlony przy adresie wskazuje na wystapienie konfliktu z innym urzadzeniem. Jesli okreslony adres zostanie przypisany do portu szeregowego, wtedy nie bedzie widoczny na liscie adresow udostepnianych drugiemu portowi. Days! Normal (domyslnie) IrDA-SIR ASK_IR.

Okresla tryb pracy portu szeregowego B jako normalny (COM 2) lub pelniacy role portu podczerwieni. 4.1 Explain Lead! Okresla adres bazowy I/O portu szeregowego B. Essays On Thirteen Days! Okresla przerwanie portu szeregowego B. Disabled Enabled Auto (domyslnie) Sluzy do konfiguracji portu rownoleglego. Adres o wartosci 378h oraz przerwanie IRQ7 sa automatycznie przydzielane portowi LPT1. Types Of Questions That To Critical Thinking! Znak * wyswietlony przy adresie wskazuje na wystapienie konfliktu z innym urzadzeniem. Output Only Bidirectional (domyslnie) EPP ECP. Gce Applied Coursework! Pozwala na ustawienie trybu pracy portu rownoleglego. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions Thinking! Opcja Output Only dziala tylko w systemach kompatybilnych z AT. Tryb Bidirectional (dwukierunkowy) dziala wylacznie w systemach kompatybilnych z PS/2. Paper Economics! EPP (ang.

Extended Parallel Port) oraz ECP (ang. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That Lead Thinking! Enhanced Capabilities Port) sa dwukierunkowymi trybami o duzej szybkosci. Introduction! Tryby EPP i ECP sa kompatybilne ze standardem IEEE-1284, dlatego tez wymagaja zastosowania zgodnego z nim kabla drukarki. Okresla adres bazowy l/O portu rownoleglego. IRQ 5 JRQ 7 (domyslnie) Okresla przerwanie portu rownoleglego.

DMA 1 DMA 3 (domyslnie) Okresla kanal DMA dla portu rownoleglego (dostepne tylko po ustawieniu trybu ECP). Types Of Questions Lead! Disabled Enabled (domyslnie) Wlacza lub wylacza zintegrowana karte dzwiekowa. Disabled Enabled (domyslnie) Wlacza lub wylacza zintegrowana karte sieciowa LAN. Days! Legacy USB Support. Types Of Questions To Critical Thinking! Disabled Enabled Auto (domyslnie) Wlacza lub wylacza obsluge starszych urzadzen USB. Funkcja Legacy USB Support umozliwia uzycie klawiatury lub myszy USB, nawet wtedy, gdy system operacyjny nie dysponuje odpowiednimi sterownikami. Presentation! Menu IDE Configuration sluzy do konfiguracji urzadzen IDE takich jak dyski twarde, napedy CD-ROM, napedy LS-120 (SuperDisk), streamery itp.

Disabled Primary Secondary Both (domyslnie) Pozwala uaktywnic zintegrowany kontroler IDE. Of Questions That! Opcja Primary wlacza tylko podstawowy kontroler IDE (Primary IDE), natomiast opcja Secondary tylko dodatkowy kontroler (Secondary IDE). Research Economics! Opcja Both uaktywnia oba kontrolery IDE. Types Of Questions Lead! Hard Disk Pre-Delay. Disabled (domyslnie) 3 Seconds 6 Seconds 9 Seconds 12 Seconds 15 Seconds 21 Seconds 30 Seconds. Privatization Research Paper! Pozwala wybrac jedna z wartosci opoznienia.

Primary IDE Master. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That Lead To Critical! Informuje o typie podlaczonego urzadzenia IDE. Human's Behavior! Po uaktywnieniu zostanie wyswietlone menu Primary IDE Master. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions Lead Thinking! Primary IDE Slave. Introduction Essay! Informuje o typie podlaczonego urzadzenia IDE. Po uaktywnieniu zostanie wyswietlone menu Primary IDE Slave. Types Of Questions Lead! Secondary IDE Master. Thesis Statement Behavior! Informuje o typie podlaczonego urzadzenia IDE. 4.1 Explain Types Lead! Po uaktywnieniu zostanie wyswietlone menu Secondary IDE Master. Thesis! Secondary IDE Slave. Informuje o typie podlaczonego urzadzenia IDE.

Po uaktywnieniu zostanie wyswietlone menu Secondary IDE Slave. Types Of Questions To Critical! IDE HDD Block Mode. Economics! Wlacza transfer blokowy w dyskach twardych. Ustawienie zalecane (Enabled). Lead To Critical! On-Chip Primary/Secondary PCI IDE. Wlacza lub wylacza pierwszy/drugi kanal kontrolera IDE ATA. Writing Research! Zalecane oczywiscie wlaczenie (Enabled).

IDE Primary/Secondary Master/Slave PIO/UDMA. 4.1 Explain That Lead To Critical! Opcje okreslajace sposob pracy trybow PIO i UDMA. Najlepszym rozwiazaniem jest pozostawienie tych opcji na domyslnym, automatycznym ustawieniu. Business Coursework! On-Chip Serial ATA. That! Serial ATA Port0/port1 Mode. Paper! Okresla tryb pracy wbudowanego w plyte kontrolera Serial ATA.

Dostepne sa nastepujace parametry: Auto - parametr domyslny, BIOS automatycznie ustawia tryb pracy kontrolera. 4.1 Explain To Critical Thinking! Disabled - wylacza kontroler Serial ATA. Frankenstein Essay! Combined Mode - tzw. 4.1 Explain Lead To Critical! tryb kombinowany, w ktorym kontrolery ATA i SATA dzialaja jak jedno urzadzenie. Human's Behavior! W tym trybie mozna korzystac z maksymalnie czterech dyskow lub innych urzadzen (po dwa urzadzenia na kanal, tak jak to types, jest w ATA). Dyski SATA udaja dyski podlaczone do kontrolera ATA. Frankenstein Introduction Essay! Enhanced Mode - w tym trybie kontrolery ATA i SATA pracuja niezaleznie; umozliwia on 4.1 explain of questions that lead to critical podlaczenie najwiekszej liczby urzadzen (dyskow). Human's Behavior! Serial ATA Port0/port1 Mode - okresla tryb pracy dysku podlaczonego do kontrolera SATA. Types That To Critical Thinking! Dostepne parametry zaleza od ustawionego trybu pracy samego kontrolera SATA.

Przykladowo w trybie kombinowanym dysk SATA mozemy ustawic jako master lub slave dla kazdego z dwoch dostepnych kanalow. Typowe ustawienia menu IDE Drive. Edexcel Coursework! None ATAPI Removable Other ATAPI CD-ROM User IDE Removable Auto (domyslnie) Pozwala okreslic typ urzadzen IDE. 4.1 Explain Types To Critical! Wartosc Auto powoduje automatyczne okreslenie wartosci zwiazanych z trybem przesylania danych. Thesis! Inne opcje sa zalezne od podlaczonego urzadzenia. Of Questions Lead! Wyswietla maksymalna pojemnosc dysku. LBA Mode Control. Wlacza lub wylacza tryb LBA.

Disabled 2 Sectors 4 Sectors 8 Sectors 16 Sectors (domyslnie) Pozwala okreslic ilosc sektorow przypadajacych na blok przy przesylaniu danych z dysku do pamieci. Statement! Aby ustawic wartosci optymalne, nalezy zapoznac sie ze specyfikacja dysku. Types Lead Thinking! Pozwala okreslic tryb PIO zwiazany z przesylaniem danych z i do dysku. On Thirteen Days! Disabled (domyslnie) 0 1 2 3 4 5. Pozwala okreslic tryb Ultra DMA zwiazany z przesylaniem danych z i do dysku. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions Lead! Wyswietla typ kabla podlaczonego do interfejsu IDE 40-zylowy lub 80-zylowy (urzadzenia Ultra ATA-66/100). Edexcel Business! Menu Diskette Configuration umozliwia konfiguracje stacji dyskietek i jej interfejsu. Wlacza lub wylacza zintegrowany kontroler stacji dyskietek. Pozwala okreslic pojemnosc i fizyczny format dyskietki. Of Questions Thinking! Floppy Write Protect.

Wlacza lub wylacza ochrone przed zapisem dyskietki. On Thirteen Days! Menu Event Logging pozwala na konfiguracje ustawien zwiazanych z rejestracja zdarzen systemu SMBIOS (ang. System Management BIOS). Types That Lead Thinking! SMBIOS zgodny ze standardem DMI umozliwia zarzadzanie komputerami podlaczonymi do sieci. Presentation Guidelines! Standard DMI (ang. 4.1 Explain Types That Lead! Desktop Management Interface) jest specjalnym protokolem, ktory moze byc wykorzystany przez aplikacje komunikujace sie z plyta glowna.

Typowe ustawienia menu Event Logging. Edexcel Gce Applied Coursework! Informuje, czy w dzienniku zdarzen jest jeszcze wolne miejsce. Event log validity. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions To Critical Thinking! Informuje, czy zawartosc dziennika zdarzen jest aktualna. Umozliwia przegladanie dziennika zdarzen. Paper! Clear all event logs. 4.1 Explain Types That To Critical Thinking! Ustawienie Yes sprawi, ze przy ponownym uruchomieniu komputera dziennik zdarzen zostanie wyczyszczony. Introduction! Disabled Enabled (domyslnie) Aktywuje rejestracje zdarzen. 4.1 Explain Types That To Critical! Mark events as read.

Oznacza wszystkie zdarzenia jako przeczytane. Guidelines! Menu Video Configuration sluzy do konfiguracji parametrow karty graficznej. Typowe ustawienia menu Video Configuration. Default Primary Video Adapter. 4.1 Explain To Critical! Pozwala okreslic typ karty graficznej, ktora wspolpracuje z monitorem inicjalizowanego systemu. Pozwala podstawowemu kontrolerowi karty graficznej PCI wspoldzielic palete z dodatkowa karta graficzna ISA. Days! AGP Aperture Size. Types Of Questions That To Critical Thinking! Pozwala okreslic rozmiar pamieci RAM wykorzystywanej przez kontroler karty graficznej AGP. Frankenstein Essay! AGP Hardware Detected. Informuje, czy zostala zainstalowana karta graficzna AGP zgodna z trybem x1, x2 lub x4. 4.1 Explain Types That! Wylacza zintegrowany uklad graficzny.

Menu Resource Configuration jest wykorzystywane do konfiguracji pamieci oraz przydzialu przerwan starszym urzadzeniom wspolpracujacym z magistrala ISA i niekompatybilnym z funkcja PnP zainstalowanym na plycie glownej dysponujacej jednym lub kilkoma gniazdami ISA. Statement Human's! Typowe ustawienia menu Resource Configuration. 4.1 Explain Of Questions Lead To Critical Thinking! C800 CBFF Available. CC00 CFFF Available. Research Economics! D000 D3FF Available.

D800 DBFF Available. That Lead To Critical! DC00 DFFF Available. Thesis Statement Behavior! Przydziela okreslone bloki pamieci gornej starszym. Przydziela okreslone przerwania starszym urzadzeniom ISA. Znak * wyswietlony obok przerwania IRQ wskazuje na konflikt. That Lead Thinking! DMA n Assigned to. Introduction Essay! W przypadku, gdy zasoby sa ustawiane recznie, wtedy w zaleznosci od typu urzadzenia korzystajacego z przerwania nalezy przydzielic mu kanal DMA nalezacy do jednego z wymienionych typow: Starsze urzadzenia ISA kompatybilne z oryginalna specyfikacja PC AT bus wymagaja przydzielenia okreslonego kanalu DMA. Typ przydzielonego kanalu DMA urzadzeniom PCI/ISA zgodnym z technologia Plug and that lead to critical thinking, Play zalezy od rodzaju wykorzystywanej magistrali (PCI lub ISA) PCI IRQ Activated by.

Jesli urzadzeniu PCI nie zostanie przydzielone przerwanie wyzwalane zboczem, wtedy nalezy pozostawic wartosc Level. Guidelines! PCI IDE IRQ Map to. Of Questions Lead! Pole umozliwia ustawienie mapowania przerwan PCI IDE lub przerwan PC AT (ISA). Research! W zaleznosci od tego, czy komputer posiada na plycie glownej jedno lub dwa zlacza kontrolera PCI IDE, nalezy ustawic wartosci odpowiadajace typowi interfejsu(ow) IDE (PCI lub ISA). 4.1 Explain That To Critical Thinking! W przypadku obecnosci kontrolerow IDE korzystajacych ze standardowych przerwan ISA, podstawowemu jest przydzielane przerwanie IRQ14, natomiast dodatkowemu IRQ15. Primary/Secondary IDE INT# Kazde urzadzenie PCI jest w stanie wykorzystac maksymalnie cztery przerwania: INT# A, INT# B, INT# C oraz INT# D. Domyslnie urzadzeniu jest przydzielane przerwanie INT# A. Jesli urzadzenie PCI nie wymaga przypisania dwoch przerwan, wtedy przydzielanie przerwania INT# B nie ma sensu. Ze wzgledu na to, ze interfejs PCI IDE chipsetu dysponuje dwoma kanalami, wymaga przydzielenia dwoch przerwan. Introduction Essay! Domyslnie w polach INT# podstawowego i dodatkowego kontrolera IDE znajduja sie wartosci wymagane przez dwukanalowy interfejs PCI IDE, przy czym kanal podstawowy posiada przerwanie o nizszej wartosci niz kanal dodatkowy. Nalezy zauwazyc, ze wszystkie jednofunkcyjne karty PCI zazwyczaj uzywaja przerwania INT# A, dlatego tez kazdej z nich musi zostac przydzielona inna i unikalna wartosc przerwania ISA.

Used Mem base addr. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That Lead Thinking! Pozwala okreslic adres bazowy obszaru pamieci wykorzystywanego przez dowolne urzadzenie wymagajac dostepu do pamieci gornej. Days! Pozwala okreslic rozmiar obszaru pamieci podanego w powyzszym polu. Jesli nie zostanie podana wartosc pola Used Mem base addr, wtedy jest ono niewidoczne. That Lead To Critical Thinking! Assign IRQ for guidelines, USB. 4.1 Explain Types That Lead To Critical Thinking! Jesli w systemie znajduje sie kontroler USB lub jest podlaczone jedno lub kilka urzadzen USB, nalezy ustawic wartosc Enabled. Research Economics! Jesli natomiast kontroler USB jest wylaczony, w celu zwolnienia przydzielonego przerwania 1RQ nalezy ustawic wartosc Disabled. Advanced BIOS FEATURES. Po wlaczeniu opcji przy probie modyfikacji przez program sektora ladujacego lub tablicy partycji dysku twardego pojawi sie ostrzezenie. That Lead! Jesli zostanie ono wyswietlone w trakcie normalnej pracy komputera, wtedy w celu sprawdzenia, czy nie pojawil sie wirus, nalezy uruchomic program antywirusowy.

Opcja chroni tylko sektor ladujacy MBR (ang. Human's Behavior! master boot record), a nie caly dysk twardy. Nalezy zauwazyc, ze programy takie jak FDISK, ktore zazwyczaj modyfikuja sektor MBR, moga spowodowac wygenerowanie ostrzezenia o wirusie. Jedynym slusznym ustawieniem tej opcji jest Enabled. 4.1 Explain Lead To Critical Thinking! Wylaczenie (Disabled) pamieci cache pierwszego i drugiego poziomu to research paper, najprostsza droga do gwaltownej degradacji wydajnosci komputera. CPU Internal Cache/ External Cache. Opcja pozwala na wylaczenie pamieci podrecznej procesora L1 (wewnetrznej) lub L2 (zewnetrznej). 4.1 Explain Of Questions! Czesto jest stosowana podczas testowania pamieci. Frankenstein Essay! W takim przypadku pamiec podreczna powinna byc wylaczona. W przypadku normalnej pracy obie pamieci powinny byc aktywne. Types That Lead To Critical! Quick Power On Self Test. Po wlaczeniu opcja pozwala zmniejszyc czas wymagany do wykonania procedury POST.

Skrocona wersja procedury POST pomija kilka krokow takich jak test pamieci. Presentation! Jesli masz zaufanie do systemu, mozesz uaktywnic skrocona procedure POST, ale w wiekszosci przypadkow sugeruje pozostawic opcje wylaczona i zezwolic na wykonywanie jej pelnej wersji. Boot Up System Speed. Aby uruchomic komputer z procesorem pracujacym ze standardowa czestotliwoscia, nalezy ustawic wartosc High, natomiast w celu ustawienia symulowanej czestotliwosci procesora wynoszacej 8 MHz nalezy ustawic wartosc Low. Types Of Questions That Lead To Critical! W przeszlosci czestotliwosc 8 MHz czesto byla wykorzystywana w przypadku pewnych programow zawierajacych blokade uniemozliwiajaca ich kopiowanie, ktora zawodzila, jesli system byl uruchamiany z normalna szybkoscia. Writing Paper Economics! Aktualnie opcja nie jest wykorzystywana.

Opcja Gate A20 Option odnosi sie do sposobu, w jaki system adresuje pamiec polozona powyzej 1 MB (pamiec rozszerzona). Po ustawieniu wartosci Fast chipset plyty glownej przejmuje kontrole nad bramka A20. Po ustawieniu wartosci Normal za kontrole bramki A20 odpowiada koncowka kontrolera klawiatury. Ustawienie wartosci Fast zwieksza wydajnosc systemu, co jest szczegolnie widoczne w przypadku systemow operacyjnych trybu chronionego, takich jak Windows 9x i Windows 2000. 4.1 Explain Types Thinking! Typematic Rate Setting. Paper Economics! Jesli opcja jest wylaczona, ustawienia Typematic Rate i Typematic Delay nie sa ze soba powiazane.

Czestotliwosc powtarzania znakow jest okreslana przez systemowy kontroler klawiatury. 4.1 Explain Of Questions! Po wlaczeniu opcji mozna ustawic wartosci opcji Typematic Rate i Typematic Delay. Privatization Paper! Typematic Rate (Chars/Sec) Po uaktywnieniu opcji Typematic Rate Setting mozliwe jest wybranie jednej z wartosci okreslajacej liczbe znakow wyswietlanych podczas trzymania wcisnietego klawisza 6, 8,10,12, 15,20,24 lub 30 znakow na sekunde. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That! Typematic Delay (Msec) 250,modulach pamieci 500, 750 lub 1000. Human's! Po uaktywnieniu opcji Typematic Rate Setting mozliwe jest wybranie jednej z wartosci okreslajacej, po jakim czasie od przytrzymania wcisnietego klawisza zostana wyswietlone znaki 250, 500, 750 lub 1000 milisekund. S.M.A.R.T. (ang.

Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology) jestfunkcja, w ktora sa wyposazone dyski twarde IDE, umozliwiajaca im wykonanie we wlasnym zakresie diagnostyki. Zastosowanie opcji jest zalecane w sytuacji, gdy wykorzystuje sie oprogramowanie diagnostyczne monitorujace dyski twarde, obslugujace funkcje S.M.A.R.T. 4.1 Explain Types Lead Thinking! i ostrzegajace o mozliwych awariach. Hyper Threading Technology. Introduction! Opcja ze zrozumialych wzgledow jest obecna tylko w przypadku procesorow wyposazonych w HyperThreading. Jednak nawet jesli mamy taki procesor, to 4.1 explain types of questions that to critical, pamietajmy, by presentation niniejsza opcje aktywowac (Enabled) jedynie, gdy korzystamy z systemu operacyjnego obslugujacego HT (Windows XP Professional, Linux z jadrem 2.4.x lub nowszym). Opcja aktywujaca i dezaktywujaca zaawansowany kontroler przerwan (Advanced Programmable In-terrupt Controller). Of Questions That! Opcje te mozna regulowac tylko wtedy, gdy mamy komputer z jednym procesorem bez HyperThreadingu. W systemach wieloprocesorowych lub dla procesora z HyperThrea-dingiem kontroler APIC jest zawsze wlaczony (Enabled). Edexcel! Dzieki APIC mozliwe jest rozwiazywanie konfliktow pomiedzy urzadzeniami nawet w bardzo rozbudowanych komputerach (posiadajacych np. Types Lead To Critical Thinking! kilka kart graficznych, dzwiekowych, itp.), nowy kontroler oferuje znacznie wieksza liczbe przerwan i szybsza ich obsluge. Je- sli nawet nie mamy komputera z wieloma procesorami czy procesora z HT, zalecane jest wlaczenie tego kontrolera.

Niestety, jezeli korzystamy z DOS lub Windows 9x/Me, nalezy wylaczyc APIC - te systemy nie obsluguja nowego typu kontrolera. Edexcel Business Coursework! MPS Version Control For OS. Thinking! Opcja zwiazana z kontrolerem APIC dotyczy jedynie konfiguracji wieloprocesorowych (lub z HyperThreadingowym procesorem). Essays On Thirteen Days! Okresla wersje MPS (MultiProcessor Specification), jakiej ma uzywac elektronika plyty glownej. Specyfikacja MPS zawiera m.in. 4.1 Explain Types! tabele konfiguracyjne dla obslugi magistrali PCI i podlaczonych do niej urzadzen. To, ktora z wersji mamy wybrac, zalezy od uzywanego systemu operacyjnego. Edexcel Gce Applied! W przypadku Windows NT 4.0 wybieramy wartosc 1.1, dla nowszych wersji okien (Windows 2000 i Windows XP; oczywiscie nie Windows 9x/Me - te systemy nie obsluguja konfiguracji wieloprocesorowych) 1.4. W praktyce jednak nawet Windows NT 4.0 (odpowiednio aktualizowany) obsluguje MPS 1.4 - dlatego tez takie ustawienie nalezy wybrac. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That Thinking! OS Select For DRAM 64 MB.

Opcja dotyczaca specjalnego adresowania pamieci RAM powyzej 64 MB w systemie OS2. Business! Jezeli nie korzystamy z tego systemu, wybieramy parametr Non-OS2. Smali Logo (EPA) Show. Of Questions That! Wlacza lub wylacza wyswietlanie podczas testow POST logo EPA. W wiekszosci BIOS-ow w ramach zabezpieczen wykorzystywane sa dwa hasla nazywane haslem administratora i haslem uzytkownika.

Hasla ulatwiaja kontrolowanie dostepu do programu BIOS Setup i mozliwosci inicjalizacji systemu. Frankenstein Introduction Essay! Haslo administratora nazywane jest rowniez haslem Setup, poniewaz kontroluje dostep do programu Setup. 4.1 Explain Of Questions Lead! Haslo uzytkownika jest tez okreslane mianem hasla systemowego, poniewaz ogranicza dostep do systemu jako calosci. Thesis Statement Behavior! Po ustawieniu hasla administratora, przy probie uruchomienia programu BIOS Setup zostanie wyswietlone pole, w ktorym nalezy je wpisac. Jesli wprowadzone haslo jest prawidlowe, zostanie udzielony pelny dostep do programu BIOS Setup, dajacy mozliwosc przegladania i modyfikacji jego ustawien. Jesli jednak haslo bedzie niepoprawne lub nie zostanie podane, wtedy zakres dostepnych opcji programu, ktore mozna przegladac i zmieniac, bedzie ograniczony. Of Questions That! Po ustawieniu hasla uzytkownika, w momencie rozpoczecia inicjalizacji systemu zostanie wyswietlone pole, w ktorym nalezy podac haslo. Human's! Aby dalsze ladowanie systemu bylo mozliwe, konieczne jest wprowadzenie prawidlowego hasla.

Nalezy zauwazyc, ze jesli zostanie ustawione haslo administratora, wtedy w trakcie inicjalizacji komputera nie pojawi sie pole hasla. Wynika to 4.1 explain that, stad, ze haslo to paper, ogranicza dostep tylko do zawartosci programu BIOS Setup. Lead To Critical! W przypadku, gdy zostana ustawione oba hasla, wtedy w momencie uruchamiania komputera zostanie wyswietlone pole, do ktorego w celu ponowienia procesu ladowania nalezy wprowadzic jedno z hasel. W wiekszosci systemow haslo moze miec dlugosc maksymalnie siedmiu lub osmiu znakow. Essay! Typowe ustawienia menu Security. Types Of Questions To Critical! User Password Is. Edexcel Gce Applied! Informuje, czy zostalo ustawione haslo uzytkownika. Of Questions That Lead Thinking! Supervisor Password Is. Informuje, czy zostalo ustawione haslo administratora.

Set User Password. Presentation! Hasla moga miec maksymalnie siedem znakow alfanumerycznych. Pozwala ustawic haslo uzytkownika. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions To Critical Thinking! Set Supervisor Password. Guidelines! Hasla moga miec maksymalnie siedem znakow alfanumerycznych. Pozwala ustawic haslo administratora. Clear User Password. Types Lead To Critical! Usuwa haslo uzytkownika.

User Setup Access. Full Access (domyslnie) Pozwala ustalic poziom dostepu uzytkownika do programu BIOS Setup. Privatization Paper! Uaktywnia funkcje automatycznego uruchamiania komputera. Types Lead! Jej wlaczenie powoduje, ze system jest inicjalizowany, przy czym klawiatura jest zablokowana. W celu jej odblokowania lub umozliwienia zaladowania systemu z dysku uzytkownik musi podac haslo. Research! Zarzadzanie energia okresla mozliwosci systemu zwiazane z automatycznym przelaczaniem w tryb oszczedzania energii po stwierdzeniu braku aktywnosci.

Typowe ustawienia menu Power Management. Wlacza lub wylacza w BlOS-ie funkcje zarzadzania energia. 20 Minutes (domyslnie) Pozwoli okreslic ilosc czasu, jaki uplynie przed przelaczeniem w tryb Standby. Po wlaczeniu aktywuje funkcje zarzadzania energia dyskow twardych komputera bedacego w trybie Standby lub Suspend. ACPI Suspend State. 4.1 Explain That Thinking! Pozwala okreslic status wstrzymania standardu ACPI. Privatization Research! Wartosc S3 odpowiada Suspend To RAM. Status S1 jest wartoscia domyslna, poniewaz obsluguje urzadzenia USB, ktore nie sa kompatybilne ze standardem ACPI. Of Questions! Video Repost Enable. Research Economics! Pozwala na inicjalizacje BIOS-u karty graficznej przechodzacej ze statusu S3.

Ustawienie wymagane przez niektore kontrolery graficzne. Types Lead Thinking! Jest dostepne tylko wtedy, gdy funkcja ACPI Suspend State ma wartosc 53. Typowe ustawienia zwiazane z zarzadzaniem energia. Jesli uzywany system operacyjny obsluguje standard ACPI, nalezy ustawic wartosc Enabled. System Windows 98 i nowsze wersje sa z nim kompatybilne.

Opcja umozliwia okreslenie stopnia uzyskanej oszczednosci energii dla trybu Doze, Standby i Suspend. Privatization Research! Ponizej wymieniono dostepne wartosci: Max Saving najwieksza oszczednosc energii. Of Questions That! W przypadku kazdego trybu czas bezczynnosci wynosi 1 minute. User Define pozwala skonfigurowac niezaleznie kazdy tryb. Gce Applied Business! Dla kazdego trybu nalezy okreslic czas bezczynnosci. Min Saving minimalna oszczednosc energii. Of Questions That! Dla kazdego trybu czas bezczynnosci wynosi 1 godzine (nie dotyczy dysku twardego). PM Control by frankenstein APM. Jesli system jest kompatybilny ze standardem APM (ang.

Advanced Power Management), wtedy w celu uzyskania wiekszej oszczednosci energii nalezy ustawic wartosc Yes. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That Lead Thinking! Video Off Method. Frankenstein Introduction! Pozwala okreslic sposob wygaszenia monitora. System wylacza porty synchronizacji poziomej i pionowej, a nastepnie czysci zawartosc bufora graficznego. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That Thinking! Jesli monitor obsluguje standard DPMS VESA, wtedy nalezy t? opcje uaktywnic. W celu ustawienia parametrow karty graficznej zwiazanych z zarzadzaniem energia nalezy posluzyc sie dolaczonym do niej oprogramowaniem.

System jedynie kasuje zawartosc bufora graficznego. Paper! Opcja pozwala na okreslenie trybu, w ktorym podczas przechodzenia komputera przez kolejne tryby, coraz bardziej energooszczedne, nastapi wygaszenie monitora. Types Thinking! Jesli w systemie jest zainstalowany modem, wtedy opcja pozwala okreslic nazwe przydzielonego mu przerwania IRQ. Statement Human's Behavior! Wygenerowanie przypisanego przerwania zawsze spowoduje przywrocenie normalnej pracy komputera. 4.1 Explain That! Po uplywie zdefiniowanego okresu bezczynnosci systemu czestotliwosc pracy procesora jest redukowana do wartosci stanowiacej w przypadku wiekszosci chipsetow od 10 do 25% normalnej wydajnosci. W tym czasie inne urzadzenia nadal pracuja z pelna szybkoscia. Edexcel Gce Applied Coursework! Po uplywie zdefiniowanego okresu bezczynnosci systemu zegar procesora zatrzymuje sie, dysk twardy przechodzi w stan bezczynnosci, natomiast pamiec Cache L2 przechodzi w tryb energooszczedny. W tym czasie inne urzadzenia nadal pracuja z pelna szybkoscia. Of Questions That Thinking! Po uplywie zdefiniowanego okresu bezczynnosci systemu chipset przechodzi w sprzetowy tryb wstrzymania, co powoduje rowniez zatrzymanie zegara procesora i zazwyczaj powoduje przelaczenie sie pozostalych urzadzen komputera w tryb energooszczedny. Po uplywie zdefiniowanego okresu bezczynnosci systemu wszystkie urzadzenia IDE kompatybilne ze standardem ATA-2 lub nowszym, dysponujace funkcjami zarzadzania energia, same przechodza w stan bezczynnosci. Przy probie dostepu urzadzenia powracaja do normalnego trybu pracy.

Throttle Duty Cycle. Frankenstein! Po przelaczeniu sie systemu w tryb Doze zegar procesora nie pracuje przez caly czas. 4.1 Explain To Critical Thinking! Czas jego aktywnosci moze zostac ustawiony jako wartosc procentowa czasu jego normalnej pracy. VGA Active Monitor. Jesli opcja jest aktywna, kazda aktywnosc karty graficznej spowoduje wyzerowanie ogolnego ukladu czasowego trybu Standby. Frankenstein Introduction! Sofl-Off by 4.1 explain types that lead PWR-BTTN. Po ustawieniu wartosci Instant Off lub Delay 4 Sec. Statement! wylaczenie komputera przy uzyciu przycisku zasilania spowoduje natychmiastowe lub po uplynieciu 4 sekund przelaczenie go w tryb cechujacy sie znaczna oszczednoscia energii.

Komputer bedacy w tym stanie jest zasilany napieciem, ktore wystarcza do wykrycia aktywnosci ze strony przycisku zasilania lub funkcji Resume by lead Ring. Thesis Human's Behavior! CPUFAN Off in types of questions, Suspend. On Thirteen! Jesli opcja jest aktywna, po przelaczeniu w tryb Suspend nastepuje wylaczenie wentylatora procesora. Jesli opcja jest aktywna, pojawienie sie sygnalu wejsciowego na linii szeregowej RI (ang. Of Questions That Lead To Critical Thinking! Ring Indicator) (mowiac prosciej, po odebraniu przez modem polaczenia) spowoduje przywrocenie systemu do normalnego trybu pracy.

Gdy opcja jest wlaczona, istnieje mozliwosc ustawienia daty i czasu, kiedy zostanie wygenerowany alarm ukladu RTC powodujacy wyjscie komputera z trybu Suspend. Date (of Month) Alarm. Behavior! Pozwala okreslic date wyrazona w miesiacach, ktora spowoduje wygenerowanie alarmu. 4.1 Explain That Lead Thinking! Pozwala okreslic czas, ktory spowoduje wygenerowanie alarmu. Edexcel Gce Applied Coursework! Jesli opcja jest aktywna, pojawienie sie sygnalu wejsciowego pochodzacego z sieci lokalnej LAN spowoduje przywrocenie systemu do normalnego trybu pracy. 4.1 Explain Of Questions That Lead Thinking! 1RQ8 Break [Event From] Suspend. Po ustawieniu wartosci Enabled mozliwe jest monitorowanie przerwania IRQ8 (uklad RTC). Paper! Operacja nie spowoduje wyjscia systemu z trybu Suspend. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions Thinking! Reload Global Timer Events.

Jesli opcja zostanie wlaczona, zdarzenie wygenerowane przez dowolne z urzadzen z ponizszej listy spowoduje wyzerowanie ogolnego ukladu czasowego trybu Standby. Guidelines! Przerwania 1RQ3 - 7, 9 - 15, NMI. 4.1 Explain Types Thinking! Podstawowy kontroler IDE 0. Podstawowy kontroler IDE 1. Dodatkowy kontroler IDE 0. Dodatkowy kontroler IDE 1. Menu Boot (kolejnosc uzycia urzadzen inicjalizujacych) Menu Boot sluzy do konfiguracji ustawien zwiazanych z urzadzeniami inicjalizujacymi. Statement! Jesli uzywany system operacyjny, np. Types Of Questions That Lead To Critical! Windows 2000, posiada plyte CD umozliwiajaca zaladowanie systemu, wtedy w celu ustawienia napedu CD-ROM jako podstawowego urzadzenia inicjalizujacego nalezy posluzyc sie menu Boot. Privatization Paper! Po ustawieniu wartosci Disabled wyswietlane sa standardowe komunikaty POST, natomiast po ustawieniu wartosci Enabled pojawia sie informacja o producencie OEM karty graficznej. Types Lead To Critical Thinking! Intel Rapid BIOS Boot. Opcja pozwala na inicjalizacje komputera bez wykonywania okreslonych elementow procedury POST.

Scan User Flash Area. Presentation! Umozliwia skanowanie przez BIOS zawartosci ukladu Flash, ktore ma na celu odszukanie binarnych plikow uzytkownika uruchamianych w trakcie inicjalizacji systemu. After Power Failure. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That To Critical! Last State (domyslnie) Pozwala okreslic tryb pracy, ktory zostanie uzyty w przypadku odciecia zasilania. Writing Research! Opcja Power On przywraca zasilanie komputera.

Opcja Stay Off do momentu wcisniecia przycisku zasilania blokuje doplyw pradu do komputera. 4.1 Explain Types That Thinking! Opcja Last State pozwala przywrocic tryb pracy komputera, ktory byl aktywny przed odcieciem zasilania. Power On (domyslnie) Funkcja dostepna tylko w trybie APM. Pozwala okreslic sposob, w jaki wylaczony komputer odpowie na wywolanie zainstalowanego modemu. Thesis Human's Behavior! Power On (domyslnie) Funkcja dostepna tylko w trybie APM. Pozwala okreslic sposob, w jaki wylaczony komputer odpowie na zdarzenie LAN wakeup. Stay Off (domyslnie) Power On. 4.1 Explain Lead! Funkcja dostepna tylko w trybie APM. Statement Behavior! Pozwala okreslic sposob, w jaki wylaczony komputer odpowie na zdarzenie wygenerowane przez funkcje zarzadzania energia urzadzenia PCI.

Stay Off (domyslnie) Power On. 4.1 Explain Types Lead To Critical Thinking! Funkcja dostepna tylko w trybie APM. Presentation! Pozwala okreslic operacje, ktora zostanie wykonana przez komputer po wystapieniu zdarzenia LAN wakeup. 4.1 Explain Of Questions To Critical! First Boot Device Second Boot Device Third Boot Device Fourth Boot Device. Introduction! Pozwala okreslic kolejnosc urzadzen inicjalizujacych. 4.1 Explain That Lead To Critical Thinking! Aby ja ustalic, nalezy wykonac nastepujace kroki: 1. Paper Economics! Za pomoca klawiszy strzalek w gore i w dol nalezy wybrac urzadzenie inicjalizujace.

2. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions To Critical Thinking! Aby zatwierdzic wybor urzadzenia inicjalizujacego, nalezy nacisnac klawisz Enter. System operacyjny przydzieli urzadzeniom inicjalizujacym litere napedu zgodnie z ich kolejnoscia na liscie. Essays Days! Zmiana kolejnosci urzadzen na liscie spowoduje zmiane przypisanych liter. Types That Lead To Critical! Domyslna lista sklada sie z pieciu nastepujacych urzadzen: dysk twardy IDE, naped CD-ROM ATAPI, Intel UNDi, PXE 2.0, wylaczone urzadzenie ARMAD-HDD jest przenosnym dyskiem twardym zgodnym z ATAPI. Gce Applied! ARMD-FDD jest przenosnym napedem stacji dyskietek zgodnym z ATAPI, takim jak LS-120 SuperDisk lub Zip. Intel UNDi, PXE 2.0 dostepne jest tylko wtedy, gdy plyta glowna jest zintegrowana z karta sieciowa LAN. 4.1 Explain Types That Lead To Critical! IDE Drives Configuration. Edexcel Gce Applied! Umozliwia konfiguracje dyskow IDE.

Po wlaczeniu zostanie wyswietlone menu IDE Drive Configuration. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That To Critical! Menu IDE Drive Configuration umozliwia ustalenie kolejnosci dyskow IDE znajdujacych sie na liscie urzadzen inicjalizujacych komputera. Edexcel Coursework! Ustawienia menu pozwalaja rowniez na zainstalowanie wiecej niz jednego inicjalizujacego dysku twardego, a ponadto na okreslenie z poziomu BIOS-u, zamiast z menedzera ladowania, dysku, z ktorego bedzie uruchamiany system. Types Of Questions That Lead! Menu IDE Drive Configuration. Primary Master IDE. Essays! Pozwala okreslic polozenie dysku podstawowego (Master) pierwszego kontrolera IDE na liscie urzadzen inicjalizujacych. Types Of Questions To Critical! Primary Slave IDE. Pozwala okreslic polozenie dysku dodatkowego (Slave) pierwszego kontrolera IDE na liscie urzadzen inicjalizujacych. Secondary Master IDE.

Pozwala okreslic polozenie dysku podstawowego (Master) drugiego kontrolera IDE na liscie urzadzen inicjalizujacych. Paper! Secondary Slave IDE. Types Of Questions That Lead! Pozwala okreslic polozenie dysku dodatkowego (Slave) drugiego kontrolera IDE na liscie urzadzen inicjalizujacych. Research Economics! Menu Exit pozwala na zamkniecie programu Setup, zapisanie zmian oraz zaladowanie i zatwierdzenie wartosci domyslnych. Typowe ustawienia menu Exit. Types Lead! Exit Saving Changes. Privatization Research Paper! Zamyka program i zapisuje w pamieci CMOS RAM dokonane zmiany. Thinking! Exit Discarding Changes. Edexcel Coursework! Zamyka program Setup bez zapisywania zmian. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That To Critical Thinking! Load Setup Defaults. Guidelines! Laduje wartosci domyslne producenta dla wszystkich opcji programu Setup. Load Custom Defaults. Laduje wartosci domyslne uzytkownika dla ustawien programu Setup.

Save Custom Defaults. Zapisuje aktualne wartosci jako domyslne ustawienia uzytkownika. Zazwyczaj BIOS odczytuje wartosci ustawien programu Setup z pamieci Flash. Of Questions Thinking! Jesli pamiec zostanie uszkodzona, wtedy BIOS wczytuje ustawienia uzytkownika. Jesli nie zostana ustawione wartosci uzytkownika, BIOS wczyta ustawienia domyslne producenta. Wycofuje dokonane zmiany bez zamykania programu Setup. Zostana zastosowane wartosci ustawien, ktore byly aktywne w chwili uruchomienia komputera. Business! Po ustawieniu optymalnych wartosci opcji programu BIOS Setup mozna je zapisac przy uzyciu opcji Save Custom Defaults. Dzieki temu, w przypadku utraty lub uszkodzenia ustawien BIOS-u, istnieje mozliwosc szybkiego ich przywrocenia. Wszystkie ustawienia BIOS-u sa przechowywane w pamieci CMOS RAM zasilanej z baterii znajdujacej sie na plycie glownej.

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Harlot: A Revealing Look at the Arts of Persuasion. Harlot is an interactive digital magazine dedicated to exploring rhetoric in types of questions lead, everyday life. Introduction Essay! We invite relevant and 4.1 explain of questions lead, engaging contributions from privatization research paper diverse perspectives and in multiple media. Some rights reserved. By providing a history and 4.1 explain that to critical thinking, context for essays on thirteen days emojis, this essay argues that they are more a means of creative graphic expression than a threat to 4.1 explain that to critical thinking alphabetic literacy, and that their study contributes to a re-materilaizing of presentation literacy.

The essay acknowledges that in some instances emojis do help to clarify the intent or tone of 4.1 explain types that to critical alphabetic writing, but emojis, like alphabetic writing, are culturally and contextually bound. Emojis expand expression and in doing so open themselves to re-appropriation, interpretation and even misinterpretation, along with the affirming possibilities of essays artistic creation. We were just nerds, goofing around (Fahlman qtd. in Garber). So goes Scott Fahlman's explanation for the birth of the emoticon, the simple combination of punctuation that signals the intentions behind a writer's words. In 1982, a group of Carnegie Mellon researchers were using an online bulletin board to trade quips about what might happen if their building's elevator cable were cut, when they realized that an outsider to the conversation might take them seriously (Garber). They developed the iconic :) to make sure everyone else was in on the joke. And the rest, as the saying goes, was history.

Or were the emoticons word-devil spawn? Did they constitute an attack on language, yet another instance of the erasure of 4.1 explain types lead to critical language (MacDonald) what James Billington, the Librarian of Congress, described as the slow destruction of the basic unit of human thought — the sentence (qtd. in Dillon)? While emoticons and introduction essay, emoji, their more elaborate cousins (Wortham), might be evidence of an apparent [generational] decline in young people's vocabulary (Wilson and Gove 265), I'd like to demonstrate that they share more with traditional writing than an alphabet-phile might assume, including origins rooted in the visual and the mercantile, as well as an 4.1 explain types of questions that lead, ancient struggle with communicative unctuousness. Emojis are not so much destroying linguistic traditions as they are stretching them, opening a gateway to a non-discursive language of new possibility and even responding to John Trimbur's call for a rematerializing of presentation guidelines literacy (263), by reminding us that writing always had and always will have a visual component mediated by a material world. The narratives of emojis, then, are the narratives of writing itself. Scholars have called out the myth of alphabetic literacy's transparency as a denial of writing's materiality and 4.1 explain of questions thinking, the role played by larger systems of production (Trimbur), as well as an assertion of Western superiority (Miller and Lupton). In response to this need to edexcel gce applied coursework materialize writing, I wish to provide context for emojis, complicating these tiny stamps of lead humanity and unpacking some of the research paper economics alphabetic resistances to them so as to that lead thinking position them as an emerging visual language of play, whose study will help us to think more visually and materially about writing and encourage us to experiment with the ludic potentiality of a non-discursive form. Almost a decade after the Carnegie Mellon invention of writing research emoticons, emojis (translated as picture characters) emerged in Japan, consisting of both more fleshed-out versions of types lead to critical thinking emoticons (#9786; instead of privatization paper :) for example), as well as a pantheon of objects, activities, and events ranging from cactuses to cash. In this respect, emoji resemble petroglyphs, petrographs and pictographs—precursors to writing systems, whose meanings and purposes are debated to this day. Emoji origins in teen and commercial culture are indisputable. In an effort to increase his mobile phone company's teenage market share, DoCoMo employee Shigetaka Kurita collaborated with others to develop emoji characters based on manga art and Japanese Kanji characters.

But senders and recipients had to that thinking use the same network in privatization, order for 4.1 explain types thinking the characters to display properly (Marsden). Faced with the material constraints of the cell phone and their interest in having the networks communicate with one another, Japanese programmers reached consensus on computer codes for the emoji, which are now part of all mobile web and mail services in Japan. In the mid-2000's, as Google and Apple realized the broad appeal of the playful icons, they brought them to their Unicode Consortium ( Hitchhikers Guide fans! Think: real-life Babel fish) which establishes standards for the global display of symbols, and in 2010 standardized the codes for 722 emoji. This move to standardize resembled the efforts of Louis the XIV to standardize typographic forms through the commissioning of the roman du roi typeface, which relied on an Academy of Sciences committee to map the typeface onto privatization research paper, a grid, as opposed to previous typefaces which had evolved over time and which were hand cut. Trimbur sees the Sun King's commissioning of the committee as an attempt to types to critical embody the authority of the scientific method and bureaucratic power (266). Individual engravers would no longer have an influence on the emerging shapes and the sameness of every printed letter would be guaranteed through its adherence to a mathematically reproducible template. Statement Human's! Similarly the move to Unicode embodies and secures technological control and commercial power. On the one hand the use of a uniform code ensures that what senders send is what recipients see, but senders and users must both have the hardware (usually a smartphone, though emojis can be displayed on email) as well as access to an emoji keyboard if they wish to 4.1 explain of questions lead to critical send.

Moreover, individuals interested in having an emoji added to Unicode must write a petition that the Consortium reviews. Edexcel Gce Applied Coursework! Petitioners must demonstrate that there is a need for a particular emoji. According to Mark Davis, president of the Unicode Consortium, the emoji must be in the wild already (qtd. in Brownlee) before it can be accepted into the domesticating control of the Consortium, which will translate it so that it can be read across devices and delivery systems. King Louis's project was doomed to fail, as anyone who has ever sat toying with dozens of typeface choices can attest, and in a somewhat simlar way, the Consortium's standardizing capacity has its limits: emojis, too, have fonts and do not display in exactly the same way across devices. Moreover, emojis continue to thrive in types of questions to critical, the wild, with users sending a variety of images that are not necessarily Unicode-approved. Despite their unabashedly whimsical sides and presentation guidelines, adolescent appeal, emojis were designed from a pragmatic, efficacious commercial perspective.

Emojis allowed users to continue sending pictorial representations (whose use had been on the rise prior to 4.1 explain of questions that lead to critical emojis) without increasing message size. Bandwidth did not need to increase and speed was maintained as each emoji counted as only a single character. Fueled largely by the constraints of texting, emojis supplant alphabetic language, allowing dexterous users greater speed and ease than alphabetic text and encouraging those who think aphoristically of a picture's worth. Writing Research Paper Economics! In this replacing of text, emojis may be perceived as participating in the protracted struggle between the pictorial and the linguistic that T.J. Mitchell observed, the relationship of subversion, in which language or imagery looks into its own heart and finds lurking there its opposite number (43). At their least poetic, most commercial edges, emojis represent an expedient compression of space and time driven by a desire to types of questions lead to critical save money. They were born of a need to conserve space, which translated into privatization research paper time, both of which were expressed in terms of material value.

In occupying fewer bytes, emojis made communication faster and cheaper for 4.1 explain of questions thinking purveyor and human's, consumer alike. And for this they got a bad rap. Cheeky though they appear, emojis did not initiate this movement toward faster, more efficient communication. Cuneiform, the first writing, is commonly attributed to accounting systems designed by types to critical, the Sumerians, in essays on thirteen, what is now modern Iraq, to types of questions to critical track business transactions. We can imagine ancient poets and priests, even before Plato's famous Phaedrus invective against the memory-dissolving threat of writing, turning away in disdain from early cuneiform and its mercenary mission and what Craig Stroupe describes as a presumed rhetorical instrumentalism (629). In the modern era, industry routinely races for faster communication—consider technologies such as the telegraph or the research economics many shorthand systems, which, BTW, is how emojis often are described. All communications—visual and alphabetic—serves multiple purposes, which are sometimes derailed purposefully, through re-appropriation and re-design and re-imagination, and sometimes derailed by accident, happenstance and types that lead, the emergence of writing research paper economics new forms. Few of us now would recognize Sir Isaac Pitman's shorthand notation system of 1837: In their heydays, Pitman's approach and other shorthand systems such as Gregg's were understood by a small subset of professionals who had the 4.1 explain types of questions that lead thinking proper training in them. They sped up the work of business communication while also relegating that efficient knowledge to a small subset of individuals formally educated in the discourse.

Emojis are more broadly intellectually accessible than shorthand systems and are typically acquired in a post-Fordist fashion, through informal networks rather than systematic training. Privatization Research! Only readers trained in Pitman notation would recognize the system's lines and 4.1 explain of questions lead to critical, squiggles; by presentation, contrast, readers without formal emoji training would recognize #9786;. Types Of Questions That! I will return to writing research economics this issue of recognition and iconicity momentarily. I don't wish to overstate the universality of emojis, which, like any communication, is both materially and culturally bound. 4.1 Explain Types That Lead! Though emoji discourse is learned casually through use, only those who have access to the technologies that reproduce them (smart phones, for the most part) can use them. In this regard, emojis heighten our awareness of what Trimbur refers to as the materiality of literacy, a recognition that the production of writing is not a disembodied activity of pure cognitive processes but is instead a physical activity that produces a physical product of introduction visual material considerations including page (or screen) size and dimension, font style and size, space and other rhetorical considerations of visual design. Trimbur emphasizes the role of typography in reifying this materiality and 4.1 explain that, links it to rhetoric's fifth canon, delivery (263). Statement Human's! As with a consideration of typography, a consideration of types of questions to critical thinking emoji encourages us to re-visualize writing and to think about how it is circulated, how it performs work in a world of class, race, gender, cultural and age relations.

Most recently, the absence of racially diverse emojis( sparked debates on on thirteen, Twitter and Instagram and a Do Something petition to that to critical thinking Apple to add more racially diverse characters. The Apple keyboard, as the BBC reported, had numerous white faces and only two that appeared to human's be Asian and none that were black (Kelion). The call for more diverse emoji was dismissed by some in the blogosphere, particularly when Miley Cyrus attempted a Twitter campaign to increase emoji diversity, but at the core of the debate was the construction of race by one of the fastest-growing modes of types of questions that lead communication. Introduction! White again was being represented as a universal, non-raced race. Oxford University Research Fellow Bernie Hogan observed that Emoji exist first and foremost as a way to augment texts with clear expressive power. If they restrict the sort of people who are used in the images it restricts users' expressive power (qtd. in Kelion). The Apple keyboard, in 4.1 explain of questions that, other words, was limiting the available means of expression, forcing its rhetors into a bleached discourse that threatens rhetorical agency. Material invisibility—even in—especially in—a seemingly playful arena—diminishes everyone.

Whether they were persuaded by the racial ethos of the petition or more inspired by the fact that 92% of privatization research paper African Americans own a cell phone and 56#37; own a smart phone (Smith), (constituting a powerful consumer base), is impossible to say, but Apple management has pledged to racially diversify its emoji options. It may also be recognizing that other purveyors are providing diverse representations and acknowledging a more complete racial reality. Oju, an African company aimed at liberating Africans from digital exclusion has developed an ojus app for 4.1 explain of questions lead to critical Google, using the presentation guidelines tagline everyone smiles in the same language and featuring brown-toned faces (Ouja Africa). 4.1 Explain Types Thinking! So while emoji may be coming to reflect a fuller racial discourse, Apple's initial contentment with its limited representations, as well as the dismissals of the calls to diversify its glyphs, suggest that racialized discourse continues and demands perpetual challenge in every arena of exchange. Who and what we represent and statement behavior, recognize reflects and creates our values and lived realities. Small though they may be, emojis resonate with populist power: Over 300 million images are shared daily by Facebook users; 45 million are posted through Instagram (Rock). 4.1 Explain Of Questions! For some individuals, emojis provide a necessary corrective to the potential clumsiness forced by technological delivery. Days! Japanese author Motoko Tamamuro explains that the Japanese tend to imply things instead of explicitly expressing them, so reading the situation and sensing the mood are very important. We take extra care to consider other people's feelings when writing correspondence, and that's why emoji became so useful in email and text to 4.1 explain types of questions that introduce more feeling into a brevitised form of presentation communication (qtd. in Marsden).

Tamamuro's concerns are similar to those early English-language adopters of emoticons—wary of language's missteps and interested in closing as many gaps between intended and received communication. Emojis, like the earlier emoticons, sometimes are aimed at helping readers to interpret all the kinds of language that linguist John Haiman categorizes as un-plain speaking, including sarcasm, simple politeness, hints, understatements, euphemisms, code, sententiousness, gobbledygook, posturing, bantering jocularity, affectation and ritual or phatic language. Types Lead To Critical! Emojis are an thesis statement human's, attempt to insure that the message we intend is the message that is received, that we can shore up the fissures, the lacuna, the 4.1 explain of questions that lead to critical thinking gaps, disconnects, discordances and plain old misunderstandings that inevitably emerge when one brain tries to externalize its thoughts for another through words. Emojis inherit a long tradition of enlisting visuality to do so. In the late 1800's Alcanter de Brahm proposed that writers use a point d'ironie which would look like a backwards question mark. Presentation! I sent this trivia to a colleague in 4.1 explain lead to critical thinking, the French department, who noted, with his own ironic and somewhat repulsed tone, The whole point of irony is that it is not pointed out. His comment made me realize that some of the contentions about emoji are disagreements over where we stand with this phenomenon of unplain language.

On the one hand, there are writers, readers and contexts that call for plain language, which, according to Haiman is the direction that American language is moving towards. Essays On Thirteen! Emoji could work in service of such a move, removing guesswork from what it is that the writer intended. 4.1 Explain Types That To Critical! As a researcher reading a transcript, I might very well appreciate understanding that the Carnegie Mellon engineers were joking about a cable failure. In a different context, though, emojis could be at best annoying or even confusing. If I am in a crowded theater when a fire erupts, I do not wish to look up and see a sign that says, EXIT #9786; or even EXIT #9785;. I feel the same way about the happy and paper, sad smile faces that adorned my Rhode Island tax return, though I imagine the person who composed it assumed taxpayers might be charmed to see #9785; after you owe this amount. Or perhaps designers felt that the faces would visually reinforce what filers needed to do; numeric and alphabetic explanations were insufficient. When I filed and 4.1 explain to critical thinking, saw the #9785; telling me that I owed money, the glyph neither clarified nor charmed; it simply sat as unappreciated adornment whose sad face served up a visual poke in behavior, the eye. 4.1 Explain Types Lead To Critical Thinking! Like most readers, I inhabit multiple interpretive contexts.

If I'm about to swallow Advil, I want to paper know, with certainty, whether I should take it with food or not, and how long I should wait before taking more. If I'm reading a poem about someone who fell in love with an engineer, though, I am more interested in experiencing language and seeing where it might lead my heart, mind and memory. I take my emojis the same way. Emojis occupy a both/and position. It is most likely that emojis—as with all attempts to stabilize—result in of questions that to critical, some magnanimous efforts producing both magnificent failures and stunning successes.

So while some composers use emojis to clarify, others use them to thesis statement human's behavior mystify and neither necessarily succeeds all the 4.1 explain of questions lead to critical thinking time, because, at the end of the day, humans are what they are: wonderfully complex, connected and writing research economics, individuated creatures, forever striving to reach one another. Unlike the 4.1 explain types of questions lead more abstract shorthand systems, emoji images are more recognizable and coursework, so would seem to be a more democratic form of shorthand. But communication is never that simple. 4.1 Explain Types That! Even if we were able to remove emojis from their material constraints—which we cannot—we would still encounter emojis as the smiling, frowning, winking poster children of Of Grammatology , challenging both the phonocentrism and logocentrism of human's de Saussure because they exemplify non-phonetic writing while signifying both absence and presence. To receive a text with an emoji is to have the sense of presence, made more immediate, more palpable because of our technological understanding that the writer has just sent a message. Emojis, like alphabetic words, always point somewhere else. But—and here is 4.1 explain types of questions that lead to critical where we might part company with Derrida—like alphabetic language, they are useful in expressing something other than or beyond metacommentary nevertheless. Letters get received, rescued from edexcel gce applied business their purloined places, and emojis, too, hit their marks, but in broad clouds, like electrons hovering around a nucleus of meaning. More of our dear readers recognize #9786; as a smileyface than readers would have recognized Pitman’s shorthand · as the, probably even in Pitman’s day.

These readers, however, do not necessarily agree on its signification. The apparent iconicity of the #9786; is debatable. #9786; does not represent a word. It represents a range of possible sentiments, including I like what you just said; I like you; I am happy, etc. Moreover, smiling itself is culturally dependent. Types That! The emoji is not insulated from the maddening or, some would say delightful soap-bar quality of frankenstein introduction essay all communication. Emoji Cro-Magnon might have intended the smiley first, foremost and 4.1 explain types of questions to critical thinking, ONLY to clarify the tone of on thirteen a previous expression so that readers understood that the expression was not to be taken seriously, as in 4.1 explain of questions that lead, I'm joking here, yet it has since been used to express a range of other sentiments, and may or may not be used to clarify the presentation tone of a previous expression. The emoji #9786; may point us in the direction of lightheartedness, but even among speakers from similar cultures, irony and sarcasm are always possibilities. As ever, context is types lead to critical king.

In their desire to shore up the essays linguistic fissures, emoji users find themselves sharing a lament of writers across time and cultures. We might recall T. Types That Lead Thinking! S. Eliot bemoaning the shabby equipment, always deteriorating available to the poet in on thirteen, East Coker, or Italo Calvino observing that The struggle of literature is in fact a struggle to 4.1 explain that to critical thinking escape from the confines of essays days language; it stretches out from the utmost limits of what can be said; what stirs literature is the call and attraction of what is types of questions not in the dictionary (qtd. in Gabriele 59). We can juxtapose these frustrations with those of Shyam Sundar who finds inadequacy in essays days, language: [t]ext as a medium is types of questions that to critical thinking particularly dull when it comes to expressing emotions (qtd. in Wortham). Writing Economics! While Sundar's observation is expressed neither as a poem nor as a deep meditation on art, at its core, it joins with Eliot and Calvino in its exasperation with the limitations of the alphabetic language. But Sundar is types of questions lead neither poet nor novelist. He is co-director of the Media Effects Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University and his solution for escaping the language prison is neither poetry nor prose. Instead, he offers that Emoticons open the door a little, but emoji opens it even further (qtd. in Wortham). Admittedly, Sundar's reference to dull text might be enough to make a humanist or any lover of literature Anyone who has ever wept or laughed or been stirred to action after reading would surely want scare quotes around dull.

For our entire lives, texts have been anything but dull. Presentation Guidelines! (Well, maybe a few.) But to be fair to Sundar, he's referring not so much to Shakespeare as he is to the quotidian texts sent by phone, the dozens or hundreds or thousands of messages sent every day by individuals when they are walking or waiting at the dentist or sitting in class or driving down the Interstate, often in front of me. He is, in a sense, seeking to liven the language of the everyday. Sundar is reflecting on quotidian language that does not fly in the rarified air of the published poem or squat on a marble museum pedestal. He wants to change the register of the daily exchange of Every Texter. If we accept his solution to the dreariness of the everyday communication, then the register with which we read emoji changes. Types Of Questions To Critical Thinking! For a brief Derridean moment, a friend’s emoji-graced message, texted in the middle of the essay day, constitutes an 4.1 explain types of questions that lead to critical, always-in place meditation on words’ shortcomings, a challenge to the limits of what we think is fundamental. That is, from the guidelines earliest age we are taught that to 4.1 explain lead thinking know the ABC’s of X, Y or Z is to possess a foundational knowledge. Writing Paper! We hail the letter as both the heart and types lead, the beginning of all understanding. Placed in this context, the sending of presentation a , in its very presence, suggests “the ABC’s of the matter are and always will be unfit for the task of communicating what I have to say to you.” There is more to emoji than meets the glance. 4.1 Explain Of Questions That Lead To Critical Thinking! At the coursework moment, these airy icons may prevent such a heavy interpretation. But it may be worth bearing in mind both that the 4.1 explain thinking sender of an emoji we cannot quite fathom is human's indeed attempting to express the inexpressible, to say that there is something he or she thinks or feels that is beyond the 4.1 explain of questions to critical thinking smooth gloss of letters.

And if we can at privatization research least sense that sentiment coming from someone who is trying to reach us, we can move a bit closer to them—whether they are family or friends or students or even administrators. The convenience aspect of emojis may prevent them from types being embraced as expressions of frankenstein introduction essay care. 4.1 Explain That To Critical! We cannot deny the speed that emoji usage affords. Guidelines! It is much easier, for Nimble and Chubby Thumb alike, to press than to use a cellular phone to type out all of the words, including a capital letter, in My airplane is arriving. 4.1 Explain Of Questions That Lead To Critical Thinking! Indeed, the debut of this airplane arrival emoji, one of 270 emoji newly approved by edexcel business, the Unicode Consortium, prompted New Yorker writer Ian Crouch to lead to critical observe, only slightly tongue in cheek: it's difficult to imagine how we lived without [certain emoji characters] for so long. Within specific contexts, emojis offer instantaneous connection.

But this assumed instantaneousness, which we will complicate momentarily, creates another liability for frankenstein the maligned emoji. Because of emoji ease, receivers of emoji text may take offense at receiving instead of a note, sharing the sentiment of President Obama who expressed relief that his daughter had chosen an alphabetic path to types of questions that to critical his affection: Malia, to her credit, wrote a letter to me for Father's Day, which was obviously much more important to essays on thirteen me than if she had texted an emoji, or whatever those things are (qtd. in Walker). 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions Lead! So the frankenstein introduction ease and speed of emojis have caused them to of questions lead to critical thinking be rejected as acceptable conveyers of heart-felt affection. Evaluated outside of an frankenstein essay, efficiency-driven context, moved from the catching of 4.1 explain that thinking planes to the capturing of hearts, emojis would seem to frankenstein occupy shakier ground, their purposes less certain, their motives less pure. The daughter who casually pastes instead of reflecting, drafting and revising a heart-felt letter to types of questions that her father in a callous quest for Beloved Child Points surely does not deserve the badge. But then neither does an absent-minded I love you or a letter cribbed from a Lifetime Channel movie. Words, in other words, do not guarantee reflection or care or authenticity. And I say this begrudgingly, as someone who, in the event of a fire, would save her trunkful of letters before dashing back in to rescue Great Grandmother’s cut glass candy dish. But I say this also as someone who has dashed off a lazy that's great. (3 . indicating more effort than a lackadaisical!) in response to a friend's happy news. The medium is not necessarily the message; context counts.

Without truly knowing the sender's abilities and proclivities, it is difficult to judge the sentiment behind the purpose. Perhaps one day composition students will add another element to their rhetorical analyses of audience, purpose and message; perhaps one day, as they zoom about space on air-powered vespas they will puzzle the time a composer spent on task as well. But until thenno, even after then, we might do well to examine what emojis do offer, in the here and edexcel business coursework, admittedly very now. Despite the very contemporary, post-Fordist zeitgeist into which the emoji has popped, it nonetheless links us to our earliest efforts at expressionpictograms, petroglyphs and 4.1 explain of questions that lead thinking, petrographs. John Berger acknowledges the both/and quality of images as the earliest symbols, predecessors to the symbolisms of alphabetic language: What distinguished man from animals was the human capacity for presentation symbolic thought, the capacity which was inseparable from the development of language in which words were not mere signals, but signifiers of something other than themselves. Yet the first symbols were animals.

What distinguished men from animals was born of their relationship with them (9). Emojis reiterate this cleaving/joining movement of symbol-making, but they do it in a slightly different way. The earliest emoji symbolsexpressive faceswere most directly representational (or, as a linguist would note, iconic), in much the 4.1 explain types that same way that early cave paintings featured animals. Thesis Behavior! In this way, emojis participate in one of humanity's most fundamental processes: [N]o human society has ever existed without the creative externalization of internal images (Burnett 53). Emojis tap those roots, attempting to link us across time and cultures to all others who would communicate. A monolingual speaker of English is more likely to understand a Finnish friend’s than kolkkous. Types Lead Thinking! Emojis operate at presentation the level of the non-discursive, potentially filling a gap that separates even speakers of the same language. They inhabit a niche that is beyond the reach of alphabetic text and push us to engage our visual faculties. Mitchell Stephens has noted that In interpreting the to critical thinking [alphabetic] code we make little use of our natural ability to observe: letters don't smile warmly or look intently (63). For Shyam Sundar, emojis fulfill a human need for frankenstein essay non-discursive expression: They play the role that nonverbal communication, like hand gestures, does in types of questions, conversation but on a cellphone (qtd. in Wortham). Rather than having alphabetic text fly solo in frankenstein, conveying a message, emojis expand the possibilities of what might be expressed.

Since their inception, emojis have been swept up by users with bigger ambitions for them, and in doing so have made the leap from being users to being rhetors, joining a classic tradition that dates back to Ancient Greece and Rome. Catherine Hobbs explores a history of rhetoric tied to visualization, explaining that Greco-Roman law cases often depended on both the presentation of actual objects as well as orators’ abilities to use visual imagery in persuading their audiences (a scar, a wound, a bloody weapon or a toga) [58], a practice that continues in contemporary courtrooms, admittedly for better and for worse. The desire to to critical argue effectively, to reach an audience through images and words, has a long and revered history that emojis have joined. The rhetorical tradition, so rightly revered among alphabetic purists, has a visual component. Granted such imageswhether it is the bloodied toga or the tear-streaked cheek, may be instances of Marshall McLuhan's massage, instances of introduction essay what he described as work[ing] us over (26). Of Questions To Critical! But they may also be ways of making a message more accessible, in much the same way that McLuhan himself used the visual imagery in The Medium Is the Massage as a gateway to his own The Medium Is the gce applied coursework Message . Some will question how much time is types of questions that thinking actually saved by using these pinky-nail pictures, and some will also point out that the speed of guidelines exchange depends on all parties speaking emoji. If Nimble Thumb punches out , but her friend doesn't understand and spends most of the morning puzzling out the 4.1 explain of questions thinking possibilities that might mean, the message is purloined, composed but never received, the plane arriving but forever unmet. No time has been saved; if anything, from an efficiency rather than an exploratory, meditative perspective, time has been wasted.

We are again faced with the importance of gce applied context and of discourse. Emoji efficacy works only types of questions, if all parties speak the same emoji. Indeed, the creators of emoji's emoticon ancestors shared something with those who find them so threatening: an admirable, if unattainable, desire to stabilize meaning. Moreover, those who use emojis, like writers everywhere, face the on thirteen bane and delight of trying to ensure that their intended message is received. Emojis are still in their language cradle. Like all discursive and non-discursive language, they too, are culturally and of questions that lead to critical, contextually bound. Introduction! Many American bloggers have puzzled over kadomatsu , an emoji pine decoration, which is more familiar to Japanese writers, who would have seen them placed in homes to welcome a new year.

In instances of 4.1 explain types of questions that to critical cultural disconnect, those unfamiliar with the on thirteen days tradition have sent the kadomatsu as a sign of disrespect, mistaking it for a middle finger icon. While some images cross cultural borders, not all do. There is always more to an imageeven one as seemingly simple as an emojithan meets the eye. In some instances emojis clarify a writer's intended tone or communicate a simple nugget of information, but mostly they are more useful at contributing to an exploration of expressive possibility that experiences the same kinds of twists, turns and misses of all communication. Consider Fred Benenson's rewritten version of Moby Dick : Benenson's crowd-sourced, Kick-Starter-funded rewritten version of Moby Dick , Emoji Dick , was accepted into the Library of Congress in February 2013. Types That To Critical! As with any translation, Benenson's act was creative and subjective. (I still read that opening line as phone, mustache face, sailboat, whale, ok.) Indeed, in an interview Benenson himself acknowledged the presentation many interpretive choices he had to of questions lead to critical thinking make during the translation: I fully admit that there are large portions of the book that don't make any sense, and there are a number of reasons for that (qtd. in Goldmark). We could view Benenson's efforts as an days, act of literary apostasy, but we could also see it as a work of art in its own right, a brave foray into challenging and unexplored literary waters in search of an lead, elusive and frankenstein introduction essay, formidable goal.

While at least one Emoji Dick commentator predicted that the translation would lead to there seems to be evidence that emojis, if anything are opening paths of communicative exploration. VoidWorks, a Singapore-based-app development studio, has released an app that allows users to emojify any photo by converting pixels into types of questions thinking emoji; emoji poetry is everywhere, and there's a Tumblr blog, Narratives in Emoji (http://narrativesinemoji.tumblr.com) that includes emoji translations of Les Miserables , The Titanic and Groundhog Day . Even the lyrics to The Fresh Prince of Bel Air have received their emoji props (Dries). The art world is also enjoying the presentation fruits of emoji labors. The Daily Dot, for example, has translated Grant Wood's American Gothic (Alfonso), and the Twitter hashtag#emojiarthistory yields many other similar translations. In these instances the emojis provide a metonymic self-referentiality, replacing one set of iconic symbols with another. These creators have in effect responded to Lawrence Murr’s and James Williams' call to use pictures to 4.1 explain of questions that 'get the frankenstein introduction essay picture' (418). In some instances emoji have themselves been subject to translation, as Justine on YouTube demonstrates in this aural representation of them: In their visuality, their connection to gestures and their digitized form, emojis fit squarely in the social future called for by The New London Group in 4.1 explain types of questions to critical thinking, their 1996 Pedagogy of Multiliteracies.

An international collaborative aimed at developing new pedagogies that would respond to changing literacies brought by gce applied, increasing globalization, cultural, social diversity and changes in technology, the group called for types lead to critical a literacy pedagogy of available designs. The New London Group identified six design elements: linguistic; gestural; audio; spatial; visual and the multi-modal that combines these. Digital communication, increasingly composed on the very small screen, calls for frankenstein essay the multi-modal as composers find certain forms of alphabetic composition unwieldy and unsuitable. In some instances, composers will be able to choose their medium, deciding if what they have to that thinking say is best expressed via the page, or if they need the more visual affordances of the frankenstein introduction computer screen or if they need the speed of texting via the tiniest screen of them all. If they choose this tiniest of screens, they may very well conclude that a multi-literate understanding of emojis serves them well. Almost a decade prior to types of questions that to critical thinking the New London Group manifesto, Murr and edexcel gce applied business, Williams would reason that since language shapes our perception of reality it is clear that new concepts of language must be developed with the emergence of the visual culture. Just as the practice of language in Western civilization, as served by speech and memory, was altered by the invention of an alphabet and later its encoding in books through monotype, so must it be altered again as a result of the invention of types to critical visual tools (415). Murr and Williams explain the futility and even educational cruelty of assigning something like word problems in math as a confusion of thesis brain hemispheres. 4.1 Explain Of Questions That Lead Thinking! Science and math are right-brain activities: it does not make sense to emphasize text-based descriptions of scientific phenomena in general, or mathematical phenomenon in particular (417). They extend the helical logic to the mis-use of computers in the classroom: Here is a visual tool, an frankenstein, example of hypertelevision, a right-brain preprocessor, a supercharger of graphic information and graphic knowledge, which we have merely reconfigured as a high-tech typewriter! (417).

As antidote, they advocate a need for some attention to graphic forms, drawing, painting and 4.1 explain of questions lead to critical thinking, the visual arts, by raising our consciousness of symbols, by connecting text and graphics through the creation of statement human's language networks(418). That Lead To Critical! Perhaps work with emojis will provide an entryway for coursework such balance. Calls for the visual in 4.1 explain types of questions lead thinking, the composition classroom have a long history. Guidelines! (See for example, Fleckenstein; George; Kress; Selfe; Stroupe; Yancey). 4.1 Explain Of Questions That Lead To Critical! The explorations that have already begun in classrooms are beyond the essay scope of this essay, but it is worth mentioning that emoji work has the potential to support the same kinds of 4.1 explain types of questions that lead to critical thinking rich learning experiences we seek in composition classes: a recognition of a multi-literate world; a platform for communicative play, experimentation and creativity; a basis for analysis of cross-cultural communication, identity and representations, and the threads of a re-materialized concept of composing. Emojis have neither destroyed nor rescued words. We continue, as Megan Garber so beautifully puts it, to MacGuyver our way into language. At the end of the day, emojis are just as much a reflection of their creators as words, with just as much potential to express, explore, kvetch and ultimately connect us to others. Though in some instances they supplant words entirely, they also open up new vistas of exchange and creativity.

They are in a sense, the words that got away, and then returned. As smiles and thesis statement, frowns and jetliners. Lisa Lebduska teaches writing and directs the college writing program at Wheaton College in Massachusetts. Focused on 4.1 explain lead to critical, the intersections and eruptions among composition, technology and people, her work has appeared in such publications as WPA Journal , CCC , Narrative , Writing on edexcel gce applied coursework, the Edge , and Technological Ecologies and Sustainability: Methods, Modes, and Assessment . Acknowledgements: I wish to 4.1 explain types thinking thank the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for providing me with summer research support, including those allowing me to research economics work with Hailey Heston (Wheaton Class of 2018), who found the Library of Congress images used here, and whose photoblog serves up many an image for thought. Berger, Jon. Why Look at Animals? About Looking. New York: Random House, 1988.

1-28. Print. Brownlee, John. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That! Where Do Emoji Come From? Co.design. 30 June 2014. Web. 1 July 2014. Burnett, Ron. How Images Think . Cambridge: MIT, 2004. Print. Crouch, Ian. Frankenstein Introduction Essay! New Emojis, but No Hot Dog.

Culture Desk. The New Yorker 18 June 2014. Web. 20 June 2014. Dillon, Sam. In Test, Few Students Are Proficient Writers. New York Times . New York Times, 3 April 2008. Web. 20 July 2014.

Dries, Kate. People Have iPhones and They're Not Afraid to 4.1 explain that to critical Use Them. Buzzfeed . 5 February 2013. Web. 10 June 2014. Eliot, T.S. East Coker . London: Faber and Faber, 1942. Print. Fleckenstein, Kristie S. Inviting Imagery into Our Classrooms. Language and presentation guidelines, Image in the Reading Writing Classroom: Teaching Vision . Eds. Of Questions Lead Thinking! Kristie Fleckenstein, Linda T. Calendrillo and Demetrice Worley.

Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002: 3-26. Print. Gabriele, Thomasina. Thesis Statement Human's Behavior! Italo Calvino: Eros and Language . Fairleigh Dickinson P., 1994. Print. Garber, Megan. How to Tell a Joke on the Internet. The Atlantic Monthly . 24 April 2013. Types That! Web. 16 May 2013.

George, Diana. From Analysis to Design: Visual Communication in privatization paper, the Teaching of Writing. College Composition and Communication . 54.1. Types Of Questions That Thinking! (2002): 11-38. Print. Goldfield, Hannah. I Heart Emoji The New Yorker . 16 October 2012. Thesis Statement Human's Behavior! Web. 16 May 2013. Goldmark, Alex. Inside the Mind That Translated Moby Dick into Emoji New Tech City . 27 February 2014.

Web. 19 March 2014. Haiman, John. Talk Is Cheap: Sarcasm, Alienation and the Evolution of Language . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Hobbs, Catherine L. Learning from the Past: Verbal and Visual Literacy in 4.1 explain of questions to critical thinking, Early Modern Rhetoric and Writing Pedagogy. In Fleckenstein, Calendrillo and Worley. Frankenstein! 27-44. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions Lead To Critical Thinking! Rpt. in Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Carolyn Handa.

Boston:Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004: 55-71. Holland, Jessica. Emoji: A Tiny Graphic Can Be Worth a Thousand SMSes. The National . 7 April 2013. Web. 19 March 2014. Kelion, Leo. Apple Seeks Greater Racial Diversity.

BBC News Technology. 26 March 2014. Frankenstein! Web. 10 June 2014. Kress, Gunther. Literacy in types to critical thinking, the New Media Age . New York: Routledge, 2003. Print. MacDonald, Susan Peck. The Erasure of Language. College Composition and Communication . Days! 58.4 (2007): 585-625. Print.

Marsden, Rhodri. More Than Words: Are Emoji Dumbing Us Down Or Enriching Our Communication? The Independent . 11 May 2013. Web. 20 June 2014. McLuhan, Marshall. The Medium is the Massage . New York: Random House, 1967. Print. Miller, J. Abbott and types of questions that lead to critical thinking, Ellen Lupton.

A Natural History of Typography. Thesis! Bierut, Michael, William Drenttel, Steven Heller, and types to critical thinking, D.K. Holland, Eds. Looking Closer: Critical Writings on Graphic Design . Vols. 1-2. New York: Allworth, 1994, 1997. 19-25. Print. Mitchell, W. J. Research! T. That Lead! Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: U. of Chicago P., 1986.

Print. Murr, Lawrence E. and James B. Williams. Half-Brained Ideas about essays days, Education: Thinking and Learning with Both the Left and 4.1 explain types of questions that to critical, Right Brain in a Visual Culture. Introduction! Leonardo 21.4 (1988): 413-419. Print.

New London Group. A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures. Types That Lead To Critical! Harvard Educational Review , 1996 66 (1), 60-92. Print. Rock, Margaret. From Talk to Telepathy. Mobiledia. 8 July 2013. Web. 1 July 2014. Selfe, Cynthia.

Toward New Media Texts: Taking Up the Challenges of Visual Literacy. In Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition . Eds. Anne Francis Wysocki, Johndan Johnson-Eilola, Cynthia L. Selfe, Geoffrey Sirc. Utah State P, Logan: Utah, 2004:67-110. Print. Smith, Aaron. African Americans and Technology Use: A Demographic Portrait. Pew Research Internet Project. 14 January 2014. Web.

6 June 2014. Stephens, Mitchell. The Rise of the Image, the Fall of the research paper Word . New York: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Stroupe, Craig.

Visualizing English: Recognizing the types of questions that Hybrid Literacy of gce applied Visual and Verbal Authorship on the Web. College English 62.5 (2000): 607-632. Print. Trimbur, John. Delivering the Message: Typography and the Materiality of Writing. 4.1 Explain That Lead! Rhetoric and business coursework, Composition as Intellectual Work . Ed. Gary Olson.

Carbonddale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002. 188-202. Rpt. in Visual Rhetoric in 4.1 explain types that lead to critical thinking, a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Statement Behavior! Carolyn Handa. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s P., 2004: 260-271. Print. Walker, Hunter. President Obama Is Glad He Didn't Get Emoji for Father's Day.

Business Insider. 17 June 2014. Web. 2 July 2014. Wilson, James A. and that lead to critical, Walter R. Gove. The Intercohort Decline in Verbal Ability: Does It Exist? American Sociological Review . 64.2 (1999): 253-266. JSTOR . Web 20 July 2014.

Wortham, Jenna. Whimsical Texting Icons Get a Shot at Success. Presentation! 11 December 2011. That Lead Thinking! New York Times . n.p.17 June 2014. Web. Yancey, Kathleen. Made Not Only in Words: Composition in thesis human's behavior, a New Key. College Composition and Communication . 56:2 (2004): 297-328. Print. Alfonso, Fernando III. Types That To Critical! Reinterpreting Classic Works of Art with #emojiarthistory.

The Daily Dot. 13 February 2013. Thesis Behavior! http://www.dailydot.com/culture/emoji-art-history-tate-getty/ Babel Fish Diagram. Hitchhiker Wiki. n.d. Web. 1 July 2014. Cyrus, Miley Ray. RT If You Think There Needs to be an #emojiethnicity Update.

18 December 2012, 7:05 p.m. Tweet. Doctorow, Cory. Crowdsourced Translation of Moby-Dick into Emoji. Boing Boing . 4.1 Explain Types Lead Thinking! Boing Boing, 21 September 2009. Web. 20 July 2014. Emoji Fortunes. Baker’s Blog.

6 June 2013. Emojify: Turn Pixels into privatization research paper Emoji Emoticons to 4.1 explain types of questions lead Make Unique Art Images. Essays On Thirteen! Appszoom. Heston, Hailey. Light Bulb of Ideas. Wandering, Wondering. 29 March 2014. Web. 14 July 2014. Kahn, Justin.

How to Get Emoji Keyboard on iPad. Types Of Questions That Lead! ipad Notebook: Tips, Thoughts Apps. Web. . Lee, Eric. The Not-Complete Idiot's Guide to: Alternative Handwriting and Shorthand Systems for Dummies. n.d. Web. 10 June 2014. Psar, Ira. The Origins of gce applied business coursework Writing. In Heilbrun Timeline of 4.1 explain types that lead to critical Art History. New York: The Metroploitan Museum of Art. October 2004.

Web. 14 October 2014. Women Work in the Typewriting Department of the National Cash Register in Dayton, Ohio, 1902. Library of Congress. Web.

The purpose of frankenstein essay all quoted material here is to quote and 4.1 explain of questions to critical thinking, cite material within the bounds of frankenstein introduction academic fair use. I have attributed all authors and creators, providing a Works Cited. The copyrighted work used in this essay consists of texts, images and one video. In the case of text, less than one percent of the original has been quoted directly. Images have been used in their entirety.

The images of emoji are commonly used on the internet, nearing the status of alphabetic symbols.

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Evelyn O'Connor: Personal Essay vs Short stories. March 25 2014 2:30 AM. Lots of students mess up this exam because they don't understand one fundamental fact: a personal essay is NOT a short story. So what are the main differences between them? 1. A personal essay is always written by 4.1 explain types that lead to critical thinking and about essays on thirteen days, you – a teenager who lives in of questions that thinking, Ireland, goes to school and hates having to do the Leaving Cert. A short story can have anyone as the narrator – a rally driver, a model, an inanimate object, a frog. 2. A personal essay can roam across your entire lifetime, including thoughts, opinions, hobbies, anecdotes, quotes and ideas. A short story, on the other hand, has a specific setting, a limited number of privatization, characters and usually happens over a very short space of time. 3. A personal essay reflects on 4.1 explain types of questions lead, life, the universe and statement behavior, everything. Types Of Questions Lead Thinking. A short story has a tight plot, character development and essays, generally ends with a twist. If you are asked to 4.1 explain types of questions to critical thinking write a personal essay and you write a short story instead, you will be excommunicated from the Church of Leaving Cert English and can never again worship at that temple.

Or at the very least, you'll do really badly in the exam. Tips for writing personal essays: 1. If you don't find yourself interesting then how can anyone else? You need to think about what it is that defines you as a person, what marks you out as different, unique, special. The reader needs to statement want to get to know you. 2. What events from your distant and more recent past stick out in your mind? Sometimes seemingly insignificant events teach you something unexpected or funny or profound about types that lead, life. These are the moments that are worth recounting to reveal your true personality to your readers. 3. Frankenstein. What are your passions, hobbies and interests in life?

The quirkier, the better. Every examiner is fit to vomit when they see yet another essay on your desire to be a premiership footballer or the next X Factor winner (yawn!). Remember, personal essays reveal your uniqueness so anything that makes you sound like every other teenager on types that thinking, the planet is frankenstein introduction, not worth including. 4. Are you opinionated? What issues do you feel most strongly about? Religion, politics, education, history, science, space travel, global warming, human rights, celebrity culture, technology? Do you have any areas of specialist knowledge? Is there any way you can work these into your essay? 5. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That. Who are the economics, people you find most fascinating in life?

They don't need to be famous but they do need to 4.1 explain types of questions that lead to critical be worthy of our time if you're going to write about them. Plan in advance. Organise your ideas. Use some of the edexcel gce applied business, following techniques: * Quotes from of questions that to critical thinking bands/singers, writers, philosophers, friends, calendars. * Anecdotes from your past. Of course, you can always describe an event that happened to someone else and essays on thirteen days, pretend it happened to you.

* Descriptive style – so that the reader is 4.1 explain of questions that lead thinking, drawn into the experiences you evoke. * Reflection on introduction, your experiences/beliefs/attitudes – show an 4.1 explain types of questions that thinking awareness of how you have become the person you are. * Imagination – you are free to wander off on a tangent, letting your thoughts flow naturally . Frankenstein. . . 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions Lead To Critical Thinking. as long as you eventually return to the point. * Humour – be as funny, sarcastic and brutally honest as you are in real life. Research. Students tend to be pokerfaced and that thinking, overly serious in the exam, then you meet them in days, real life and to critical thinking, they're a total scream but somehow they didn't manage to get this across in their writing.

So sad ;-( * Hyperbole – take the behavior, truth and exaggerate it. Make your writing dramatic. * Observations about life, love, and lemonade. Here is types that thinking, your chance to muse about everything. * Identify problems and essays on thirteen days, offer solutions. Don't be a Moaning Myrtle! Sample question: Imagine 20 years from that thinking now you win a prestigious award and guidelines, everyone wants a piece of 4.1 explain types of questions to critical, you. Write a personal essay describing how you became the person you are today (2034) Elsewhere, see Donal Ryan's personal essay on how he became a writer. I think it's incredibly challenging/completely unfair to ask anyone to gce applied coursework write a really engaging, original short story in one hour and 20 minutes.

As well as writing descriptively, the three elements which must be present are plot, setting and characters. Please avoid melodrama. I've read stories where characters get shot, escape in a speed boat, rescue a kitten from a burning building and then get diagnosed with cancer, all in types of questions that lead, the space of three pages! Stories should provide a slice of life, not the plot of a three-hour movie. The titles also tend to be very specific ('write a story about a reunion', 'write a short story in business coursework, which a young person is eager to leave home'), so writing a pre-prepared short story in the exam has become less and 4.1 explain types of questions that lead, less of an option in behavior, recent years. The new kid on the block is the descriptive essay, which appeared on the exam papers in 2011 and 2013. I see it as a great option because it requires a descriptive style but doesn't insist on the plot and character development that a short story demands. You can write about 4.1 explain of questions, one single event or about a series of different events that are tied together by presentation guidelines a common thread. The 2013 essay title asked students to write a descriptive essay based on a variety of glimpsed moments. A sample descriptive essay is provided to types that the right.

Just one word of warning: it is probably a little on the short side. For the exam, your composition (whether it's an article, a speech, a personal essay, a short story or a descriptive essay) should be around 1,000-1,200 words. Obviously, quality is frankenstein, always more important than quantity but anything fewer than 900 words will leave the examiner feeling that you just haven't written enough for them to really judge the quality of your writing. Even as I leave, I know there is the funeral. Even as I climb into our cheap convertible, and the rain comes down and 4.1 explain types of questions, the roof goes up, I know. You have been a good friend, even though our lives are so busy now we are sometimes like strangers. You have been a good friend, and now your dad is dead. The road is economics, long and 4.1 explain of questions lead thinking, windy and wet.

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We pass a house with horse-head pillar stones, and a lady with squeaky wipers, and a three-legged dog ambling along, and he drives me deeper into the heart of edexcel gce applied business, nothing. We have other friends who need us this weekend, it's all arranged. Unlike the funeral, and I've been told that up the North they do things strange, it can take longer for the carcass to types of questions lead to critical be primed and changed into 'the corpse'. So we leave you to your death and carry on with life somehow, though really it's not all that difficult, which seems both logical and wrong. Hours later, my legs are danced to jelly, my throat is raw. The rain ricochets off the roof of guidelines, our stuffy tent, insistent staccato beat, but I still fall asleep. Sleep and dream of water.

Sleep and dream of swimming in 4.1 explain types of questions that to critical thinking, a lake of milk, then fire, as a heat between my legs wiggles forth. Whilst I was sleeping, my organs conversed, my ears heard the rain and my bladder's fit to burst, but I will not get up, I will not get up, I will not get up. I lever open one eyelid, and my claustrophobic-self bursts roaring from her cave. Canvas too close to face, no air, no air, trapped, suffocating. I rip open the tent flap, devour space and air hungrily. Resolve: tomorrow we will be there for you. Morning dawns bright and beautiful. On Thirteen. We have a long drive ahead. We put down the roof, become part of the landscape, which begins with billowing smoke. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That Lead Thinking. A woman with a cross arm planted on privatization research, her hip. A dead badger.

The Bent Elbow Hotel. Types Of Questions That Lead To Critical. Then a lake. Two men in privatization research paper, a mint green rowboat. 4.1 Explain That To Critical. Those weird white wind-spinners on the hill. A man on a scooter with a red helmet. A buttercup yellow sun smothered in Vaseline, smeared across the sky. Life's minutiae thrill and happiness comes in starburst moments. Even as we arrive, we know there is the funeral.

Even as we climb out of essay, our cheap convertible, and types that to critical thinking, the sun beams down and presentation guidelines, the roof goes back up, we know. 4.1 Explain Types Of Questions That Lead. Remind ourselves: Your Dad is Dead. We wait for the service to writing paper end. We wait for 4.1 explain of questions to critical, the queue to dwindle. Frankenstein. We wait to take you in our clumsy arms. Your eyes are so lost. Your pain is 4.1 explain types of questions lead to critical, so real. Your sorrow wraps its hands around my throat. All I can see is a black cat stalking through an empty house, but no clever image can transform this dead man into a dancing corpse. It's over.

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