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ocr rs coursework Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the statement same. The Blair decade.

Brown and esl writing essay, Balls: mixed messages. What future for education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is a draft of a chapter which will form part of the revised version currently in preparation. Organisation of this chapter. Brown and Balls. Cameron and Gove. 2008 Education and Skills Act.

2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act. 2009 White Paper. 2009 Children, Schools and Families Bill. 2010 Children, Schools and about rates, Families Act. Other Acts relating to children and young people. 2007 Further Education and entry, Training Act. 2008 Children and Young Persons Act. 2010 Child Poverty Act.

IRPC interim report. CPR curriculum report. CSFC National Curriculum report. IRPC final report. CPR final report. Nuffield 14-19 Review. Building Schools for thesis statement about divorce rates the Future. Academies and trust schools. Covert selection by faith schools. The National Challenge.

The inspection regime. 2008 NUT Conference. Gove's view of essay, education. Education in England: a brief history. © copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in England: a brief history is my copyright. You are welcome to download it and print it for your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto statement about any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to admission, cite this piece. About? If you do so, please acknowledge it thus:

Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history www.educationengland.org.uk/history. In accordance with the conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of entry level quality assurance cover letter, which any one extract has more than 300 words; and an extract or series of extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the source is acknowledged as shown above. In references in the text, the number after the colon is always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is shown as a link, the full text is available online. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland. Chapter 11 : 2007-2010.

Brown and Balls: mixed messages. The new administration. Brown and Balls. Tony Blair was replaced as prime minister by former chancellor of the exchequer Gordon Brown ( pictured ). His new administration immediately announced that the education department would be split in two: the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) with Ed Balls as secretary of state, and thesis divorce, the Department of Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) under John Denham. (Balls's official title was 'Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families', though he was usually referred to essay, as 'the children's secretary'). There was some logic to this division. DCSF brought together all policy relating to children and young people: in addition to statement, overseeing schools, it shared youth justice with the Ministry of Justice, child poverty with the quality assurance cover Treasury and the Department for Work and Pensions, children's health with the Department of Health, and youth sport with the Department for statement Culture. It also took the 'respect' agenda from the Home Office. DIUS took science and innovation from the Department for stress homework Trade and Industry and would be responsible for the development, funding and performance of higher education, both teaching and thesis statement about divorce, research; together with adult learning, including Train to critical, Gain and basic skills.

It would oversee the £4bn adult portion of the Learning and Skills Council budget. One of its main aims was the improvement of graduate skills. But there were complications in the arrangement. Thesis Statement Divorce Rates? DCSF would set education policy for esl writing comparison essay students up to the age of 19, but work with DIUS on 14-19 reforms. School pupils in about rates, the 14 to 19 age group and sixth form college students would come under DCSF, but general further education college students and apprentices aged 16 to 19 were the responsibility of DIUS, though they would be funded via local education authorities. The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) thus had half its budget removed, putting its future in doubt ( The Guardian 3 July 2007). In the event, DIUS only lasted two years. In June 2009 it was abolished and its responsibilities subsumed into a new Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), led by Lord (Peter) Mandelson. In his inaugural statement, the new children's secretary Ed Balls ( pictured ) said he would introduce legislation to raise the personal leadership school leaving age to 18, improve school discipline, remove barriers to further expansion of the academies programme, and give teachers more scope to decide when pupils should be tested.

He announced that Leicester University chancellor Sir Peter Williams, chair of the Advisory Committee on Mathematics Education, would conduct a review of maths teaching in primary schools. An extra £265m over the next three years would be spent ensuring that children from disadvantaged backgrounds could benefit from at statement about divorce least two hours a week of out-of-hours group activities in term time. Secondary teachers would be given an extra training day a year, and stress homework, a scheme to encourage graduates to teach in about rates, inner-city schools would be expanded beyond London. Admission Essay? He also promised a ten-year youth strategy and a plan to thesis statement divorce, tackle teenage pregnancy. A children's plan for about in baseball the UK would be prepared and consulted on ( The Guardian 11 July 2007). In October 2007 the new chancellor of the thesis divorce rates exchequer Alistair Darling announced the three-year settlement for education. A 2.8 per cent real terms annual increase to £74bn in 2010 was higher than other departments but lower than in essays steroids in baseball, previous years.

Teachers' leaders pointed out that the budget for each pupil would rise from £5,500 in thesis statement divorce, 2007-8 to £6,600 in personal essay, 2010-11 but that this was still far short of the cost of a private school education. Darling also promised £250m to fund the thesis rates Children's Plan scheme to make sure children arrived at essays about steroids in baseball school ready to learn and able to benefit from personalised support ( The Guardian 10 October 2007). In his first major speech on education, Gordon Brown told an audience of educationists at Greenwich University that 'failing' schools would have five years to statement divorce, improve their pupils' GCSE results or they would face take-over or closure. He set out stress homework, wide-ranging plans to expand childcare, eradicate illiteracy and introduce more work-based apprenticeships to persuade more 16 year olds to thesis about, stay on in education. 'This is essays about steroids a determined and systematic agenda to thesis about, end failure', he said. Level Quality Cover Letter? 'We will see it through. We will not flinch from the task' ( The Guardian 1 November 2007). As we saw in statement about divorce rates, the previous chapter, Lord (Andrew) Adonis had wielded enormous influence over education policy in the Blair administration.

He kept his post as schools minister when Gordon Brown took over, but his influence waned and in October 2008 he was moved from education to the Department of Transport. Cameron and Gove. Meanwhile, Conservative party leader David Cameron ( pictured ) announced that the Tories would 'revolutionise' education by supporting the entry cover formation of parent-run co-operative schools paid for by local authorities. He said he was setting up a 'Conservative Co-operative Movement' based on the ideals of the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, the world's first successful co-operative. The National Union of Teachers (NUT) warned that the proposals would increase social segregation, and thesis statement about, Co-operative Party general secretary Peter Hunt said: 'Co-operative Party policies are . rooted in Labour philosophy. If David Cameron wishes to essays about, join us, he will first have to defect to statement divorce rates, the Labour party' ( The Guardian 9 November 2007). The new shadow education secretary was Michael Gove ( pictured ). At a conference at stress homework Brighton College in thesis statement, May 2008, Gove told teachers that a Conservative government would reinstate traditional styles of fact-based lessons. Generations of children had been let down by so-called progressive education policies which had taught skills and in baseball, 'empathy' instead of statement about, bodies of knowledge, he said.

He condemned the law school 'pupil-centred learning' theories which had gained support in thesis about divorce rates, the 1960s for admission essay law school 'dethroning' the teacher: It is an approach to education that has been called progressive, but in thesis about divorce rates, fact is anything but. It privileges temporary relevance over a permanent body of knowledge which should be passed on from generation to essay law school, generation . We need to tackle this misplaced ideology wherever it occurs. NUT acting general secretary Christine Blower said: 'Gove's attack on child-centred learning is an absurd caricature of reality . If there has been a dethroning of divorce rates, teachers, it has been because successive politicians have decided that they know better than teachers about how children learn' ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). The Children's Plan. In December 2007 the government published its Children's Plan Building brighter futures . This important and ambitious document was based on widespread consultation involving children, young people, parents, teachers and essays about steroids, policy makers, and was designed to underpin and inform all future government policy relating to thesis about rates, children, their families and entry assurance letter, schools. It aimed to eradicate child poverty and reduce illiteracy and thesis statement, antisocial behaviour by 2020. In his Foreword, Ed Balls said he wanted to make Britain 'the best place in the world for our children and young people to grow up'. (DCSF 2007:3)

The plan was based on critical essays five principles: government does not bring up children - parents do - so government needs to do more to back parents and families; all children have the potential to thesis about divorce rates, succeed and should go as far as their talents can take them; children and young people need to critical essays, enjoy their childhood as well as grow up prepared for adult life; services need to be shaped by and responsive to statement about divorce rates, children, young people and about in baseball, families, not designed around professional boundaries; and it is always better to prevent failure than tackle a crisis later. (DCSF 2007:5-6) It set ten goals to be achieved by 2020: enhance children and young people's well-being, particularly at key transition points in their lives; every child ready for success in school, with at statement rates least 90 per cent developing well across all areas of the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile by age 5; every child ready for secondary school, with at leadership least 90 per cent achieving at or above the expected level in statement about, both English and mathematics by age 11; every young person with the skills for adult life and further study, with at least 90 per cent achieving the equivalent of five higher level GCSEs by age 19; and at least 70 per leadership essay, cent achieving the thesis statement divorce equivalent of essays steroids in baseball, two A levels by age 19; parents satisfied with the information and support they receive; all young people participating in positive activities to develop personal and social skills, promote well-being and reduce behaviour that puts them at risk; employers satisfied with young people's readiness for work; child health improved, with the proportion of obese and thesis statement about divorce rates, overweight children reduced to essays in baseball, 2000 levels; child poverty halved by 2010 and thesis statement about divorce rates, eradicated by essays about 2020; and thesis statement rates, significantly reduce by 2020 the number of young offenders receiving a conviction, reprimand, or final warning for a recordable offence for the first time, with a goal to be set in the Youth Crime Action Plan. Literary Essays? (DCSF 2007:14) The plan attempted to address a series of highly critical reports on British childhood by Unicef and others, and to demonstrate evidence of Gordon Brown's administration's much talked-of 'vision'. There would be new playgrounds and youth centres, personal tutors and statement about, one-to-one classes to give struggling pupils a chance to catch up and their parents a contact at school. There would be radical reform of the literary critical essays curriculum and testing regimes, and a mandatory master's-level qualification for all new teachers. All new schools would be carbon-neutral by 2016 and there would be more 20mph speed limit zones near schools. A dozen strategy reviews - on areas including drugs and alcohol, sex education, bullying and the commercialisation of childhood - would determine how the targets were to thesis statement rates, be met. Children's campaigners welcomed the plan. Children's Society chief executive Bob Reitemeier said: 'The responsibility for stress homework childhood rests with us all and we are encouraged that the children's plan looks beyond education to address fundamental areas such as parents and play.'

Child Poverty Action Group chief executive Kate Green commented: 'The common thread that will transform the plan's patchwork of measures into thesis statement about a successful whole is an end to child poverty . Law School? It is now up to the Treasury to make sure that . the child poverty target is met so that the children's plan is not undermined.' Teachers were generally supportive of the plan, though some were concerned at the scale of the reforms which schools were being asked to lead. John Dunford, general secretary of the thesis divorce Association of School and College Leaders (ASCL), said the plan would make 'massive demands on schools' which would need the support of the full range of public services. 'If schools are to be placed at the core of social reform for children, as the breadth of the children's plan suggests, this places tremendous expectations on schools and literary critical essays, their leaders', he said ( The Guardian 12 December 2007). Download The Children's Plan (pdf text 640kb). There were three major education acts in this period: 2008 Education and thesis about divorce rates, Skills Act; 2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act; 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act (much reduced in scope because of the impending general election). The Education and Skills Bill was jointly sponsored by DCSF and level cover, DIUS. The Act (26 November 2008): raised the education leaving age to 18. Young people would be required to statement about, participate in stress homework, education or training until their 18th birthday through: - full-time education or training, including school, college and home education; - work-based learning, such as an Apprenticeship; or. - part-time education or training, if they were employed, self-employed or volunteering more than 20 hours a week; rationalised the rates regulation and essays, monitoring regime for independent schools and non-maintained special schools; improved careers education for divorce rates 11 to personal, 16 year olds; transferred responsibility for delivering the 'Connexions' service (which offered a wide range of support to young people) to about rates, local authorities; empowered local authorities to arrange learning difficulty assessments in admission, a person's final year of compulsory education and up to the age of 25 for any young person who would benefit from one; placed a duty on the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) to thesis statement divorce, ensure the free provision of basic skills and first full level 2 qualification courses; placed a duty on stress homework the LSC to ensure that 19 to divorce, 25 year olds who were undertaking their first full level 3 qualification did not have to pay tuition fees; required school governing bodies to steroids, invite and consider the divorce views of pupils on about policy matters which affected them; gave young people the thesis statement rates right to express a school preference for sixth-form education and to appeal against personal any decision made; required local authorities to produce annual reports on statement divorce school admission arrangements in their area; and made minor changes to the legislative regime governing the National Curriculum so that, from 2009, Key Stage 3 tests would no longer be compulsory. Download the Education and Skills Act 2008 (pdf text 672kb). 2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act.

This Act (12 November 2009): created a statutory framework for apprenticeships and a right to in baseball, an apprenticeship for suitably qualified 16-18 year olds; gave employees the right to request time off for training, and required employers to consider such requests seriously; abolished the statement divorce Learning and Skills Council; transferred responsibility for funding education and training for 16-18 year olds to local authorities; made provisions with respect to the education of offenders; created the Young Person's Learning Agency, the essay Skills Funding Agency, the Office of the thesis statement rates Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), and a new agency to carry out the non-regulatory functions currently performed by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority; strengthened the accountability of children's services; amended intervention powers in respect of contrast essay, schools which were causing concern; established a new parental complaints service; changed the school inspection arrangements; created a new negotiating body for support staff pay and conditions; and made provisions in respect of pupil and student behaviour. The bill gave Ed Balls and John Denham 153 new powers. Rates? 'Is this the most centralising education bill in history?' asked Warwick Mansell. Stress Homework? He noted that under the 1944 Education Act the minister of education had had just three central duties: 'to promote the education of the people of England and Wales'; 'to promote the progressive development of schools and colleges'; and 'to secure that local authorities execute the national policy for statement divorce rates providing a very comprehensive educational service'. But in literary essays, the last twenty years, he argued, there had been 'a steady growth in the powers of central government, with the introduction of the national curriculum, national teaching strategies, and thesis statement about, the targets and league table regime, all overseen and directed by ministers and civil servants' (Mansell 2009a). Barry Sheerman, Labour chair of the literary essays Commons children, schools and families committee, agreed. 'There does seem to be a general feeling out about rates, there, in the evidence the stress homework committee has received on several inquiries, of statement divorce rates, people desiring a swing back towards local autonomy', he said. Personal Essay? 'Ministers need to understand this before they continue plodding on in the opposite direction.' And John Fowler, a consultant for the Local Government Information Unit, added 'If the government was really serious about devolving power, it would just scrap this bill and start again.

I cannot see that happening.' It didn't. 2009 White Paper: Your child, your schools, our future. Before the Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act had even received the Royal Assent, the government published its next education white paper, in June 2009. Your child, your schools, our future was to form the basis for divorce the 2009 Children, Schools and contrast essay, Families Bill (which was intended to thesis statement about, become the 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act, though most of it would be lost in the run-up to the general election). The white paper signalled the abandonment of what many had seen as Blair's most significant education reform - the National Strategies for essays literacy and numeracy. It also removed central government prescription of teaching methods and dramatically cut the statement about use of the private consultants employed to literary essays, improve schools. Schools would have more freedom and thesis statement rates, would be enabled to essays steroids in baseball, establish networks of school-to-school support to help drive up standards in divorce, a 'new era of localism'. Parents of children who regularly behaved badly in class could face court-imposed parenting orders. The white paper's key points were: a pupil guarantee setting out new entitlements to personalised support for every child, matched by a parent guarantee for every parent; all schools to have good behaviour, strong discipline, order and safety; all pupils to be taught in a way that meets their needs; all pupils to have opportunities to take part in leadership essay, sport and about rates, cultural activities; all schools to promote their pupils' health and well-being; schools to work in partnership with other schools and with wider children's services; local consortia to offer a choice of every one of the new diplomas to 14-19 year-olds; partnerships of primary schools to stress homework, share specialist teaching; develop a system for accrediting good education providers who wish to run groups of schools; more academies and trust schools; develop a system for accrediting good education providers to run groups of rates, schools; strong accountability and rapid intervention when needed to further improve schools; expand the role of level assurance letter, 'School Improvement Partners' (SIPs); develop a new School Report Card (SRC); give schools greater flexibility and encourage greater innovation; improve the thesis statement about divorce relationship between central government, local authorities and stress homework, schools; new Masters degree in thesis about divorce, Teaching and Learning; better development of support staff; and stress homework, governing bodies' fundamental duties to children, young people and statement about, the wider community to essay law school, be enshrined in law.

Download the White Paper Your child, your schools, our future (pdf text 2.2mb). 2009 Children, Schools and Families Bill. These proposals formed the basis of the Children, Schools and Families Bill. One of the statement divorce rates bill's provisions, first announced by ministers in October 2008, was that sex education from the age of five would be made a compulsory part of the national curriculum in primary and secondary schools. Schools would not be allowed to opt out, and faith schools would be given guidance on how to provide sex and relationship education - to personal leadership essay, include contraception, abortion and homosexuality - alongside conflicting religious beliefs ( The Guardian 24 October 2008). But religious groups objected, and the government amended the new regulations, which were due to come into effect in September 2011. Thesis Statement? While all schools would still be required to teach sex education, it now said that parents could withdraw children under 15 from the essays lessons, which would only be compulsory for 15 and 16 year olds ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). This still wasn't enough for the Catholic Education Service, which lobbied the government to make further amendments to the Bill. The government caved in and agreed that sex and relationships education (SRE) could now 'reflect a school's religious character'. Campaigners said the change would allow faith schools to discourage the use of contraception and teach that homosexuality was wrong.

The Accord Coalition (a newly-formed group of thesis statement rates, Hindu, Christian and Humanist organisations campaigning to stop state-funded schools from discriminating against students and teachers on the grounds of religion) accused Balls of implicitly condoning homophobia in schools and essays about in baseball, undermining his own attempts to tackle homophobic bullying. Chair of Accord Rabbi Dr Jonathan Romain said: It is astonishing that the thesis government plans to deny young people of their right to accurate, balanced SRE . Children at faith schools have just as much right to essays about steroids, information that could help them avoid an unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection. ( The Guardian 18 February 2010) A DCSF spokesman dismissed the complaints: All maintained schools will be required to teach full programmes of study in statement rates, line with the principles outlined in the bill, including promoting equality and encouraging acceptance of personal essay, diversity. Statement Rates? Schools with a religious character will be free to express their faith and reflect the ethos of their school, but what they cannot do is suggest that their views are the only ones. ( The Guardian 18 February 2010) In other words, a Catholic school would be required to teach children the facts about contraception, but would be allowed to try to persuade them that its use was immoral. Balls insisted the amendment would not 'water down' the bill: it would still require state schools to teach pupils about the importance of admission, stable relationships, including civil partnerships, and it would forbid the promotion of homophobia. Liberal Democrat schools spokesman David Laws accused ministers of being in a 'terrific muddle' over the issue and statement rates, said the amendment 'completely undermines the objectives of this part of the bill' ( The Guardian 23 February 2010). Despite the concerns, the amendment was passed by 268 votes to 177 without debate (because of a lack of time at the report stage). Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL) education policy adviser Alison Ryan said: 'We believe this amendment is unhelpful and unnecessary because it upsets the balance of the essays about in baseball bill by placing the religious character of the school above the promotion of equality and tolerance of diversity.' National Secular Society executive director Keith Porteous Wood commented: 'The government have once more bowed to pressure from the Catholic church, betraying the children in thesis statement, faith schools who have a right to objective and balanced sex education' ( The Guardian 24 February 2010). And an essays steroids in baseball editorial in statement divorce, The Guardian commented: This looks like a case of the literary essays government being led away from the path of righteousness by ecclesiastical lobbying, which has happened several times before. There was, for instance, the climbdown over the plan to force faith schools to take some children from outside their own flock.

There was also section 37 of the 2008 Education Act, which undercut Labour's solid record on discrimination at work by allowing schools to hand-pick staff on the basis of their creed. Thesis About? Many devout people - and many believers in faith schools - are represented by the Accord Coalition, which argues that no state-funded institution should be exempted from norms that all other public bodies must follow. Unless all religious schools are required to see the light, the contradictions will become unsustainable. The recurring pattern of essay, church lobbying and Whitehall climbdowns is testing society's faith in church schools as being a force for statement about good. Essays Steroids In Baseball? ( The Guardian 24 February 2010) 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act. In the thesis about event, with the general election just a month away, all the sex education provisions (and many others) were lost from the level cover Children, Schools and Families Act (8 April 2010). Thesis About Divorce? Download the Children, Schools and Families Act 2010 (pdf text 124kb).

Other Acts relating to children and admission law school, young people. In addition to the three major education acts summarised above, there were three other acts relating to children and thesis statement divorce, young people during this period: 2007 Further Education and Training Act. The Further Education and Training Act (23 October 2007) made provisions about: the Learning and Skills Council for England; institutions within the admission further education sector; industrial training levies; the formation of, and investment in, companies and thesis about rates, charitable incorporated organisations by higher education corporations; and the making of Welsh Assembly Measures in relation to the field of education. Download the Further Education and personal essay, Training Act 2007 (pdf text 196kb). 2008 Children and Young Persons Act. The Children and Young Persons Act (13 November 2008) made provisions about: the delivery of thesis statement divorce, local authority social work services for children and young persons; the functions of local authorities and essays steroids in baseball, others in relation to children and young persons; the enforcement of thesis statement about divorce, care standards in relation to certain establishments or agencies connected with children; and the independent review of essays, determinations relating to adoption. Download the Children and Young Persons Act 2008 (pdf text 228kb). 2010 Child Poverty Act. The Child Poverty Act (25 March 2010): set targets relating to the eradication of child poverty; and made other provisions about child poverty.

Download the Child Poverty Act 2010 (pdf text 140kb). Three major reviews of the curriculum were undertaken in this period: the government's 'Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum' (IRPC), conducted by about rates Sir Jim Rose, published its interim report in December 2008 and its final report in April 2009; the essays Cambridge Primary Review, which had begun work in 2006, published Towards a new primary curriculum in February 2009 and its final report Children, their World, their Education in 2010; the House of Commons Children, Schools and thesis divorce rates, Families Committee (CSFC) published its report on the National Curriculum in April 2009. Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum. As the Cambridge Primary Review was getting into its stride, Ed Balls threw a spanner into the works. On 9 January 2008 he wrote to Sir Jim Rose inviting him to conduct 'an independent review of the stress homework primary curriculum' with a view to making 'final recommendations to the Secretary of thesis statement rates, State by March 2009 so that the new primary curriculum can be introduced from September 2011'. The government's justification for this new review of primary education was presumably that it had already commissioned a review of the secondary curriculum and personal, had introduced an statement early years 'foundation stage'. As Rose put it, you couldn't 'just extend one backwards, the other forwards, tie a knot in essays about steroids in baseball, the middle and say that's primary education' (Wilby 2008).

However, given that the Cambridge Review - the biggest investigation of primary education since Plowden - was already under way, many felt that the Rose review was designed as a spoiler. The government was fed up with adverse headlines like 'Poor performance linked to substandard classrooms', 'Government policy has created impersonalised education', and 'Study reveals stressed out statement about divorce rates, 7 to 11 year olds' (Wilby 2008). It was also concerned that the esl writing comparison essay Cambridge Review would condemn England's testing regime - the hated SATs. So it created the thesis statement about divorce IRPC as a diversion, 'with a suspiciously similar email address, a claim that it too is quality assurance independent, and an identical deadline for its final report of spring 2009' (Wilby 2008). There were other concerns about the IRPC. One was that the statement Qualifications and Curriculum Agency (QCA) was required to produce draft programmes of leadership essay, study based on the report's recommendations during the consultation period, effectively rendering redundant most of the responses. Another was that the views of divorce rates, representatives of local authorities and teachers' professional associations who attended meetings during the 'informal' consultations were apparently excluded. A third concern was that consideration of SATs tests was 'specifically excluded from literary critical Rose's remit' (Wilby 2008). Introducing the IRPC's interim report on about rates 8 December 2008, Rose urged ministers to review the arrangements for esl writing comparison SATs (already abolished in all parts of the UK except England). 'I'm ruled out of making recommendations about statement about divorce, testing', he told Polly Curtis. 'That's not to say every school doesn't ask about testing. It's the elephant in the room' ( The Guardian 8 December 2008). IRPC Interim Report.

The report's main recommendations were: there should be a smoother transition between early years and primary education, and between primary and secondary education; subjects should be combined with cross-curricular study; teachers should have more flexibility within a richer curriculum; there should be more and better computer education; the value of play to children's learning and development should be made explicit in any revisions to the primary curriculum; primary schools should focus on teaching only one or two foreign languages; children should acquire a range of essay, personal, social and emotional qualities essential to their health, well-being and life as a responsible citizen in thesis about rates, the 21st century; and esl writing comparison, summer-born children should start primary school in the September after their fourth birthday, with some children starting part-time. The report proposed that the primary curriculum should comprise six 'areas of learning': understanding English, communication and divorce rates, languages; mathematical understanding; scientific and technological understanding; human, social and environmental understanding; understanding physical health and well-being; and understanding the arts and design. The Review found overwhelming support for the National Curriculum and much good practice in schools. It recommended that the curriculum should be reviewed periodically but stressed that schools and teachers needed stability so as to be able to plan effectively. The Cambridge Primary Review - Towards a new primary curriculum. In order to admission, contribute to the final IRPC report, the about rates Cambridge Review brought forward publication of its material on stress homework the curriculum. Statement? Towards a New Primary Curriculum was published on 20 February 2009 in two parts: Past and comparison contrast essay, Present and The Future . Its authors commented: Some readers may become impatient with the history, the statement about rates account of witnesses' concerns and literary essays, our apparent preoccupation with the thesis about divorce problematic. For them, solutions are more important. They are of course welcome to turn straight to Part 2. Yet it is only by understanding the history, recognising the deeply-rooted and often cyclic nature of the problems, and by accepting the inadequacy of some of the surrounding discourse, that we can make progress. That is why the steroids grounding provided by Part 1 is essential. Without it, we shall simply repeat past mistakes. (Alexander and Flutter 2009a:1) It bemoaned the politicisation of the curriculum and warned that children's lives were being impoverished by the government's insistence that schools focus on literacy and numeracy at divorce rates the expense of literary, creative teaching.

It argued for a broad, balanced and rich curriculum including art, music, drama, history and thesis about rates, geography. In the stress homework authors' view, a future primary curriculum must: 'confront and attempt to address the problems and challenges in current arrangements; be grounded in explicit principles of statement rates, design and implementation; and pursue and remain faithful to a clear and defensible statement of educational aims and values.' (Alexander and Flutter 2009b:21) CSFC Report on the National Curriculum. The House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee published its report on the National Curriculum on 2 April 2009. The key points in its 32 conclusions and recommendations were: the National Curriculum was in 'urgent need of stress homework, significant reform': it should prescribe as little as possible, parents should be better informed, the Programmes of Study for thesis the new secondary curriculum were 'overly complex'; the Early Years Foundation Stage and stress homework, the Early Learning Goals should be reviewed; the curriculum freedoms that academies enjoyed should be immediately extended to all maintained schools; a system of Single Level Tests linked to targets, and statement about, potentially to funding, could further narrow the curriculum; the idea that there was one best way to teach was not supported by the research evidence and so should not be the basis for the delivery of the National Curriculum; the Department should cease presenting the stress homework National Strategies guidance as a prop for the teaching profession and adopt a more positive understanding of how schools and statement divorce, teachers might be empowered in relation to the National Curriculum; the Department should spend less on level producing guidance and more on about the dissemination of research findings; the theory and practice of entry level assurance cover, curriculum design should be given a much higher profile within the standards for statement rates Qualified Teacher Status; the Department should show how it would support the move to a much less prescriptive curriculum and less centrally-directed approach to its delivery; there should be better continuity and coherence in the current National Curriculum - and across the comparison National Curriculum, Early Years Foundation Stage and 14-19 arrangements; the Department should take more account of the views of children and young people; the Department should put in place a cycle of thesis rates, around five years for curriculum review and reform and avoid initiating additional change outside that cycle: reviews should scrutinise the Early Years Foundation Stage, National Curriculum and 14-19 arrangements as a continuum, not as discrete 'chunks'; the agency with main responsibility for the development of the National Curriculum should be truly independent from the Department; like the Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA) should be independent of Ministers and required to report to Parliament through the comparison contrast Select Committee; there should be 'an overarching statement of aims for the National Curriculum' to provide it with 'a stronger sense of purpose, continuity and coherence'; a statement of provision for thesis divorce rates learners from admission essay 0 to 19 should be introduced; there should be 'an overarching diploma' which would replace all other qualifications for learners aged 14 to 19; and about rates, these changes must be accompanied by improved communication and entry level cover letter, co-ordination between teachers and thesis statement about, practitioners across the different phases of level quality, education. (CSFC 2009:39-43) The Committee described the Cambridge Review as 'very welcome' but commented that it contained 'extensive analysis of the problems but has not enough to thesis statement about rates, say about what might be done in practice to address them' (CSFC 2009:23). It went on: The Rose Review and the Cambridge Review both recognise that the primary curriculum is overly full, but neither offers a practical basis that appeals to us for reducing the load. As we have indicated, we would see greater merit in stipulating a basic entitlement for literacy and numeracy and offering general guidelines on literary essays breadth and balance to about, be interpreted by schools and entry assurance cover, teachers themselves. (CSFC 2009:23) Writing in statement divorce, The Guardian , Robin Alexander described the committee's jibe that the law school Cambridge Review offered 'a good analysis of the problems but no solutions', as 'bizarre'. He continued: Apart from the detailed proposals on curriculum aims, substance, structure, development and implementation, which the committee appears not to statement about divorce, have noticed, other ideas from the Cambridge review appear, almost verbatim, in the committee's own recommendations: abandoning the national strategies in their present form; supporting local ownership; reconfiguring the roles of stress homework, national agencies, local authorities and schools; making Curriculum Matters central to initial teacher training. More bizarre still, the committee's report includes as an appendix a comparison of the thesis statement divorce rates Rose and Cambridge curriculum reports, which says enough to contradict its criticisms of both of essays, them. Thesis Statement Divorce Rates? (Alexander 2009a) Download the CSFC Report on the National Curriculum (pdf text 1.5mb). IRPC Final report. The IRPC's final report was published on 30 April 2009.

Jim Rose said he had tried to 'capture the literary essays distinctiveness of the thesis statement rates primary phase and to ensure it is recognised as more than a postscript to the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and a prelude to secondary education' (DCSF 2009a:9). The report's key points were: subjects, and the essential knowledge, skills and understanding they represented, were important but were not sufficient - cross-curricular studies were important, too; there should be a stronger focus on esl writing comparison curriculum progression; by the age of seven, children should have a secure grasp of the literacy and thesis statement about rates, numeracy skills they needed to make good progress thereafter; the teaching and learning of information and communication technology (ICT) should be improved; there should be greater emphasis on personal leadership personal development through a more integrated and simpler framework for schools; there should be stronger links between the EYFS and Key Stage 1, and between Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3; and 7-11 year olds should be offered 'exciting opportunities' for thesis statement divorce rates learning languages. (DCSF 2009a:10-12) Writing in The Guardian , Mike Baker compared the in baseball Rose review with the Plowden report of divorce rates, 1967. He noted that the Plowden committee had had 25 members, including several heads, and had benefited from having six school inspectors and one local authority inspector seconded to entry quality letter, it throughout. It had taken three years and produced 556 pages covering 'the physical development of children, the growth of the thesis statement about rates brain, parental attitudes, social change, health and social services, and the ways schools were organised, designed and essay, equipped'. By contrast, the Rose review 'was made up of one, albeit very experienced, person: Rose himself'.

He had an thesis statement about advisory group of leading heads - which met just five times, his report was only 154 pages long and restricted in scope - his remit didn't even allow him to consider the question of tests. Baker noted that: There is, of admission essay law school, course, another inquiry currently under way, which aims to match the thoroughness of Plowden. The Cambridge primary review has been running for two-and-a-half years now. Its remit is broad and it has not been afraid to say things the government does not want to hear. And there is the rub. In the past, governments set up big independent education inquiries; now they prefer to have their own short, sharp reviews - and seem scarcely interested in anything else. (Baker 2009) A statutory consultation on the IRPC's recommendations followed by publication of revised programmes of study and about, guidance should have enabled the new primary curriculum to be implemented, as planned, in September 2011. But when Labour lost the 2010 general election, Rose's recommendations were lost too.

Cambridge Primary Review - Children, their World, their Education. The Cambridge Primary Review published its final report on 16 October 2009. The Review had been the literary essays most extensive inquiry into thesis statement divorce primary education since the entry level assurance Plowden Report forty years earlier, involving 14 authors, 66 research consultants and a 20-strong advisory committee at Cambridge University, led by Professor Robin Alexander. Its final report was based on thesis about rates 28 research surveys, 1,052 written submissions and reports from essays about steroids in baseball dozens of regional meetings. In its 75 recommendations it argued that formal lessons should not start before the age of six, SATs and league tables should be replaced with teacher assessments in a wider range of subjects, and the system of generalist primary teaching should be reviewed. The report was critical of political decision-making processes. It condemned: centralisation, secrecy and the 'quiet authoritarianism' of the new centres of divorce, power; the esl writing comparison essay disenfranchising of local voice; the divorce rise of unelected and unaccountable groups and individuals taking key decisions behind closed doors: the 'empty rituals' of consultation; the replacement of professional dialogue by the monologic discourse of essays about steroids in baseball, power; the politicisation of the statement about rates entire educational enterprise so that it becomes impossible to debate ideas or evidence which are not deemed to be 'on message', or which are 'not invented here'; and, latterly coming to admission, light, financial corruption. (Alexander 2009b:481) It noted that since 1989, and especially since 1997, national government had 'tightened its control over what goes on in local authorities and schools'; and statement about divorce, warned that 'the power of government and its agencies has reached far more deeply into entry quality cover letter the recesses of professional action and thought than is rates proper in a democracy or good for esl writing comparison contrast essay schools themselves' (Alexander 2009b:508). It noted a growing 'pervasive anxiety' about children's lives, and emphasised the link between educational underachievement and thesis, poverty. 'What is worrying is the persistence of a long tail of severely disadvantaged children whose early lives are unhappy, whose potential is unrealised and personal leadership essay, whose future is bleak' (Alexander 2009b:71). The Review's conclusions were backed by all the teacher unions. National Association of Head Teachers (NAHT) general secretary Mick Brookes said: This comprehensive study of primary education must be taken seriously by government.

The fact the work in thesis about, progress has been completely ignored by the government is a sign of weakness. This report is truly independent, unlike work commissioned and controlled by the DCSF which largely says what it wants to hear. There are recommendations in this report that could transform the esl writing comparison essay primary ethos and turn pessimism into hope. ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) NUT general secretary Christine Blower said: It is absolutely extraordinary that the government has decided to ignore the Cambridge Review recommendations. Thesis Divorce? Any government worth its salt, particularly in personal essay, front of an impending general election, would have embraced this immensely rich report as a source of policy ideas. It is not too late for the government to recognise that not all good ideas emanate from the minds of civil servants. ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) And Nansi Ellis, head of statement, education policy and research at esl writing comparison contrast the ATL, warned that 'primary education must not become a battlefield in the forthcoming election - children and their learning will be the first casualties' ( The Guardian 16 October 2009). Unsurprisingly, the report was rubbished by the government. Schools minister Vernon Coaker said the government was already reforming the curriculum and testing, and accused Alexander's report of suggesting a 'woolly' accountability system: It's disappointing that a review which purports to be so comprehensive is about divorce simply not up to speed on many major changes in primaries. The world has moved on since this review was started. If every child making progress and reaching their potential is what matters, then Professor Alexander's proposals are a backward step.' ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) And just to rub salt into the wound, Balls announced that every four year old in England would be offered a place at about in baseball school or nursery so that they could start full-time education a year earlier. The Cambridge Primary Review had recommended delaying the start of formal learning until the age of six ( The Guardian 19 October 2009).

Robin Alexander expressed his disappointment at the reaction of politicians and his frustration that the Labour government, with its 'micro-managed' system, had refused to 'listen, engage and learn' from independent advice. He said it was clear from the inaccuracies in their responses that neither government ministers nor their Conservative shadows had actually read it ( The Guardian 24 October 2009). Peter Mortimore, former director of the University of London Institute of Education (ULIE), also bemoaned the response of politicians. Writing in The Guardian , he commented: Weep, Cambridge team. Your efforts to thesis statement about divorce rates, produce clear analyses and innovative ideas in the interest of literary essays, fostering something better than political point-scoring, repetitive myths and ideological rigidity have been strangled at thesis about divorce birth. Console yourselves, however, for good ideas are seldom so easily dismissed.

He concluded: The pity is that politicians, who pollsters tell us are only trusted by 13% of the population, can so easily make such fools of essay, themselves by endeavouring to close down all thinking outside their own. Thesis Statement About? How much wiser to welcome new ideas and give civil society, including teachers - who are trusted by 82% of the population - the chance to essays about steroids, debate how best to improve the education of about divorce, our youngest learners. (Mortimore 2009) For more on the Cambridge Primary Review see the Routledge website for details of Children, their World, their Education which is available as a large format paperback priced £35.99; the Cambridge Primary Review Trust website, which now contains probably the largest single compendium of evidence and commentary on English primary education; Nuffield Review of 14-19 education and training. In addition to these three major reviews of the curriculum, in February 2008 the Oxford-based Nuffield Foundation published its final report on education and training for 14-19 year olds. Education for All warned that ministers were treating school pupils as if they were business products to be managed rather than children to be educated. The government's aim of about steroids, boosting the British economy was overshadowing the true role of schools in young people's lives. Businesses increasingly ran state schools and even awarded their own A Level-style qualifications. The lead director of the Review, Professor Richard Pring, said: The changes at 14-19 are too often driven by economic goals at the expense of broader educational aims. About? This is reflected in the rather impoverished language drawn from business and management, rather than from stress homework a more generous understanding of the whole person.

We need to give young learners far more than skills for employment alone, even if such skills are key to the country's economy. Inevitably, the DCSF rubbished the report. A spokesman said: 'This depressing view of education is simply not one that we recognise' ( Oxford Times 14 February 2008). Various documents, including a summary of Education for statement divorce All , can be downloaded from the website of the literary Nuffield Review of statement rates, 14-19 education and training . Testing and assessment. Concerns about the personal essay level of testing in English schools - and particularly about the annual SATs tests - intensified during this period.

The QCA urged schools to stop 'drilling' pupils for thesis statement the tests. Chief executive Ken Boston warned that 'in many schools too much teaching time is taken up with practice tests and preparing for the key stage tests in entry assurance, English, mathematics and science, at the expense of thesis statement about rates, actual teaching in these core subjects and other areas' ( The Guardian 11 August 2007). Three reports for the Cambridge Primary Review highlighted many of the concerns. One found that national tests at 7 and 11 left most children stressed and led to a 'pervasive anxiety' about their lives and comparison contrast, the world they were growing up in. Professor Robin Alexander said 'these findings do build up to a sense that important changes are needed within the primary sector' ( The Guardian 12 October 2007). Another noted that English children were among the youngest in thesis statement, the world to entry quality assurance cover letter, start formal learning and were the thesis statement rates most tested throughout their education. It found that parents were increasingly seeking alternative forms of entry level quality assurance cover letter, education such as home schooling or Steiner schools to free their children from the thesis about divorce state sector's regime of about in baseball, testing and targets ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). And a third showed that higher test results in England's primary schools had been achieved at thesis statement rates the expense of the quality of personal leadership essay, education offered.

Teacher-pupil relationships had been eroded by a focus on whole-class teaching and statement about divorce, preparation for 'high stakes' national tests ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). CSFC Report on Testing and Assessment. A further report, this time by MPs themselves, reached similar conclusions. The House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Select Committee report on Testing and Assessment , published in May 2008, warned the government that SATs tests had distorted the education of millions of children because schools focused on leadership getting them through the thesis statement tests rather than improving their knowledge and understanding. Committee chair Barry Sheerman urged the government to conduct 'a root and branch reform of the system'. The report recommended: an inquiry to find the extent of the essay problem of schools 'teaching to the test'; a reduction in the number of times children were tested; more use of internal teacher assessment; whole-cohort tests should be replaced with sample testing of a handful of pupils in each school; and statement about divorce rates, the exams watchdog should conduct 'a full review of essays about steroids, assessment standards' as ministers had failed to statement about rates, address concerns about esl writing comparison contrast essay, grade inflation.

Download Testing and Assessment (pdf text 631kb). Although the government was adamant it would keep the tests in England (they had already been abolished in other parts of the statement rates UK), it did at least make some attempt to respond to the worries about them by trialling new 'lighter touch' tests. More than 400 schools took part in the two-year 'Making Good Progress' pilot project in esl writing comparison contrast essay, which children were tested when their teachers felt they were ready rather than at the end of the key stage. Ministers hoped the new tests, which formed part of the Children's Plan, would replace the existing SATs tests from 2010 ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). They also hoped, no doubt, that the thesis about divorce rates new test regime would silence some of the critics. But disaster was about to esl writing essay, strike.

First, schools reported widespread IT problems with the divorce rates summer's SATs tests: markers struggled with the personal essay new online marking system and schools were unable to statement about, log on to register students at the start of this week's tests ( The Guardian 16 May 2008). Then the publication of quality assurance cover, results for 11 and 14 year olds was delayed. About? QCA head Ken Boston said the government's testing regime was under 'very great stress'. Quality Assurance? He told an emergency Commons select committee meeting that he was considering legal action against about rates ETS, the American company which had failed to deliver the year's SATs results on time. He told journalists that the pressure in the system - including the government's preference for testing 9.5 million pupils a year in stress homework, order to compile league tables - could have contributed to thesis about, the problems ( The Guardian 15 July 2008). Then it became clear that the results were not only late, they were also inaccurate. ASCL general secretary John Dunford called for an overhaul of the entire key stage 3 testing system. He said: The government and Ofsted use the SATs results to make judgements about whether schools will fail their inspections and heads can lose their jobs as a result. The results need to be accurate and schools will be much angrier at lack of about steroids in baseball, accuracy than delay. Results will be scrutinised this year as never before and thesis statement about rates, the number of appeals is steroids almost certain to rocket. ( The Guardian 18 July 2008) Kathleen Tattersall, head of the newly-created Office of the thesis about Qualifications and personal essay, Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) warned that if the results proved to be as inaccurate as reports suggested, the government should annul them.

And two of the three major exam boards confirmed that they were not bidding for thesis statement divorce rates the five-year £165m contract to admission law school, run the thesis about rates SATs because they did not believe there was a strong enough educational rationale for them ( The Guardian 19 July 2008). Ministers ordered an inquiry into the fiasco, to be led by admission essay Lord Sutherland. When they did eventually appear, the thesis statement about divorce year's SATs results showed that more than a third of pupils starting secondary school had failed to admission law school, reach the level expected for their age in reading, writing and arithmetic and that the proportion of thesis statement about, children scoring top marks had fallen significantly. Head teachers said it could be because schools were neglecting the brightest pupils so as to focus their effort on admission getting as many pupils as possible up to about rates, the national targets ( The Guardian 6 August 2008). In January 2004 David Miliband, then school standards minister, had announced a new system for personal leadership essay judging schools.

Since then, schools had been given a 'contextualised value added' score (CVA), which took into account the number of students on free school meals and divorce, with special educational needs, ethnicity, age, gender and essays in baseball, the spread of ability. Miliband had said CVA would be a 'fairer' way to judge schools. But in thesis about rates, August 2008 a study by Ofsted, Using data, improving schools , concluded that ranking schools by their CVA scores was 'meaningless' and could lead to stress homework, 'inappropriate conclusions'. Thesis Statement About Divorce? Its author, David Jesson, professor of entry quality letter, education at the University of thesis, York, warned the leadership essay government to use CVA 'with care' and rates, 'recognise its limitations'. He argued that CVA could lower teachers' expectations of how much certain groups of pupils could achieve. 'Misusing the data to predict future performance could depress expectations of groups of pupils that have performed less well in previous years', he said ( The Guardian 6 August 2008). In an extraordinary U-turn, Ed Balls announced that Key Stage 3 SATs tests for 14 year olds would no longer be compulsory. (The change was made in the 2008 Education and Skills Act). But he insisted that the even more controversial Key Stage 2 tests for primary school pupils would continue.

He told parliament that there would be extensive changes to the national testing system which would halve the personal testing burden on schools, and a new 'report card', based on a New York scheme, which would grade every school in England and give parents more information ( The Guardian 15 October 2008). Teacher unions welcomed the scrapping of the Key Stage 3 tests but expressed 'bitter disappointment' at thesis statement rates ministers' resolve to preserve those at Key Stage 2. NAHT general secretary Mick Brookes said: 'We are dismayed at the decision to keep the current test arrangements for 11 year olds. This will mean that England's 10/11-year-olds will be the only children in the UK to be put under this pressure' ( The Guardian 15 October 2008). The government's announcement that Key Stage 3 SATs were effectively to be abolished resulted in a dramatic drop - around fifty per cent - in essay, the number of teachers taking part in courses run by the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). Jacqui O'Hanlon, the RSC's director of education, said: 'School managers will not release teachers for thesis divorce a day's training because Shakespeare is no longer seen as a priority' ( The Guardian 26 November 2008). Balls published further details of esl writing comparison contrast essay, how his New York-style 'report card' for schools would work. It would pull together all the information currently available about schools into thesis statement rates a single annual document, including test scores, ratings of essays in baseball, how quickly children progressed, Ofsted scores and measures of child well-being through parent and pupil surveys.

It would provide a single score for every school with an A-E sliding scale or a traffic light system ( The Guardian 8 December 2008). QCA chief executive Ken Boston resigned three days before the publication of Lord Sutherland's report on the summer's SATs problems, saying he was 'taking responsibility' for the worst exam fiasco to hit schools in statement, recent years. Teaching unions regretted his decision and described him as a great asset to British education ( The Observer 14 December 2008). The acrimonious spat between ministers and about steroids in baseball, the QCA came to a head in December. Thesis Statement Rates? The QCA board disbanded the National Assessment Agency (NAA), responsible for essay the SATs tests, and suspended the agency's chief executive, David Gee. About Divorce? It also suspended Boston, having refused to accept his resignation. Sutherland's inquiry into the summer's SATs fiasco revealed that it was Gee who had recommended that the £156m contract be awarded to ETS. Sutherland said the the QCA and NAA collectively failed to check ETS's appalling track record in the US.

The report blamed everyone involved: ETS was 'not fit for purpose', the entry level cover letter QCA had failed to prevent the marking process spiralling into chaos, and DCSF officials had ignored the warning signs ( The Guardian 17 December 2008). The QCA announced that exam board Edexcel had been awarded a £25m one-year contract to run Key Stage 2 SATs tests and other non-statutory national curriculum tests in thesis rates, 2009. Entry Cover Letter? Edexcel had previously held the SATs contract from 2005 to 2007. But the thesis rates QCA warned that the critical essays rush to appoint Edexcel to run the 2009 tests had left little time to test marking systems to ensure they did not collapse again. Before he was suspended in statement, mid-December Ken Boston had written to Balls, warning him that whilst Edexcel was committed to achieving the deadline, there was 'no guarantee that events will not cause them to miss it' ( The Guardian 31 December 2008). At their annual conference in April 2009 NUT members voted to boycott the Key Stage 2 SATs tests. Literary Critical? But instead of debating the sound educational reasons for doing so, they demanded a ten per statement divorce rates, cent pay rise and a minimum of a day a week to mark and prepare work. Essays Steroids? In The Guardian , Jenni Russell commented: What timing.

What judgement. Thesis Statement? Here were militant employees with secure jobs and stress homework, good pensions picking this particular moment in our economic history to demand less work for more money. Even the people who - like me - believe in the long-term need for better paid educators were left dumbfounded. At a stroke, the moral authority behind the unions' claims about SATs had withered, and about rates, teachers once again looked like people who could be portrayed as whingeing professionals, out for themselves. About Steroids? The government - which has always taken the line that national tests are an essential check on whether teachers are actually doing their job - must have breathed a tremendous sigh of about rates, relief. (Russell 2009) Just days after NUT members voted to boycott SATs, members of the rival NASUWT union did exactly the esl writing contrast essay opposite: they threatened to strike if ministers abolished the thesis statement rates tests. Ed Balls thus faced the possibility of industrial action whatever he chose to do ( The Guardian 16 April 2009).

The government's proposed new 'lighter touch' testing system - 'single level tests' (SLTs) - had been hit by 'substantial and esl writing contrast essay, fundamental' problems. According to The Guardian , unpublished reports of pilot tests conducted by the NAA and five independent academics revealed that the tests had given wildly unpredictable results and subjected children to higher levels of stress than the SATs they were designed to replace ( The Guardian 22 June 2009). By October 2009 more than a quarter of a million people had signed a petition organised by the NUT and NAHT urging the government to scrap Key Stage 2 SATs. The two unions began exploring with their members whether there would be widespread support for a boycott of the tests ( The Guardian 2 November 2009). In April 2010 head teacher members of the NUT and NAHT in England voted overwhelmingly for statement about divorce a boycott ( The Guardian 16 April 2010).

Ed Balls consulted lawyers over whether to mount a legal challenge to the decision ( The Guardian 21 April 2010). Heads accused Balls of stress homework, urging council chiefs to thesis statement about rates, dock their pay and issue them with written warnings if they refused to administer the tests ( The Guardian 30 April 2010). NUT general secretary Christine Blower told the NAHT annual conference that the number of teachers who said they would boycott the SATs was growing and that at least half of England's 17,000 primary schools would not administer the tests ( The Observer 2 May 2010). The SATs began on Monday 10 May - four days after the literary general election. Thesis Statement About? A quarter of all primary schools boycotted them - a significant proportion but disappointing, given the level of support for the boycott expressed by heads and teachers and the hostility to the tests among the entry level assurance wider public. Exams and qualifications. GCSE results in 2007 showed an overall pass rate of statement about divorce rates, 98 per cent with comprehensive schools improving more than independents and grammars in performance at the top grades. Fewer students took French or German, but more took separate exams in chemistry, physics and biology and attained better grades. Essay? ASCL general secretary John Dunford said: GCSE students this year submitted over 26m papers and pieces of coursework.

This bloated exam system is reaching breaking point and must be slimmed down. Especially for thesis about divorce rates exams at 16 and 17, greater trust should be placed in the professional judgement of teachers. ( The Guardian 24 August 2007) The government barred state schools from offering Cambridge University exam board's new elite International GCSE in personal leadership essay, core subjects, raising fears that the divide between state and private schools would grow as independent schools were enthusiastic about the about new qualification ( The Guardian 4 November 2009). The QCA said it would - for the first time - intervene in the setting of A Level papers to ensure they were more rigorous. About Steroids? Heads' leaders welcomed the announcement ( The Guardian 24 November 2007). The Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) was launched on 16 May 2008. Statement About Divorce Rates? Its head, Kathleen Tattersall, promised to investigate the 'reliability' of exams ( The Guardian 16 May 2008). The first five of the esl writing comparison contrast essay government's new diplomas - in construction, media, engineering, IT and society, and health and development - were due to be introduced in statement about divorce, September 2008 for 40,000 students in 900 schools and colleges. By 2011 14 vocational diplomas would be available, and in October 2007 Ed Balls announced that three more diplomas, in science, languages and entry level assurance, humanities, would be added to these.

A Levels would be reviewed in 2013 and thesis statement about divorce, might be scrapped if the diplomas proved successful, he said. NUT general secretary Steve Sinnott said the move represented a 'fundamental change of heart' by the government, which, under Tony Blair, had rejected Mike Tomlinson's 2004 proposals to end the historic divide between academic and vocational education ( The Guardian 24 October 2007). In March 2008, Balls announced that an essays extended diploma with more emphasis on thesis statement academic skills to prepare students for university would also be introduced in 2011. Essay Law School? He hoped the thesis statement about new qualification would be backed by level quality the universities. Tomlinson said his original plan had now been fully implemented ( The Guardian 7 March 2008). But the diplomas were not without their critics: the Commons Children, Schools and Families Select Committee report on Testing and Assessment , published in May 2008, warned that the thesis about introduction of diplomas for 14 to 19 year olds was in danger of being undermined by insufficient teacher training, and personal leadership, urged ministers to divorce, end uncertainty in schools by deciding whether to abolish A Levels and GCSEs after the law school diplomas were introduced; leading independent schools said the thesis diplomas were too complex and leadership, decided to statement about rates, opt out; researchers at ULIE warned of a widening gap between vocational and academic education, as private schools increasingly opted for a new range of academically elite qualifications, including the international baccalaureates and essays, Cambridge University's Pre-U ( The Guardian 30 June 2008); and in October 2008 the Commons public accounts committee warned that the government's plan to introduce diplomas to replace A Levels and GCSEs in England was at risk because the new qualification was not seen as credible by parents, employers and universities. Nearly £30,000 had been spent for thesis statement about divorce each of the 20,000 students who had just started diplomas and it was intended that the in baseball courses should be available to every 14 to 19 year old within five years. Thesis Divorce Rates? But, the MPs said, the government didn't know the future costs of the about in baseball scheme, many schools and colleges were not ready, and students were confused about the purpose of the diplomas.

To deliver the full range of qualifications, schools and colleges would have to link up to form complex consortia, with pupils travelling to different centres to study different aspects of the curriculum. The report commended the statement divorce aim of ending the academic-vocational divide but warned that careers guidance was so poor that pupils might be confused by the extra option of essay, diplomas on top of the GCSEs, A Levels and vocational courses already available ( The Guardian 7 October 2008). Qualifications rapidly became a key election issue. As the 2009 exam results season began, the Conservatives accused the government of encouraging children to give up academic GCSEs in thesis statement about divorce rates, favour of vocational qualifications. The government accused the Tories of presenting 'misleading' figures ( The Guardian 24 August 2009). There was a clear divide between the aims of Ball and Gove. Literary Critical Essays? Balls wanted to thesis statement divorce, replace GCSEs and A Levels with diplomas which would span the academic/vocational divide. Gove wanted all children to have a purely academic grounding at least until the age of 16.

Schools and colleges watched anxiously from the sidelines, knowing that they would have the responsibility of implementing the winning policy ( The Guardian 26 August 2009). Andrew Hall took up his post as the new chief executive of the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA), facing the literary critical possibility that if the Conservatives won the forthcoming general election he might quickly be out of a job ( The Guardian 3 November 2009). Building Schools for the Future. The Commons education select committee published its report on the early stages of the £45bn Building Schools for the Future (BSF) programme. It said the scheme should be regularly reviewed and questioned the use of the public finance initiative (PFI) for about half the statement about new projects. Level Quality Assurance? Under PFI, private companies constructed the buildings and then leased them back to the schools on long contracts, often 25-30 years.

The committee noted that central government often pressured local authorities into about divorce accepting academies as part of the BSF scheme and leadership, it argued that local authorities should have more freedom over the regeneration of statement about rates, schools ( The Guardian 9 August 2007). In October 2007 the new Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling announced that every local authority would get a new or refurbished primary school. Leadership Essay? A £200m fund would pay for building work for 75 schools by statement about divorce rates 2011, doubling the planned primary school building programme over the next three years ( The Guardian 10 October 2007). But the BSF programme had been beset with problems over literary critical its four-year history, as local authorities struggled to statement rates, set up the PFI partnerships which provided most of the funding. Esl Writing Comparison Essay? So in April 2008 ministers announced that it would be replaced by a programme to build just four new schools in every local authority area. A DCSF spokesman said there were still 'ambitions' for every school to have a plan in place, even if building work hadn't started by 2020 ( The Guardian 10 April 2008). And an audit conducted by the government's architecture watchdog, the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE), said that eight out of thesis statement rates, ten designs for secondary schools proposed under the BSF initiative were 'mediocre' or 'not yet good enough' and only one in five were considered to esl writing contrast, be 'good' or 'excellent'. Problems identified in the forty proposed designs which were reviewed by CABE included bullying hotspots in thesis statement rates, secluded yards, noisy open plan areas which made teaching difficult, and classrooms which were too dark or prone to overheating on sunny afternoons ( The Guardian 21 July 2008). Academies and trust schools. While Tony Blair had been prime minister, Gordon Brown seemed to have little enthusiasm for comparison academies and about divorce, trust schools - at least, he had said very little about them until three months before Blair resigned. Then, in comparison contrast, his first public pronouncement on the subject, he had praised the 'tremendous success of the academy movement' (The Guardian 20 March 2007).

As prime minister, however, he seemed happy enough for Ed Balls to continue - indeed, to expand and intensify - the policy of handing over the education of the nation's children to used car salesmen, carpet manufacturers and, of course, 'faith groups'. But the problems and controversies surrounding academies wouldn't go away. Private schools which were struggling financially decided the thesis about rates academies programme was the answer: they could carry on doing much as they wanted but with taxpayers' money. Essay Law School? When the government announced it would welcome them as academies, they must have thought Christmas had come early. By August 2007 four were already changing status, two more had applied and twenty were thinking about it. Thesis About Divorce Rates? Other private schools were considering sponsorship of academies and Anthony Seldon, head of Wellington College, argued that this would help end Britain's 'educational apartheid' ( The Guardian 4 August 2007). A report from MPs on the Commons public accounts committee noted routine overspending in the building of academies, with 17 of the first 26 projects overrunning by an average of £3m.

And it warned that academies were still using exclusions to get behaviour under control, breaking laws by procuring services from their sponsors, and personal leadership essay, failing to engage with local communities ( The Guardian 18 October 2007). Twenty-one universities had been persuaded by ministers to adopt academies, but Oxford and Cambridge rejected the idea, saying they preferred to thesis statement about divorce rates, pursue their 'national role' rather than work with individual schools ( The Guardian 3 December 2007). Arms company BAE Systems, which was under criminal investigation in Britain, the US and Europe over personal essay corruption allegations, offered £400,000 to thesis statement about divorce rates, sponsor an academy in Barrow-in-Furness, where it built nuclear submarines. Unsurprisingly, the proposal attracted hostility from local parents ( The Guardian 11 December 2007). Major changes at the Specialist Schools and admission, Academies Trust (SSAT) saw its forty-strong council replaced with a new board of twelve directors, and Sir Cyril Taylor, who had chaired the Trust for statement divorce twenty years, replaced by Sir James Hill, chair of governors of a Bradford academy. Entry Quality? Taylor had been a favoured adviser to both Tory and Labour governments and his removal from SSAT was seen as reducing the influence of schools minister Lord Adonis. Under Tony Blair, Adonis and Taylor had promoted the academies programme ( The Guardian 20 December 2007). Adonis was subsequently moved from education to the Department of Transport in October 2008.

Desperate to find more sponsors, Ed Balls had already exempted some universities, colleges and schools from raising the £2m fee to sponsor an academy. Now, the thesis rates government announced that it would pay successful state schools up to law school, £300,000 to sponsor academies or set up new 'trust schools'. 34 schools had already become trusts and 307 were working towards trust status ( The Guardian 16 January 2008). The Church of England announced plans to convert some existing cathedral schools into academies as part of its target of establishing a hundred of the schools. The National Secular Society said the scheme offered the church 'subsidies on a breathtaking scale' without helping young people from deprived areas.

Already, there were twelve Church of England academies open and about divorce, 18 more planned, and comparison contrast, twenty academies backed by other religious sponsors ( The Guardian 4 February 2008). Adonis said he saw academies as the thesis about new generation's grammar schools, offering disadvantaged bright children a 'ladder' out of poverty. Essay Law School? He said: My vision is for academies to be in the vanguard of meritocracy for the next generation in the way that grammar schools were for a proportion of the post-war generation - providing a ladder, in particular, for thesis statement less advantaged children to about steroids in baseball, get on, and gain the very best education and thesis statement, qualifications, irrespective of about in baseball, wealth and family background, but without unfair selection at the age of 11. Anti-academy campaigners said that setting up 'quasi-grammar schools' would lead to a two-tier system of education ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). In a paper published by statement rates the Reform think-tank, Richard Tice, chairman of Northampton academy and leadership, member of the United Learning Trust (ULT) board, the largest academy sponsor, said the government should make it easier for academies to exclude the thesis statement about worst-behaved pupils (they were already excluding ten times as many pupils as other state schools) and sack poorly performing teachers. Academy staff should be paid as if they worked in business, he said, with bonuses linked to academic improvements ( The Guardian 25 February 2008).

Balls told Labour's spring conference that academies were 'turning round low-performing schools in disadvantaged communities'; that they had 'fair and comprehensive admissions' and 'even more disadvantaged intakes than their catchment areas'; and that they were 'delivering faster-rising results than other schools'. He announced plans for an extra five academies a year, bringing the essays steroids in baseball annual total to 55. Balls believed that the changes he had made to the governance, curriculum requirements and about divorce, sponsorship regime of academies would remove concerns that they were going to be selective and outside the local authority structure ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). But the programme came under renewed attack from the two largest teacher unions. At their annual conference in Birmingham, members of the NASUWT passed a motion to ballot members on leadership essay industrial action in schools which were forced to rates, become academies against the wishes of the staff. And the admission essay law school head of the NUT said academies were compelling teachers to choose either to sign legal documents committing them to thesis divorce, the 'values' of their new sponsors or to leave their jobs without compensation ( The Guardian 26 March 2008). The government announced 115 new trust schools, including the first co-operative trust school, in Stockport, Greater Manchester, where pupils, parents and teachers were to essays about steroids, be involved in decision-making ( The Guardian 10 April 2008). As part of the Children's Plan, Balls commissioned an inquiry into the impact of the commercial world on children, including the government's own policy of encouraging schools to thesis about rates, link up with businesses. It was to be led by David Buckingham, a professor at ULIE and a leading authority on children and the media ( The Guardian 19 May 2008).

Academies were accused of poaching the best head teachers from neighbouring schools by offering them six-figure salaries. About? Ministers claimed that academies had almost doubled the proportion of their pupils getting five good GCSEs but teacher unions said this had been at a cost to other state schools, which were helpless to compete against statement about the high salaries paid by stress homework academies ( The Guardian 9 June 2008). The academies programme should be extended to 'failing' primary schools, said the liberal think-tank CentreForum in its book Academies . Thesis Statement About Rates? The book's views were supported by all three main political parties and included chapters by letter Lord Adonis and Conor Ryan, a former education adviser to the Blair government ( The Guardian 16 July 2008). Fifty-one new academies opened in thesis statement about divorce rates, September 2008. Entry Quality Assurance Cover Letter? Ministers claimed that academies had out-performed other schools in GCSE results but neglected to mention that in nine of the 36 oldest academies GCSE scores had declined ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). According to statement, research by insurance company Zurich, private schools were rejecting the government's attempts to esl writing contrast, encourage them to sponsor academies - just six per cent of about, independent schools had considered doing so ( The Guardian 12 September 2008). Paul Prest, the level quality assurance cover head of a new academy in statement, Sunderland, suspended forty pupils in entry level assurance letter, the first two weeks of term.

He said the thesis statement about divorce rates zero-tolerance approach was crucial after pupils had repeatedly breached the rules. Academies' behaviour policies were praised by ministers despite the schools' excessively high rate of exclusions ( The Guardian 19 September 2008). Amey plc, the private sponsor of Middlesbrough's Unity City Academy, told the government it no longer wished to sponsor the school ( The Guardian 10 October 2008). The City Academy Bristol, which the stress homework government had listed as one of its 'National Challenge' schools because of its poor performance, announced that it was proposing to open fee-charging branches in thesis statement about divorce rates, Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The move was promoted by Anthony Seldon, head of literary, Wellington College, which was also planning to open a number of foreign branches. Ray Priest, the head teacher of the City Academy Bristol, said opening 'branded schools' overseas would help to establish his academy as a 'global educational establishment' ( The Guardian 10 October 2008). An independent inquiry into the academies programme by PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC), commissioned by the government, showed that results had improved markedly but that the proportion of pupils the schools took from the poorest homes had shrunk, supporting claims by critics that more able students were being selected to improve results.

The inquiry raised doubts about the planned expansion of the programme and warned of shortages of heads and sponsors. Separate figures, obtained by the Liberal Democrats through a parliamentary question, revealed the extent of the drop in the number of thesis about divorce rates, pupils on stress homework free school meals in academies. In 2003, 45 per cent of academy pupils were eligible; by September 2008 the figure was just 29 per cent. The 16 per cent drop in academies compared with a 1.7 per cent fall across England as a whole ( The Guardian 14 November 2008). The PWC inquiry also suggested that some academies had used government funds to establish subsidiary companies and that the government was failing to account for the money private sponsors were allocated ( The Guardian 28 November 2008). The government ordered an thesis about rates inquiry into academy sponsor Edutrust Academies Charitable Trust (EACT), a multi-faith charity chaired by the businessman Lord Bhatia, which, it was alleged, had mishandled money awarded to open a string of entry level assurance, academies across England. The DCSF launched an inquiry into concerns raised by the charity's former chief executive, whose contract was terminated days after he complained of irregularities in 'governance and financing' at statement divorce rates the organisation ( The Guardian 28 November 2008). Lord Bhatia was forced to resign from the board of stress homework, EACT after the inquiry found it had failed to comply with 'financial management requirements' and had 'inappropriate governance arrangements'. Divorce? Ministers said that a new board would take over control of the Trust's planned academies and would launch a fund-raising campaign to get sponsorship. EACT was due to open eight of the 80 academies being launched in September 2009 ( The Guardian 13 March 2009).

One of the government's newest academies, Richard Rose Central Academy in Carlisle, was forced to close for quality assurance cover letter a day when demonstrations by pupils got out of hand. Staff threatened to thesis statement about, strike over pay cuts, parents demanded an emergency Ofsted inspection, the school failed and was placed in special measures. Chief executive Peter Noble and head teacher Mark Yearsley resigned. Noble had had no experience as a teacher: he had previously been a manager in the National Health Service (NHS) ( The Guardian 29 January 2009). Schools minister Jim Knight confirmed that the government would consider applications for academy status from stress homework private schools struggling to stave off closure. Anthony Seldon, head teacher of statement about divorce rates, Wellington College, said becoming an academy would not be the 'move of leadership essay, choice' for many private schools, but it could be their only option. Teachers' leaders said it amounted to a 'bail-out' for failing private schools. Five private schools, including two in about divorce rates, Bristol, had already become academies ( The Guardian 31 January 2009).

By 2009, academies were seen by both Labour and the Conservatives as the future of education. Law School? The Tories announced that a future Conservative government would extend the scheme to thesis about, allow primary schools to become academies. But there was still opposition from parents and local communities: in Furness parents raised a 6,000-signature petition against stress homework the imposition of an academy, four campaigners had been elected to the district council, and the campaign group Our Schools Are Not for Sale was expected to win seats on the county council; in Northampton plans to replace Unity College, a Church of England secondary school, with an academy were shelved for a year after parents presented a 1,000-signature petition against it; in Croydon an advertisement for the role of thesis divorce rates, principal of one of esl writing comparison contrast essay, two academies planned for the borough was published before consultation meetings had taken place; in Durham the county council and sponsors planned to open three new academies in 2012: there was strong local opposition and teachers considered industrial action; and there was also strong opposition to divorce rates, academies in leadership, Derby, Dudley, Preston and Tamworth and some sponsors withdrew. ( The Guardian 5 May 2009) The government warned academy sponsors to expect cuts in funding but said it was still planning to expand the number of academies. The controversial schools had received nearly £5bn of public money since they were launched in 2001. 130 academies were already open, 67 were due to open in the autumn term 2009 and a hundred more were planned for September 2010.

But EACT warned that some schools, mainly small rural primary schools, might have to close if spending was reduced ( The Guardian 29 August 2009). In September 2009 Gordon Brown and cabinet ministers celebrated the thesis about opening of the 67 new academies. Balls said it was part of the biggest wave of new schools since the Victorian era and leadership essay, insisted that the government would reach its target of 400 academies. In a sign that ministers were desperate to keep the academies programme going, he announced that the government would abandon its policy of charging charities, businesses and thesis about rates, individuals a £2m sponsorship fee to run the schools. New sponsors would be vetted in an accreditation system based on literary critical their educational record. The scheme, he declared, was now moving into a 'new phase' ( The Guardian 7 September 2009). But, Mary Bousted, general secretary of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, warned: The case hasn't been made for academies. We have a target which will mean one in thesis statement divorce rates, ten secondaries are academies and the jury is still out on whether academies work. Some academies are excellent, some show very little difference and some have been a disaster.

It can be a dangerous experiment. If an academy goes wrong that can be catastrophic for the pupils, parents, teachers and the whole community. Stress Homework? ( The Guardian 7 September 2009) Waltheof School in Sheffield had not been a 'failing' school and had been described by Ofsted as making 'reasonable progress' in 2004. But it had been closed and replaced by Sheffield Park Academy, run by ULT, the largest academy sponsor. In July 2009 school inspectors rated it 'inadequate' in all categories. It was the third academy to have failed an inspection. ATL general secretary Mary Bousted said the statement about divorce news strengthened the case for a fresh investigation into academies ( The Guardian 13 September 2009). Sheffield Park wasn't the only ULT academy causing concerns. In November 2009 Balls banned ULT from taking on any new schools until it had driven up standards in the 17 it was already running.

ULT, an Anglican charity chaired by former Tory education minister Angela Rumbold, also ran ten private schools ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). In December 2009 Warwick Mansell reported that 13 of the admission law school 90 academies which were supposed to have been given private sponsorship money for capital building work had yet to see a penny of about rates, it. In total, sponsors had so far paid barely two-thirds of the £145m they were supposed to have paid towards capital costs in the seven years since the first of England's 200 academies had opened, despite the fact that these financial commitments were written into essays the contracts academy sponsors had had to about divorce rates, sign 'to gain control of decisions on the curriculum, staffing and assets of these quasi-independent institutions, funded mainly by taxpayers' (Mansell 2009b). Staff at Crest Boys' Academy in Neasden, north-west London, held a one-day strike in protest at the announcement that the school's sponsor, EACT, intended to sack seven teachers. According to The Guardian , EACT's director general, Sir Bruce Liddington, enjoyed a salary of £265,000 and had claimed £1,436 for two nights in luxury hotel suites ( The Guardian 20 April 2010). Conscious of growing public unease at the increasing number of religious schools, Balls and leaders of the major faiths published Faith in the System . Entry Quality Cover Letter? In return for state funding of their schools (ninety per cent of building costs and all running costs), faith groups agreed to thesis statement about, 'promote social cohesion'. A further expansion of faith schools was envisaged, despite the essay fact that they already made up a third of state schools in England - mostly Church of England or Roman Catholic but including 37 Jewish schools, seven Muslim, two Sikh, one Seventh Day Adventist and one Greek Orthodox. The ATL warned that too many faith schools discriminated against pupils of other faiths in their admission policies and set religious requirements in appointing staff. ATL questioned why schools 'in which the majority of funding comes from the state, should, as the thesis divorce rates government proposes, nurture children in a particular faith' ( The Guardian 10 September 2007). Meanwhile, in Northern Ireland the stress homework Roman Catholic Church was instructing its schools to disband Amnesty International support groups because of the organisation's pro-abortion stance ( The Guardian 18 September 2007).

Worse, Bishop of Lancaster Patrick O'Donoghue issued a 66-page document in thesis, which he instructed Catholic schools in his area to stop 'safe-sex' education, put a crucifix in every classroom, use science to personal, teach about the 'truths of the thesis statement rates faith', only mention sex within the 'sacrament of marriage', insist that contraception was wrong and prohibit support for charities 'that promote or fund anti-life policies, such as Red Nose Day and Amnesty International, which now advocates abortion'. The Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee summoned Catholic bishops to appear before them to answer charges that they were promoting religious fundamentalism in their schools ( The Observer 30 December 2007). JFS, a Jewish state school in north London, was cleared of racial discrimination against essays about steroids an 11 year old boy who was denied a place on the grounds that his mother's conversion to Judaism was invalid. High court judge Mr Justice Munby said 'The core aim of thesis statement about divorce, JFS is to educate those whom it, in common with the OCR [Office of the Chief Rabbi], considers to be Jews, irrespective of literary essays, their practice or observance, and in an ethos which is avowedly Orthodox Jewish. That is JFS's aim and that, in my judgement, is in principle an entirely legitimate aim meeting a real need' ( The Guardian 4 July 2008).

In September 2008 it became legal for state-funded faith schools to include religion as a selection criterion for thesis divorce rates teaching and non-teaching posts. In response, a coalition of Hindu, Christian and Humanist organisations launched the 'Accord' campaign to letter, stop state-funded schools from discriminating against students and teachers on the grounds of religion. Thesis About Divorce? Accord's supporters included the scientist professor Colin Blakemore, the leadership essay former education secretary Tessa Blackstone, novelist Philip Pullman, the philosopher AC Grayling and thesis statement rates, rabbis David Goldberg and Jonathan Romain. Goldberg said faith schools caused people 'to live parallel lives' ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). Krishna-Avanti primary school in Harrow opened as Europe's first state-funded school for Hindus amid continued concern about the divisive nature of faith schools. It had thirty pupils in its temporary base at Little Stanmore primary school, but would eventually have 236 pupils in a £10m building which would include a meditation garden. Jonathan Romain, commented: 'Some parents will feel reassured by a school that shares their faith and essay, cultural background, but everybody should also be aware of the impact this may have - limiting their children's knowledge of and interaction with children from other cultures, and also depriving other community schools of Hindu participation' ( The Guardian 15 September 2008).

Year eight pupils at thesis statement divorce rates St Monica's Roman Catholic High School in Prestwich, Greater Manchester, were to have been vaccinated against cervical cancer as part of the government's £100m programme to vaccinate all 14 to 18 year old girls. But the about school's governors banned the girls from having the vaccination at school, against the advice of the thesis about divorce Catholic Education Service, which backed the literary government's campaign against the human papilloma virus ( The Guardian 25 September 2008). The Runnymede Trust, a charity set up to promote good race relations, published a report on divorce rates the way faith schools operated in England. It said the literary critical schools should stop selecting pupils according to their religion and do more to serve the most disadvantaged children. Rates? Rob Berkeley, the trust's deputy director and author of the report, said: Given the importance of issues around cohesion, it's time for a shift, so that schools that are funded by taxpayers are responsive and critical, reflect the needs of all pupils and not just those of statement about rates, a particular religion. It's clear from looking at the data on about in baseball free school meals that faith schools educate a disproportionately small number of pupils with lower socio-economic status. ( The Guardian 4 December 2008) Ed Balls asked Ofsted to carry out thesis rates, a survey of the 'moral values' of independent faith schools after concerns were raised about Muslim schools. Inspectors were to look at the schools' curricula, extra-curricular activities and links with external organisations. Since 2003, independent schools had been required to enable pupils to develop their self-knowledge, self-esteem and self-confidence, to distinguish right from wrong, to respect the law, to have a broad general knowledge of England's public institutions and services and to appreciate and respect their own and other cultures in literary essays, a way that promoted 'tolerance and harmony between different cultural traditions' ( The Guardian 9 March 2009). In November 2009 the TES reported that booster classes for primary and GCSE pupils were being held in four Muslim supplementary schools (madrassas) in Bradford. The pilot scheme, funded with £550,000 of statement about divorce rates, public money over three years, was said to be making a difference to pupils' exam results, but the stress homework scheme was controversial.

National Secular Society president Terry Sanderson said: These institutions are devoted almost entirely to pumping Islam into the heads of their pupils. We need to thesis about, know who will keep tabs on these indoctrination centres to ensure taxpayers' money is properly spent. Although there is no suggestion that the Yorkshire scheme is suspect, if this kind of idea rolls out, who knows what will happen? ( TES 6 November 2009) Covert selection by faith schools. Schools minister Jim Knight warned schools he would crack down on any breaches of the new admissions code, which had been in operation for level twelve months and was designed to thesis statement, prevent selection and social segregation, after it emerged that nearly eighty schools - mainly faith schools - had been reported to the admissions watchdog and accused of covertly selecting more able students ( The Guardian 18 January 2008). Research by about steroids in baseball ULIE academic Rebecca Allen offered damning new evidence that faith schools were indeed siphoning off middle-class pupils and failing to take children from the poorest backgrounds. In deprived inner-city areas, religious schools admitted ten per cent fewer poor pupils than was representative of the local area, whereas local authority secondary schools accepted thirty per cent more and therefore had a disproportionately deprived intake. The result was a school system deeply divided by social class ( The Observer 2 March 2008). Allen's research also showed that faith schools admitted over fifty per cent more pupils in the top quarter of the ability range ( The Guardian 13 March 2008). The chief schools adjudicator, Philip Hunter, said more than half of all school authorities - local councils and faith schools - were breaching the new admissions code, which aimed to prevent the covert selection of pupils.

There had been 'widespread' failure by schools to remove discriminatory questions about parents' marital and employment status from application forms and to make clearer the statement about divorce rates definitions in their admissions rules. He confirmed Balls's view, expressed earlier in the year, that the bulk of the problems were in faith schools ( The Guardian 4 November 2008). A revised version of the School Admissions Code was published in December 2008. It banned schools from holding interviews or asking parents to literary critical, make financial contributions or offer practical support. All admissions authorities - including faith schools - were to consult with parents and the local community and improve the divorce rates information parents received on the admissions process ( The Guardian 4 December 2008). In June 2008 Balls launched a concerted attack on stress homework selective education and the 164 remaining grammar schools. In a speech to the NCSL's annual conference in Birmingham, he said: 'Let me make it clear that I don't like selection. I accept though that selection is a local decision for parents and local authorities.

But I do not accept that children in secondary moderns should be left to fall behind.' He promised £1m for every struggling secondary modern to enable them to set up partnerships with other schools ( The Guardian 20 June 2008). Former chief schools adjudicator Peter Newsam suggested that England's grammar schools could be turned into sixth-form colleges ( The Guardian 17 November 2009). Meanwhile, in statement, Northern Ireland Sinn Fein education minister Catriona Ruane had abolished the official 11 plus test but Roman Catholic grammar schools in the province - along with 34 state grammar schools whose pupils were mostly Protestant - were determined to stress homework, fight the decision. In September 2009 the Catholic schools set their own private entrance exams, against the advice of thesis divorce, their bishop. Parents who couldn't get their children into comparison essay the grammar schools without taking the tests were expected to mount a legal challenge ( The Guardian 8 September 2009). Ulster Unionists refused to support the transfer of thesis divorce rates, policing and justice powers to the Stormont assembly on admission 7 March - the 'Hillsborough' deal which was vital to keep the assembly in operation - unless an about rates agreement could be reached on testing primary school children ( The Guardian 12 February 2010). The Charity Commission issued new guidance warning private schools that they could be stripped of their charitable status - along with £100m a year in tax concessions - if they were found to be operating as 'exclusive clubs' for the rich. It suggested that the essays schools should share their facilities and teachers with state schools or offer bursaries.

Independent school leaders welcomed the statement rates guidance, but some MPs said it did not go far enough ( The Guardian 16 January 2008). The new head of the Independent Schools Council, former rear admiral Chris Parry, caused intense controversy when he described some state school pupils as 'unteachable' and their parents as 'ignorant'. He resigned after less than seven weeks in quality cover letter, the job ( The Guardian 13 June 2008). 'Failing' schools: The National Challenge. In February 2008 Balls told The Guardian that he was planning to send teams of expert leaders into divorce 638 'failing' state secondary schools.

Local authorities had until the summer to develop individual 'action plans' for the schools and if they didn't improve they would have to become academies or trust schools, or close altogether ( The Guardian 25 February 2008). A fortnight later, Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling warned that the in baseball deadline for the 638 schools to improve or face closure would be brought forward to statement about divorce rates, 2011. He announced a £200m plan to give the schools intensive support ( The Guardian 13 March 2008). Balls launched the assurance letter 'National Challenge' on 10 June 2008, with funding of £400m. Its target was that at least thirty per divorce, cent of pupils in each secondary school should achieve a minimum of entry level cover letter, five A*-C grade GCSEs including English and maths by thesis divorce 2011.

It aimed to entry level quality cover, tackle 'the link between deprivation and statement about rates, attainment' and offered 'targeted help for essay teaching and thesis about divorce, learning', support to develop strong leadership, the flexibility to design 'local bespoke solutions' and 'more radical changes' such as the setting up of academies and National Challenge Trusts 'where this would benefit the school'. Each school was to have a dedicated adviser working closely with the head, supporting the school directly and brokering additional support, tailored to the school's needs. The formation of partnerships between schools would be encouraged. But the language was not all positive. Local authorities were told (yet again) to produce within fifty days detailed 'action plans' for each of the 638 secondary schools which the government deemed to critical essays, be 'failing'. The schools would be given three years to thesis statement divorce rates, improve or face being closed down, merged or turned into academies ( The Observer 8 June 2008). The last option would surely have been problematic in the case of several of the schools, which were already academies . ASCL general secretary John Dunford warned that 'The constantly increasing target for the number of academies is not helpful and will create turmoil where consistent, steady improvement is the proper aim of school leaders and governors.' While the £400m injection was welcome, schools would 'not be helped by cover letter the threat of thesis about rates, closure or academy status which will hang over many of these schools for the next three years', he said ( The Guardian 11 June 2008). The NUT challenged ministers' claims that there were 638 'failing' schools. An analysis of Ofsted reports had shown that a quarter of the schools were among the best in the country and a third were in the top forty per cent. Half were considered to essays steroids, be satisfactory and about rates, meeting pupils' needs.

NUT acting general secretary Christine Blower wrote to essay law school, the heads of the 638 schools offering support in fighting against the 'arbitrary target' and thesis, threat of closure. Schools minister Jim Knight agreed that some of the schools were doing 'an incredibly good job' but he said they would need further support 'to hit our target' ( The Guardian 21 June 2008). Balls announced that schools which were achieving satisfactory results but were failing to improve were to be labelled 'coasting' and given targeted support to improve or face intervention from their local authorities. Councils would be asked to nominate schools which had average or better GCSE results but were resting on their laurels because of 'complacent' head teachers. Hundreds of schools were expected to be identified, including some grammar schools. Teacher unions warned against putting 'crude' labels on schools ( The Guardian 13 November 2008). The DCSF added eighty more schools to admission law school, the National Challenge list of 'failing' schools, bringing the divorce total to 440.

However, data in literary essays, the annual school league tables showed that more than 200 of these schools had done well enough to move above the thesis statement divorce rates government's threshold of thirty per essays, cent of statement about rates, pupils getting five good GCSEs including English and maths. 17 of the 63 academies reporting GCSE results were among the worst performing 200 schools in England ( The Guardian 15 January 2009). In June 2009 Balls wrote to esl writing, all local authorities in thesis, England with National Challenge schools. He told them the schools must dramatically improve their results, merge with more successful schools, become academies, or close ( The Guardian 16 June 2009). The QCA published plans for a reduced curriculum for 11 to stress homework, 14 year olds in England, to be introduced from September 2008.

A quarter of the school timetable would be set aside for thesis divorce students to improve their basic skills or develop their strengths. Personal Essay? The new regime would include cookery (though unions feared many schools no longer had the facilities for this), citizenship (to include work on 'British values' and 'national identity'), and an optional 'economic well-being and financial capability' strand in PSHE, which was now said to refer to statement about rates, 'personal, social, health and economic well-being' ( The Guardian 13 July 2007). In September 2007, Balls announced a catch-up programme for writing skills in primary schools, and the establishment of an independent exam standards body reporting directly to parliament. Some educationists feared that, with its watchdog powers removed, the weakened QCA might be subject to more interference from ministers. Balls also announced that a new national body would decide pay for stress homework teaching assistants and thesis divorce rates, other support staff ( The Guardian 27 September 2007). Leading authors complained that publishers were putting pressure on them to write more simplistic texts to contrast essay, win multi-million pound contracts with exam boards. Elizabeth Haylett, secretary of the Society of thesis statement rates, Authors educational writers group, said: 'The textbooks that are being used are being reduced to essay, answer books for the exams. There's no opportunity for children to read beyond the test. They are learning parrot-fashion.' One science textbook author had even been told to write a factually incorrect answer because there was an error in thesis rates, the curriculum and the book had to essays about, match ( The Guardian 1 December 2007).

The Children's Plan promised that by 2010 learning a foreign language would be compulsory for statement about divorce rates all primary pupils. But there were problems at secondary level. In 2007 the number of candidates taking GCSE French was eight per cent lower than in the previous year, German more than ten per entry level letter, cent lower. Statement Divorce Rates? Research for the National Centre for Languages showed that more than half of England's secondary schools were now teaching languages to less than half their GCSE pupils. Entry Cover Letter? To attempt to revive language teaching in schools, ministers announced that a £53m package (£5m more than in the previous year): pupils would be offered intensive language classes and university students would be sent into schools as 'ambassadors' for about languages ( The Guardian 20 December 2007). In 2007 Richard Caborn, then sports minister, had sought to promote gun sports.

In the year following his remarks, gun groups claimed that the number of schools providing rifle ranges for pupils had 'surged'. One local authority was planning to introduce shooting at 16 of its schools, and an academy due to open in September 2008 in essays about in baseball, a deprived area of thesis divorce, south Bristol was to have a shooting range. Essay? Meanwhile, the Home Office reported a four per cent rise in gun crime during the thesis statement divorce rates third quarter of 2007. Lyn Costello, co-founder of Mothers Against Murder and Aggression said: There is no reason why children should play with toy guns at stress homework five let alone real ones at 15. Statement? In the present climate we should not be encouraging children to admission essay, use guns. We have to stop this . It's disgusting that on a weekly basis young people are being killed and then we're spending taxpayers' money on teaching them to divorce rates, shoot. Stress Homework? ( The Guardian 26 January 2008) The government committed £775m over three years to increase the minimum amount of thesis statement about divorce rates, school sport from two to five hours a week by 2012. Specialists said that without major changes to the system, particularly in stress homework, specialist teacher training, the five-hour target might not be achievable ( The Guardian 2 February 2008). At their annual conference in Torquay, members of the about divorce rates ATL heckled schools minister Jim Knight when he suggested it was 'perfectly acceptable' to teach maths to pupils in classes of up to 70 ( The Guardian 20 March 2008). A study of the progress of 500 children by stress homework researchers from ULIE into thesis about the Every Child a Reader project showed that individual tuition helped to reduce the gender gap ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). The government was determined that young children should be taught to read using basic phonics, to write short sentences and to essay, use punctuation. It commissioned academics at ULIE to look into the effectiveness of these policies.

Unfortunately for the government, the research showed that teaching phonics, sentences and punctuation to young children had little effect on their literacy skills later on, and that encouraging them to talk and communicate was more effective. So the government suppressed the report, which was released under a Freedom of Information Act request by the Liberal Democrats ( The Guardian 14 July 2008). As the new school year began, heads warned that pupils and teachers faced some of the biggest education reforms in twenty years, including: a new early years foundation stage with nurseries having to assess pupils as young as three; a new secondary curriculum for 11 to 14 year olds; new requirements for statement about divorce GCSEs ('functional' maths and English tests); changes in A Level syllabuses; new diploma qualifications; and the raising of the school leaving age to 17 by 2013 and to 18 by 2015. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said: 'There's never in assurance cover letter, my experience been so many changes in such a short time. Add to that the ambitions of the Children's Plan and it is a massive agenda for every school in the country. It's too much at once. Each of thesis statement about divorce rates, these changes has merit but the stress homework problem is the numbers that are coming at thesis rates one time' ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). An Ofsted report on the teaching of admission, maths suggested that more pupils were getting qualifications but they often lacked understanding of mathematical concepts because they were being drilled to thesis about divorce rates, pass exams ( The Guardian 19 September 2008).

Schools minister Lord Adonis criticised schools for neglecting their brightest pupils. Speaking at admission law school a conference at Brunel University, he said a quarter of primary schools had failed to take part in the compulsory 'Gifted and Talented' programme, and he urged parents to demand more attention from teachers if they felt their children had a particular talent. He also revealed plans for six private schools in London to share their cadet facilities with state school pupils as a way of breaking down barriers between the independent and state sectors ( The Guardian 20 September 2008). A report by statement divorce rates the National Council of Education Excellence, a body set up by Gordon Brown, suggested that schools in stress homework, England should be rated according to the proportion of their pupils who went on to top universities ( The Guardian 3 October 2008). A report from the National Audit Office said the Labour government's drive to improve the nation's mathematical skills had levelled off, with nearly a quarter of 11 year olds failing to reach the expected level at the end of primary school.

Girls were falling behind boys and about divorce, needed particular attention. The report suggested that teachers were failing to level quality assurance cover, spot children who were falling behind because they were not doing enough high-quality testing ( The Guardian 19 November 2008). A House of Lords committee report, The Cumulative Impact of Statutory Instruments on Schools , urged Ed Balls to stop deluging schools with new regulations. Thesis Statement Rates? Members were told that in 2006-7 the DCSF and its national agencies produced over 760 documents aimed at schools. 'No single part of the about steroids department was aware of the totality of what was being offered', the report said. Head teachers welcomed the report. Statement? ASCL general secretary John Dunford said a 'juggernaut of policies, laws and regulations hurtles at ever increasing speed towards us, seemingly out of control'. Schools in England had been besieged by 79 policy consultations and at least 300 announcements from the DCSF in essays about steroids, 2008 and expected an even greater number in 2009 ( The Guardian 13 March 2009). Dunford was also concerned that the statement about divorce government was promoting what he described as the 'Tesco model' of schools.

He told the personal ASCL's annual conference in Birmingham that Ed Balls saw Whitehall as the company headquarters and heads and teachers as 'branch managers and shelf-fillers'. Statement About? He went on: This Tesco management model of England Schools plc . is quality assurance cover letter all summed up in that dreadful word 'compliance'. Compliance, I used to read in management books, is the lowest form of commitment, to be encouraged in those who have no job flexibility, no initiative and limited intelligence. Is this what ministers really want of their school leaders? I sincerely hope not. Thesis? Yet that is how it sometimes feels.

He said 'delivery' was the entry level assurance job of postal workers and midwives, not teachers and head teachers ( The Guardian 15 March 2009). Ofsted inspectors visited 37 schools to assess how well they had implemented the statement about rates new secondary curriculum introduced in September 2008. Four of the schools were judged to have done so 'outstandingly', 21 were deemed 'good', eight were 'satisfactory' and one was 'inadequate' ( The Guardian 25 June 2009). In 2007 the government had announced plans to stress homework, introduce a single funding mechanism for all nurseries, in the state and private sectors, for the free 12.5 hours of childcare it had promised to provide for all three and four year olds in England. Thesis Statement Divorce Rates? It now asked local authorities to confirm by quality April 2010 how they would meet that pledge for September, when the entitlement would rise to 15 hours. Thesis Statement Divorce? State nurseries had historically received far more funding than private ones, and head teachers warned that, with no extra money on offer, the result would be a large transfer of government funding from state nurseries to private ones run for profit ( The Guardian 2 November 2009). Ofsted visited 54 schools to evaluate the effectiveness of the national literacy and stress homework, numeracy strategies. It found that in thesis divorce rates, more than half the secondary schools and a third of primary schools, the programme had not rooted out 'weaknesses in basic teaching skills'. The concentration on personal leadership English, maths and science had 'risked the neglect of other subjects' and thesis about rates, teachers and local authority officers felt burdened by the deluge of initiatives which accompanied the stress homework strategies.

Ed Balls had already announced that the national strategies would be scrapped as part of a move to end centralised control and about rates, promote more collaboration between schools ( The Guardian 24 February 2010). Summerhill, the famous (or infamous, depending on your point of view) Suffolk independent boarding school where children decide how to spend their time, swearing is allowed and, weather permitting, staff and personal leadership, students can sunbathe in rates, the nude, had had a long battle with the government. It had even been threatened with closure in 1999, when Ofsted gave it a scathing report. Esl Writing Comparison? The pupils were 'foul-mouthed' and thesis statement divorce rates, the school had been guilty of 'mistaking idleness for personal liberty', inspectors said. But Ofsted's 2007 report on the school was glowing. 'Pupils' personal development, including their spiritual, moral, social and level assurance cover, cultural development, is outstanding', the inspectors concluded. About? Students were 'courteous, polite and considerate', made 'good progress' and were 'well-rounded, confident and mature' when they left ( The Guardian 1 December 2007). In December 2007 Ofsted announced plans to improve the stress homework system for statement about divorce rates monitoring classroom standards. From 2009 its inspectors would conduct 'snap visits' to schools without giving the comparison contrast essay normal 48 hours' notice and would make greater use of 'local intelligence' - complaints from parents - to investigate schools where standards were feared to be slipping ( The Guardian 13 December 2007). Chief inspector Christine Gilbert announced another shake-up of the divorce rates inspection regime in February 2008.

She told the literary critical National Academies Conference in about, London that the best schools would only be visited once every six years while those which were satisfactory or worse could face annual inspections until they improved. Admission Law School? She added that Ofsted would focus more on the 'shocking' number of pupils who left primary schools without mastering the three Rs ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). ULIE researchers said schools were manipulating the statement rates system of 'lighter touch' Ofsted inspections to exaggerate their success. Self-evaluation forms, introduced in 2005, allowed head teachers to give rosy judgements of their success which inspectors then failed to investigate, they said ( The Guardian 24 March 2008). In May 2008 Gilbert announced two further changes in critical essays, the Ofsted inspection regime. First, she told the Commons education select committee that there would be more lesson observation, following criticism that Ofsted reports focused too much on schools' test results and not enough on what was happening in the classroom. She also raised new concerns about poorly performing teachers, saying that it often took too long to 'get rid of them' ( The Guardian 15 May 2008). Then she unveiled reforms to Ofsted inspections designed to intensify pressure on the lowest-performing and 'coasting' schools which were failing to improve. Standards had 'stalled', she said, and 'the gap between outcomes for specific groups of children and young people and the majority remains too large' ( The Guardian 20 May 2008).

In August 2008 it was revealed that Ofsted was sending out letters to children as young as four setting out complaints about their schools. In some cases the letters had warned the about rates children that their teachers were not preparing them properly for their 'future adult lives'. NASUWT general secretary Chris Keates said the letters were 'ill-conceived' and called for entry quality assurance cover letter them to be scrapped. 'These letters often over-simplify the outcomes of inspections and in doing so misrepresent the findings,' she said. About Divorce? 'The letters in effect give licence to pupils to question the professionalism of the essays steroids school and about divorce rates, its staff.' An Ofsted spokeswoman said the letters were 'a valuable tool in engaging pupils in both the inspection and subsequent school improvement' ( The Guardian 16 August 2008). In January 2009 Gilbert announced that Ofsted was to launch a crackdown on 'boring' teaching in response to concerns that children's behaviour was deteriorating because they were not being stimulated enough in class. Essay? Inspectors would be told to thesis about divorce, advise struggling schools on comparison what was going wrong in their lessons and statement, why pupils were not paying attention, she said ( The Guardian 5 January 2009). Ofsted came under attack from children's services chiefs, head teachers' leaders and leadership essay, MPs.

It was accused of being 'flawed, wasteful and thesis statement about divorce rates, failing'. Its new inspection regime was forcing social work departments to focus on passing inspections instead of essay, looking after children, good schools were rated as mediocre on routine technical matters and thesis statement, some sub-contracted inspectors were not fit for the job. Former chief inspector Sir Mike Tomlinson suggested that Ofsted had been struggling to personal leadership essay, cope since its responsibilities had been expanded to include inspecting children's services as well as schools and childcare ( The Guardian 23 November 2009). Ofsted's annual report said there had been a sustained four-year increase in thesis, the number of schools rated good or outstanding, but that some schools were being held back by a 'stubborn core' of bad teachers who were failing to inspire their classes ( The Guardian 24 November 2009). The new head of the General Teaching Council (GTC), Keith Bartley, said around 17,000 'substandard' teachers were struggling in classrooms and failing to inspire their pupils. Personal? Middle-aged male teachers were a particular worry.

Teachers needed retraining throughout their careers to thesis statement about, prevent them becoming disaffected, he said ( The Guardian 2 February 2008). NUT Conference March 2008. At their annual conference in Manchester NUT members threatened to strike if the government did not promise to cut classes to no more than twenty pupils by 2020. Literary Critical? They said large classes were putting some schools under intolerable pressures ( The Guardian 22 March 2008). The conference heard evidence of a crisis in thesis about divorce, children's happiness and mental health and essay, debated calls to scrap the most restrictive elements of the national curriculum and reverse a government order that literacy be taught through phonics.

NUT general secretary Steve Sinnott said teachers wanted a system which was 'liberal and flexible' and not imposed by thesis divorce rates government. 'We want a return to a time when there was a potential for magic moments in the classroom', he said ( The Guardian 24 March 2008). NUT members expressed concern about research which showed that faith schools were fuelling social, ethnic and religious segregation and stress homework, flouting admissions laws. Statement? Extraordinarily, their solution was to prevent the establishment of literary essays, more single-faith schools but to provide religious facilities - faith-based instruction, prayer rooms and visits by imams, rabbis and thesis statement rates, priests - in admission essay, all schools. Secularists were not impressed. National Secular Society director Keith Porteous Wood pointed out that a large majority of secondary school pupils said they were not religious. 'It's outrageous that a teaching union should be proposing to statement about, introduce religious instruction in schools', he said. 'If parents feel that strongly about admission essay, religious instruction it should happen in the home or place of divorce rates, worship' ( The Guardian 25 March 2008). Members also voted to admission law school, launch a campaign against military recruitment campaigns in schools.

The union said it had complained to Ed Balls that 'misleading propaganda' in some lesson materials prepared with Ministry of thesis statement, Defence (MoD) backing undermined schools' legal duty to present controversial issues in a balanced way. One worksheet supplied by the MoD said the quality cover British army was 'helping the Iraqis to statement divorce, rebuild their country after the conflict and years of neglect'. It did not mention the US-led invasion, the countless Iraqi civilian deaths or the fact that not a single weapon of critical, mass destruction had ever been found ( The Guardian 26 March 2008). NUT members staged a one-day strike on 24 April 2008 and warned that there would be more if the government did not improve its pay offer ( The Guardian 25 April 2008). It was the first national NUT walk-out since 1987, when Margaret Thatcher was prime minister. The shortage of head teachers became an increasing concern during this period. In September 2008 one thousand schools started the new school year without a permanent head teacher. Teachers' leaders, already alarmed at the growing number of vacancies in both primary and secondary schools, were furious when it was revealed that the about divorce rates DCSF had drawn up a secret list of heads and entry level assurance, senior teachers who could be poached to run academies when positions arose ( The Observer 14 September 2008).

The annual survey of headship vacancies by Education Data Surveys (EDS) showed that England and Wales faced a chronic shortage of heads, despite £100,000 salaries being offered for some posts ( The Guardian 9 January 2009). Ed Balls told the School Teachers' Pay and Review Body (STRB) that he wanted schools to be free to decide what to pay head teachers who agreed to help lead struggling schools. He told parliament: To recognise the thesis about divorce greater responsibility associated with running a number of schools, I will be encouraging governing bodies to make responsible use of the flexibilities that they already have to determine an appropriate level of pay for these heads in a way that is not constrained by the maximum of the leadership pay range but is appropriate, fair and transparent. These are interim arrangements while the STRB look in greater depth in essay, the coming year at new pay arrangements for school leaders that will recognise and reward the vital contribution that they will make to the delivery of thesis statement about, our vision of the esl writing comparison contrast twenty-first century school. ( The Guardian 23 June 2009) In January 2010 EDS reported that some secondary schools were now offering six-figure salaries, relocation packages and private health insurance, but were still finding it increasingly hard to thesis statement about divorce, recruit head teachers. Scores of posts were being filled by temporary and leadership essay, acting heads and thesis statement divorce rates, one school in London had had to advertise six times. Contrast Essay? More than forty per cent of all secondary headships and 35 per cent of primary headships had had to be readvertised in 2009. John Howson, the former government adviser who conducted the study, said the shortage was deeply worrying. 'The ease with which schools can recruit a head teacher is statement divorce rates a key measure of the health of the profession,' he said ( The Guardian 28 January 2010). At their annual conference in Torquay, members of the ATL heard the about results of a survey of behaviour in UK schools. Of the thesis statement about 800 teachers questioned, one in ten said they had been attacked and essay law school, injured by violent pupils; three out of ten said they had experienced 'physical aggression'; three quarters said they had been threatened or insulted by a pupil. Almost all reported problems with low-level disruption.

ATL general secretary Mary Bousted told the conference: 'No teacher should have to tolerate these unacceptable levels of thesis about rates, poor pupil behaviour and certainly no one should be attacked in school' ( The Guardian 17 March 2008). Ed Balls announced that heads were to essays steroids in baseball, be granted new powers to thesis, search pupils for alcohol, drugs and stolen goods. Personal? He had asked Sir Alan Steer, who was carrying out a review of behaviour in schools, to draw up proposals to rates, extend teachers' 'stop-and-search' rights. Contrast? Heads already had the thesis statement about right to esl writing essay, search pupils suspected of carrying knives and had been given guidance on statement about divorce rates how to use airport-style metal detectors to screen young people ( The Guardian 27 March 2008). The government published a white paper setting out plans to entry quality assurance cover letter, reform the system of pupil referral units (PRUs) for disruptive pupils. £26.5m would be spent trialling new specialist centres which would be run by about private companies, charities and academies, who would be allowed to make a profit. Every child would have a tailored plan for admission essay law school improving their behaviour and thesis statement, school results, league tables for PRUs would be published, and all schools would be expected to take their 'fair share' of leadership essay, excluded pupils ( The Guardian 21 May 2008). The government announced that secondary schools and colleges in England would receive £720,000 over two years to about rates, train 'pupil mentors', who would learn how to defuse arguments through discussion and personal essay, listen sensitively to classmates with family problems. Ministers said a pilot project of 3,600 pupils in 180 schools over the previous two years had been a success ( The Guardian 30 December 2008). Steer Report: Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned.

Commissioned by Ed Balls and published in April 2009, this was a follow-up to the Steer committee's first report Learning Behaviour which had been published in 2005. Steer said good teaching was a prerequisite for good behaviour: 'The need for consistent good quality teaching, as the basis for raising standards and thesis about divorce, reducing low level disruption, has been highlighted both by Ofsted and fellow practitioners' (DCSF 2009b:3). The report stressed: the personal leadership importance of early intervention and of disseminating good practice advice to thesis about divorce rates, schools; appropriate engagement of and support for pupils, withdrawal from stress homework classes where appropriate; the engagement of parents should be supported and strengthened, with more consistent use of about, parenting contracts; the role of local authorities in prioritising support for stress homework schools and thesis divorce, making provision for excluded pupils; and the roles of local authorities and children's trusts in essay, relation to thesis divorce rates, behaviour and attendance partnerships. Download the personal leadership essay 2009 Steer Report Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned (pdf text 2.1mb). Ed Balls launched a £3m scheme to train teenagers to thesis about divorce, counsel their younger schoolmates and offer 'conflict resolution' to tackle bullying ( The Guardian 15 November 2007). A British Council survey found that almost half of leadership essay, UK secondary school pupils regarded bullying as a problem in their school - a higher proportion than in the rest of Europe. There was considerable variation between parts of the UK: the figure for England was 48 per cent, Scotland 43 per cent and Wales 32 per cent.

However, 42 per cent of UK students said they were happy in about divorce, school most of the time compared with 33 per cent on essays steroids average in the rest of Europe ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). A Stonewall survey of gay school students found that 41 per cent reported physical attacks and half said teachers themselves had made homophobic remarks. The DCSF issued new guidance to thesis about rates, schools on preventing and dealing with homophobic bullying. Ed Balls said: 'We wanted to make sure that within the overall anti-bullying guidance there was specific guidance on admission homophobic bullying' ( The Guardian 29 January 2008). An ATL survey showed that homophobic abuse was endemic in schools, with 'gay' the most commonly used insult in the classroom. There was a 'conspiracy of silence' in schools and statement divorce rates, colleges so that homophobia was seen as normal. Some teachers even feared becoming targets of abuse themselves if they challenged students' behaviour ( The Guardian 11 March 2008). Parents who withdrew their children from Gay History Month lessons at George Tomlinson primary school in Waltham Forest were told that their absences would be regarded as truanting. A local council spokesperson said it was right that schools were tackling homophobia: Waltham Forest council wants to promote tolerance in our schools by teaching children everyone in our society is of equal value.

This is a core part of the stress homework national curriculum for thesis all schools in the country. We are supporting teachers and stress homework, schools in taking positive and innovative steps to develop children's ability to statement about divorce, respect people's differences. A group of rabid homophobes from a Baptist church in essay, Kansas threatened to picket George Tomlinson school but their leader, Fred Phelps, was barred from statement entering Britain to stop him spreading 'extremism and hatred' ( The Guardian 20 March 2009). In March 2009 Stonewall published its Teachers' Report Homophobic bullying in assurance cover letter, Britain's schools as part of its Education for All campaign. Its key findings were that: nine in ten secondary school teachers and more than two in five primary school teachers said children and young people, regardless of their sexual orientation, experienced homophobic bullying, name calling or harassment in their schools; secondary school teachers said that homophobic bullying was the second most frequent form of statement divorce rates, bullying after bullying because of weight and was three times more prevalent than bullying due to religion or ethnicity; 95 per cent of secondary school teachers and three quarters of primary school teachers reported hearing the phrases 'you're so gay' or 'that's so gay' in their schools; eight in ten secondary school teachers and stress homework, two in five primary school teachers reported hearing other insulting homophobic remarks such as 'poof', 'dyke', 'queer' and 'faggot'; nine in ten teachers and non-teaching staff at secondary and primary schools had never received any specific training on how to prevent or respond to thesis statement divorce rates, homophobic bullying; more than a quarter of secondary school staff said they would not feel confident in supporting a pupil who decided to come out to them as lesbian, gay or bisexual; and half of secondary school teachers who were aware of critical essays, homophobic bullying in their schools said the vast majority of incidents went unreported. Download Homophobic bullying in Britain's schools from the about divorce rates Stonewall website.

In 2007 Ofsted's annual report warned that social, economic and entry letter, racial factors still determined how well children performed at school ( The Guardian 18 October 2007). A report by Jo Blanden and Stephen Machin for the Sutton Trust, Recent Changes in Intergenerational Mobility in about divorce, Britain , published in December 2007, showed that by the age of seven the most able children in contrast essay, Britain's poorest homes were outperformed by thesis the least gifted children from wealthy homes. Essay? It concluded that social class was still the biggest predictor of school achievement, the likelihood of thesis statement rates, getting a degree and even a child's behaviour; and suggested that the advantages of steroids, being born in a privileged home had not changed in thirty years. Research conducted at Bath University by thesis about Harry Daniels and Jill Porter for the Cambridge Primary Review showed that a child's chances of receiving extra help for a special educational need was dictated by geography, class, race and gender, rather than the nature of the learning difficulty. Middle class children received better support more quickly, and powerful lobby groups, such as those for essays steroids dyslexia and autism, received disproportionate levels of funding. Thesis Divorce Rates? The system of 'statementing' children and allocating resources allowed for wide variations ( The Guardian 14 December 2007). A government-backed study by Dr Steve Strand at Warwick University found that white working-class teenagers performed worse than their black and in baseball, Asian classmates in GCSE exams ( The Guardian 28 March 2008). Thursday's Child , a report by the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR), a think-tank close to the government, recommended that the thesis statement about long summer holiday should be shortened. It said children from the essay law school poorest backgrounds suffered most from 'summer learning loss' and that youth offending rose during the rates summer when children had less access to structured activities ( The Observer 25 May 2008).

A study on about steroids in baseball social mobility, funded by the American Carnegie Corporation and presented at a private conference in New York hosted by the Sutton Trust, was attended by leading UK education figures and politicians including Cabinet Office minister Ed Miliband. The research used data from 10,000 children in the US and 19,000 children in the UK born in 2000 and 2001. It found that children's vocabulary, cognitive abilities and behaviour were closely linked to family income, with children from the poorest homes much less well equipped to deal with starting school. The effects of being from a low-income home were more pronounced in statement, the UK than the US because of the admission UK's wider difference in thesis about, incomes ( The Guardian 7 June 2008). Meanwhile, politicians traded statistics. A Tory party publication, A Failed Generation , claimed that the education gap between rich and poor had widened under Labour. Schools minister Jim Knight presented an alternative analysis of the achievement gap which showed it had narrowed since 1997 ( The Guardian 8 August 2008). A report published by the Cabinet Office's strategy unit, Getting On, Getting Ahead , suggested that initiatives introduced over entry quality assurance cover the past ten years - predominantly in early years and primary education - were beginning to pay off. Family background, it said, was now less important to the academic success of 15 year olds than it had been for the same age group born in 1970.

In particular, Bangladeshi pupils had risen from being the statement about rates lowest performers to being above average. Tory shadow work and pensions secretary Chris Grayling dismissed the report. 'This has all the esl writing hallmarks of a government propaganda exercise', he said. 'The reality in Britain today is that we have some of the lowest social mobility in the industrialised world.' Writing in The Guardian , John Crace argued that 'the truth lies between the two': There have been significant improvements in raising attainment levels in some areas, particularly among minority ethnic groups, but one large section of the population has missed out on the decade of thesis statement rates, rising standards - the white working class. (Crace 2008) He noted the leadership findings of a report commissioned by the NUT and the National College for thesis statement divorce School Leadership (NCSL) and written by stress homework Denis Mongon and statement rates, Chris Chapman at Manchester University's school of education. Critical? Successful Leadership for Promoting the Achievement of White Working Class Pupils argued that the cycle of divorce, underachievement had been endemic in this group since mass education was introduced in Victorian times. Mongon said: After more than a century of free, compulsory education and sixty years of the assurance cover welfare state, family income and status are by far the most significant correlates of success in thesis rates, the school system. Although gender is also an independent and significant factor, the social class attainment gap at 16 is three times as wide as the gender gap. (quoted in Crace 2008) The government's aim to close the social gap in exam results was certainly proving difficult to steroids, achieve. In 2008, just 16 per cent of white boys on free school meals reached the target of five good GCSEs including English and maths, compared with the national average of 48 per cent ( The Guardian 12 December 2008). Figures released in parliament showed that a million children living below the poverty line were not receiving free school meals because the income threshold to qualify was lower than the current level used to define poverty. Statement Rates? A family of two adults and two children with an income of £18,000 a year had to pay for school dinners at an average cost of £1.70 a day per child. Liberal Democrat education spokesman David Laws said: 'For the most disadvantaged children, a school dinner can be the only hot meal they get.

As times get tough, paying for school lunches is going to be a real struggle for more and more families' ( The Guardian 16 December 2008). Since 1988, parents in England had had the right to express a school preference. Successive governments believed this would force under-performing schools to improve. But in Parental choice of level, primary school in England: What type of schools do parents choose? , academics at Bristol University and ULIE argued that parental choice had fuelled class segregation ( The Guardian 20 November 2009). Rose Hill Primary School in Oxford abandoned its policy of about, using only halal meat in its school meals after complaints from esl writing contrast essay parents ( The Oxford Times 20 February 2008). A survey by the School Food Trust, set up by ministers in 2005 to encourage children to eat healthier food, found that secondary schools had, on thesis about rates average, 23 fast-food outlets within a mile of their buildings.

The Trust suggested that, to prevent pupils from buying junk food, schools should not allow them to critical essays, leave the premises at lunchtime. School leaders said the proposal was unworkable ( The Guardian 28 March 2008). Health secretary Alan Johnson announced plans for a £20m pilot scheme to provide every child with free school meals in thesis statement about, two local authorities. If the two-year trial improved health, school standards, pupils' behaviour and take-up of entry cover letter, school meals, it could be expanded to thesis statement divorce rates, every local authority, he said ( The Guardian 25 September 2008). Catering firms belonging to the Local Authority Caterers Association warned the government that new rules on schools meals due to come into force in secondary schools in September 2009 would lead to even more pupils deserting canteens for critical fast-food outlets and could make the school meals service no longer viable ( The Guardian 23 March 2009). Five years after the statement rates outcry over 'Turkey Twizzlers', led by TV chef Jamie Oliver, the Food for Life Partnership warned that progress towards healthier school meals would stall if budgets for stress homework ingredients were cut ( The Guardian 15 December 2009). The global recession, which began in 2008, forced governments around the statement about rates world to review their spending.

Britain was no exception. In a sign of things to leadership essay, come, Ed Balls urged schools to statement divorce rates, save £750m a year by turning off lights, cutting back on stress homework heating and sharing cleaners. Savings needed to be made now, he said, to thesis divorce rates, safeguard front-line services in the future ( The Guardian 26 November 2009). The message was reiterated three months later at esl writing a conference run by thesis statement about rates the NCSL, only this time heads were asked to make 'efficiency' savings of £1bn without reducing front-line staff. The government was promising a 0.7 per cent real-terms increase in funding for schools, but because of a rise in pupil numbers, a further 0.9 per essays about steroids in baseball, cent would be needed to maintain the status quo. Statement? NAHT general secretary Mick Brookes said it would be difficult for heads to essays steroids, find £1bn without threatening front-line staff: teaching assistants could be particularly vulnerable ( The Observer 7 February 2010). In October 2007 the government published new guidelines on school uniforms. Schools minister Jim Knight said: I strongly support school uniforms and would like all schools to adopt them. They can instil pride and unity, support a strong school ethos and prevent the jealousy, rivalry and thesis about divorce rates, conflict that can arise when children wear different clothes.

But the cost of uniforms must never be a barrier for poorer families. ( The Guardian 5 October 2007) The only dedicated university course for Steiner school teachers had struggled to recruit new students since the government cut funding for essays second degrees. In November 2009 Plymouth University announced it would not be admitting any more students to statement, the three-year course ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). Within a week of becoming prime minister in 2007 Gordon Brown had surprised universities by about steroids promising to statement about, increase the number of students eligible for grants. The pledge had been welcomed by stress homework students as a sign that the statement about divorce rates new prime minister was serious about Labour's target of stress homework, getting half of young people into university by 2010. But by December 2008 ministers had been forced to introduce a cap on thesis about rates places after discovering a £200m black hole in their finances. Stress Homework? This meant that for autumn 2009 there would be 3,000 extra full-time university places - the largest number in history, but not enough to keep up with the surge in demand ( The Guardian 20 August 2009). In November 2009 Lord Mandelson (whose Department of Business, Innovation and Skills had assumed responsibility for higher education in June) launched A New Framework for Higher Education which set out a ten to fifteen year strategy for universities, designed to aid the country's economic recovery and pave the way for an overhaul of student tuition fees. Its key points were: a 'consumer revolution' to give students more information about courses and future earnings potential; a drive to about divorce rates, make universities work more closely with industry in designing courses and funding them; and a new focus on universities as engines of social mobility, encouraging the use of 'contextual data' in selection processes to identify hidden talent among pupils from low-performing schools. ( The Guardian 3 November 2009) The election campaign.

In the summer of essays, 2009 the divorce rates date of the forthcoming general election had not yet been announced but most commentators assumed (rightly) that it would be in May 2010. As far as education was concerned, however, the first skirmishes in contrast, the battle were already under way. The Centre for Policy Studies, a right-wing think-tank, recommended that a Conservative government should abolish at statement rates least eight quangos, including the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, the exams regulator Ofqual, the Training and Development Agency for Schools and stress homework, the National College for School Leadership. Ofsted should remain, but would be limited to inspecting only schools seriously below the thesis standard expected of them ( The Guardian 13 August 2009; BBC News 13 August 2009). Shadow schools secretary Michael Gove announced that he would build technical schools in every city to train a new generation of builders, technicians and engineers - a plan developed by former Conservative education secretary Lord (Kenneth) Baker.

Labour pointed out that it was already doing just that: the DCSF had approved a technical school in Birmingham, to be sponsored by Aston University, and had provided officials to work with Baker on expanding the scheme ( The Guardian 5 October 2009). Gove's view of education. Gove's technical schools policy was a throwback to the 1950s, but there was worse to come. He upset the teaching unions - and just about everybody else involved in education - by promising to esl writing contrast, destroy the 'educational establishment' he claimed was responsible for 'dumbing down' schools. Thesis Statement Rates? He told the Conservative Party conference that he would sideline local authorities, scrap the curriculum agency, sack the worst head teachers, have fewer Ofsted inspections for good schools, encourage competitive sports, and insist on traditional values in the classroom, with former soldiers imposing discipline and pupils expected to wear ties. The state monopoly over leadership essay schools would be abolished by allowing every school the rates chance to become an independent academy with greater control over the curriculum, the about steroids in baseball pay of teachers and the organisation of the school day ( The Guardian 7 October 2009).

The following day, Tory leader David Cameron backed Gove's plans and added that a Conservative government would encourage companies to run state schools for profit, and promote 'discipline, setting by thesis divorce ability and regular sport' ( The Guardian 8 October 2009). Gove's accusation that a culture of 'defeatism and political correctness' had dumbed down education cost him support throughout England's schools. In a letter to essays about in baseball, The Guardian , the head of the ASCL and 26 leading head teachers wrote: As leaders of state secondary schools, and therefore presumably fully paid-up members of the 'educational establishment' to which Michael Gove referred in his speech to the Conservative party conference, we would like to challenge the divorce rates image of the state education sector portrayed in that speech. 'Faddy ideologies' have been resisted by essay law school schools. Recent years have seen a strong focus on raising the quality of teaching and learning, increasing the number of young people who achieve well, improving their behaviour and thesis rates, broadening their opportunities and life chances. Essays? This is what we understand as progressive education, in contrast to the pejorative way in which that term is sometimes used. Statement About Rates? ( The Guardian 12 October 2009) John White, emeritus professor of the literary philosophy of education at ULIE, took Gove to thesis about divorce rates, task over the curriculum proposals in admission law school, the Tory draft education manifesto. Writing in the TES he said: 'For him, there is only one vehicle to get us to these destinations: the divorce traditional school subject. He sets his face against everything else. Cross-curricular teaching is out. Projects and themes are anathemas.' Under a Tory government, there would be no regrouping of subjects into critical wider 'areas of learning' as recommended in the Rose review of the statement about divorce primary curriculum. Subjects like maths, science and history were the only way forward. 'It's a pity that the schooling on which Mr Gove so dotes did not free him from the fetters of essays, black-and-white thinking', White argued.

And he concluded: Since 1997 we have broken away from the rigidities of Ken Baker's original national curriculum. Not fast enough for many of us, perhaps, but in the right direction. Mr Gove would wind the thesis about rates clock back to in baseball, the 1988 curriculum, itself a virtual copy of the curriculum for the new state secondary schools introduced in 1904. This is conservatism indeed.

But is this creation of a horse-drawn, narrowly franchised, imperial age the thesis statement about divorce beacon we should be following a century and esl writing comparison contrast essay, more later? (White 2010) Professor Michael Bassey was equally dismissive of statement divorce rates, Gove's view of education. In a letter to The Guardian (30 March 2010) he noted that Gove wanted to see children 'sitting in rows and rote learning'. Gove had told one newspaper that 'the best training of the mind' would be 'learning the kings and queens of England, the great works of literature, proper mental arithmetic, algebra by the age of 11, modern foreign languages'. Yet he'd also said that 'A Conservative government would . free teachers and leaders in schools from bureaucracy to give them more space to innovate, to excel, and by excelling, to inspire others.' Bassey commented: 'The freedom that the entry level assurance Conservatives offer seems to about divorce rates, be the freedom to spend the next ten years teaching the chronology of the monarchy to children sitting in straight lines'. Meanwhile, David Cameron accused 'failing' schools of admission, pandering to a culture of defeatism and 'dumbing down to the lowest common denominator'. He said a Tory government would sack the heads of the thesis about worst-performing schools within a hundred days ( The Guardian 25 April 2010). Gove's other big idea was to stress homework, establish up to 2,000 Swedish-style 'free schools' - independent schools run by or for parents but paid for thesis statement about divorce by the state. He had first proposed these in September 2008. Admission Essay Law School? 'We have seen the future in statement, Sweden and it works', he declared. 'Standards have been driven up. If it can work there, it can work here.' He had gone on to make the policy a key feature of the Tory election campaign, but it was widely criticised.

Per Thulberg, director general of the Swedish National Agency for Education, said the free schools had 'not led to better results' in Sweden. He told the BBC's Newsnight programme that where the free schools had improved results, it was because the pupils they admitted had 'better backgrounds' than those who attended the schools they had replaced. Furthermore, recent international studies had shown that England was ranked higher than Sweden for pupils' maths and science knowledge and in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Sweden's ranking for science had fallen further than any other country's ( The Guardian 9 February 2010). Stephen Ball, professor of the sociology of esl writing essay, education at about divorce ULIE, said Tory plans for more academies and free schools amounted to the breaking up of the model of state education which had operated in England since 1902: It's a process of the dissolution of state schooling. Literary Critical Essays? It was Labour that introduced legislation under which people could set up their own schools. This is taking it a step further and opening it up to divorce, more diverse providers being able to set up schools.

This is the personal beginning of the end of statement divorce rates, state schools as we know them. ( The Guardian 2 March 2010) Two local authority leaders joined in the criticism. Kent County Council leader Paul Carter said giving parents and other groups the funds to leadership essay, start free schools would threaten local education budgets, and Hampshire's cabinet member responsible for schools, David Kirk, insisted that local authorities should be allowed to improve existing schools rather than being forced to give parents the thesis about power to set up new ones. Leading education lawyer Graham Burns, who was acting for three parent groups trying to set up schools in entry cover, anticipation of a Conservative administration, told The Guardian that parents from from poor neighbourhoods would be unable to set up their own schools because they lacked money and influential friends ( The Guardian 26 April 2010). And finally, just four days before the election, it was revealed that one of the first state schools to take on statement rates a private partner had had to stress homework, be 'rescued' by its local council after it was deemed inadequate by inspectors. This was an embarrassment for Gove because Kings International College, run by 3Es Enterprises, was in his Camberley constituency and because it highlighted potential problems with his free schools plan.

Local Liberal Democrat councillor David Whitcroft commented: 'Michael Gove has been talking about what is going on in Sweden; it might be more useful if he looked at what is going on in his own constituency' ( The Observer 2 May 2010). Determined to show that he could come up with equally loony ideas, Gordon Brown announced that parents would be allowed to vote on whether to get rid of the leadership of their child's school and have it converted into an academy run by a university, a business or another state school. Divorce? These 'sponsors' - the personal first to be named was carpet shop owner Lord Harris - would be allowed to run chains of poorly performing primary schools. Teachers dismissed the idea as 'an impractical and unworkable election gimmick' ( The Guardian 23 February 2010). As the general election approached, Robin Alexander noted that there was 'a great deal of unfinished business' in relation to primary education: The Rose proposals for the primary curriculum have disappeared in the pre-election legislative wash-up, leaving schools confused and frustrated. The long-running SATs conflict is heading for its high noon. Rumblings continue about thesis about, inspection. The national strategies have come and are about to go, leaving an uncertain legacy. A growing appetite for genuine and esl writing contrast, lasting reform competes with teachers' understandable longing for a period of statement, stability after 13 years of constant change. In Baseball? (Alexander 2010) With the about rates Labour government having rejected the stress homework recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review, and thesis statement about rates, the Tories highly unlikely to adopt them, he appealed directly to personal, teachers to take forward the Review's agenda and announced the launch of a network supporting those who were keen to thesis statement about, build on the report 'and in many cases have begun to entry quality, do so': Many of the priorities we nominate will be advanced only if teachers, and the communities they serve, seize the thesis statement about opportunity and the evidence provided by initiatives such as the Cambridge Primary Review, and use them to debate the central educational questions which too often go by default: what primary education is for; what constitutes an enabling and balanced curriculum; how research on learning and teaching can be translated into classroom practice that fully engages every child; in what kinds of decisions about their lives and learning young children can or should be involved; how educational quality and standards should be defined and assessed; and how - individually and in partnership - schools should be organised. (Alexander 2010)

The general election was held on Thursday 6 May 2010. There was no overall winner, and after several days of anxious negotiations between the parties, Gordon Brown resigned on 11 May and personal essay, the Queen invited David Cameron to form a coalition government of Tories and Liberal Democrats. Thesis Statement About? For an analysis of the party manifestos and the policies of the admission new coalition government, see my article Hobson's Choice: education policies in the 2010 general election (2010). Summary of the period. What are we to make of thesis statement about rates, education in England under Ed Balls? It's a very mixed picture.

On the positive side, he is to be commended for his undoubted commitment to improving the lot of the nation's children, particularly those from poorer families. The Children's Plan was, as we have seen, an ambitious attempt to stress homework, take a holistic view of the lives and thesis statement about rates, prospects of children and to bring some much-needed coherence to policy-making by drawing together all the esl writing contrast government departments and agencies which impinged upon them. This approach was refreshingly new. He was very opposed to selection for secondary education and took steps to prevent schools - especially faith schools - from covertly selecting pupils from more affluent backgrounds. He was also determined to divorce rates, crack down on homophobic bullying in schools. On the negative side, it is to be regretted that he was so adamantly committed to maintaining the indefensible testing and league tables regime in England's schools, in the face of widespread hostility from parents, teachers and stress homework, governors, and despite clear evidence of the thesis about divorce rates damage it was causing, not least to essay, the children themselves. It is also regrettable that he was content to ignore the wishes of thesis divorce, parents and teachers by continuing to increase the number of academies and trust schools, and that, despite his obvious concerns about faith schools, he was apparently happy to leadership, see their numbers grow too. His decision to force faith schools to teach sex education properly was welcome. His capitulation in about rates, the face of religious lobbying was not. And finally, like many politicians he talked much about returning decision-making to schools and local communities. Contrast Essay? So it's odd that he still insisted on, for example, compelling schools to use a particular method of teaching reading - 'synthetic phonics' - against statement divorce the advice of the world's experts in the teaching of reading.

But then politicians - of whatever party - never allow the evidence to cloud their judgement. Alexander RJ (ed) (2009b) Children, their World, their Education Final Report and Recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review London: Routledge. Crace J (2008) 'Long division' The Guardian 11 November. CSFC (2009) National Curriculum: Fourth Report of Session 2008-09 Volume 1 HC 344-I House of Commons Children Schools and Families Committee London: TSO. DCSF (2007) The Children's Plan Building brighter futures Cm 7280 London: HMSO.

DCSF (2009b) Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned A review of literary critical, behaviour standards and practices in our schools Nottingham: DCSF. Mansell W (2009a) 'Big brothers' The Guardian 2 June. Wilby P (2008) 'Jim'll fix it' The Guardian 5 August.

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Thesis Statement About Divorce Rates

10 Things Smart PhDs Do NOT Put On Their Industry Resumes. Written by Isaiah Hankel, Ph.D. Thesis About Divorce? What are you supposed to do when you send hundreds of resumes out and law school get nothing back but a few automated responses? This is the question I was trying to answer my last year of statement, graduate school. I literally sent out hundreds of resumes.

I posted my resume to Monster.com and waited for the tidal wave of industry job offers to roll in. Critical Essays? Yeah…that didn’t happen. I polished up a generic resume and uploaded it to dozens of industry job websites. I remember getting on Pfizer and Baxter’s websites, clicking the job opportunities tab, and seeing all the industry job openings. “Yes!” I thought. About Rates? Piece-of-cake.

I’ll just upload my resume and have an essay law school, offer by the end of the week. There couldn’t possibly be that many other PhDs out there applying to the same PhD jobs. Statement About Rates? Wrong. I found out later that some companies receive over 2,000 resumes a day. 2,000 a day!

I felt stuck and lost so I asked my academic advisor to help me write my resume. He sent me his CV and said “Here, look at this.” Great. Thanks for nothing. I knew that industry hiring managers weren’t interested in CVs. Stress Homework? How did my advisor not know this? That’s when I realized how little lifetime academics know about statement about divorce getting an critical essays, industry job. So, I asked one of the job counselors at the graduate school for advice. Statement About Divorce Rates? She told me the key to getting an interview was to write a very detailed cover letter, make sure that my education history was at the top of my resume, and to include a one sentence “objective” at the very top of my resume. Okay. That’s great advice. Right?

Nope. About? She was wrong too. About? It wasn’t until 3 months later that I found out just how awful her advice was. Over 427,000 resumes are posted to Monster.com each week—that’s just one job website. Most companies use Applicant Tracking Software to automatically filter and eliminate 75% of the resumes sent to them. If your resume makes it to essays steroids in baseball the desk of a hiring manager and recruiter, they will spend an average of just 5-7 seconds reading it. Seconds. About Divorce? That’s all you get. All the hours, days, months, and years you’ve spent getting your PhD will come down to just a few seconds.

Think of literary, how hard you’ve worked to get to where you are. Are you really going to throw it all away by statement about, not taking the time to get your resume just right? More is esl writing comparison contrast, more. Thesis Statement Rates? This is what most PhDs are taught. Triplicates are better than duplicates. An N of 200 is better than an leadership, N of 2. Thesis About Divorce Rates? A CV with 10 first author publications is better than a CV with one first author publication.

On and leadership essay on. But, when it comes to creating a strong industry resume for a PhD job, less is more. Adding the wrong things or too many things to about divorce rates your resume will keep you from getting the entry level cover, industry job you want. A better strategy is to simplify your industry resume down to only the thesis statement about, things that industry hiring managers and recruiters actually want to see. Here are 10 things smart PhDs like you should remove from personal your industry resume: 1. Unprofessional email address. Three out of four resumes are discarded because they’re sent from an unprofessional email address or have an unprofessional email address attached to their resume or cover letter. This means you can put yourself ahead of 75% of the statement about rates, other applicants simply by eliminating any references to comparison essay unprofessional email addresses like bigboy77@yahoo.com or similar. A lot of PhDs are afraid to use their University email address when applying to jobs because they think their PI is going to thesis statement hack into their email account and find out they’re trying to leave the lab. This won’t happen.

PIs don#8217;t have access to your University email account. However, if you’re currently working in industry and looking to change jobs, don’t use your work email because your boss can absolutely see your emails. Esl Writing Contrast Essay? Instead, create a very professional gmail address in thesis statement, this format: firstname.lastname@gmail.com. If this version of contrast, your name is taken, then simple insert your middle initial or middle name between your first and last names. 2. Impersonal greeting. Never use an impersonal greeting on thesis rates your resume’s cover letter. Greetings like #8220;Dear Sirs#8221; or #8220;To Whom It May Concern#8221; are creepy, distant, and outdated. Most importantly, these greetings makes you seem lazy.

Instead of taking the time to essay law school research who the thesis, hiring manager is, you just threw your hands up in the air and typed a general greeting that could be applied to anyone. As a result, your resume and candidacy were seen as mediocre at best. Smart PhDs always use a personal greeting. They know that over 50% of all top industry jobs are given to referrals, but only 7% of applicants are referrals. Let that sink in.

Over 50% of the best positions are given to in baseball people who have networked and, as a result, have been introduced to a decision-maker or someone who will vouch for them to a decision-maker. Yet, 93% of people applying to these jobs are just sending out their resumes blindly and impersonally on the Internet without knowing anyone at the company they want to work for. Which side of the fence are you on? Before you send your resume in, find out who the hiring manager is. Statement Divorce? Or at least find out the name of leadership essay, someone who works on statement about the team you’re trying to crack into.

At the contrast essay, very least, use the name of statement about, someone in human resources. Personal Essay? Then, connect with people who work at thesis statement about divorce the company you’re seeking employment at. Stress Homework? Network on LinkedIn, network at face-to-face events, and thesis about divorce rates do whatever it takes to get to know someone well enough to put their name on the first line of essays, your cover letter. In the end, your cover letter should be short and sweet, with a personal greeting (e.g. Dear Jeremy, Dear Dr. Smith) and should start with a line like, “I have been in contact with Jason Jones , your Regional Sales Manager , who mentioned that your open Project Manager position would be perfect for me.” Putting an objective statement at the top of thesis about rates, your resume will not help you get an industry job. Instead, it will paint you into a corner. A better strategy is to use a visual center . A visual center starts at 2 inches from the top of critical, your resume and ends 2 inches below that. This center should be emphasized with graphics, such as textboxes, bullets, and bold fonts.

Load the visual center with the value you will offer the company, such as across-the-board accomplishments, industry-specific skills, a summary of statement about divorce rates, a highly successful project you lead, or even a clipping from a recommendation letter or news article about your work. Resumes with visual centers that are interesting and catch the level quality assurance letter, reader’s eye will be read much more carefully than they would be otherwise. A strong visual center will make you stand out about without preventing you from personal leadership essay being considered for additional positions. If you want employers to thesis statement about rates notice you and keep you in leadership, mind for other positions that you may also be qualified for, replace your objective statement with a visual center. Recruiters and thesis statement about rates hiring managers spend just a couple of seconds looking at a resume before deciding whether it’s worth a full read. This means you should show them exactly what they want to see first. And guess what—they don’t care about the dates. They care about the title of the position you held, the about steroids, name of your employers, the thesis statement divorce, location of your employer, and, most importantly, what you achieved. Don’t mistake your resume for a publication citation. It doesn’t need to law school list the dates first.

When listing past employment, exclude the dates or at least list them last. If you really want to get your resume read, list your experience by relevance, not by thesis divorce, date. Esl Writing Essay? Just like you can sort publications on PubMed by relevance to a specific topic, you can sort your work experience by about divorce rates, relevance to a specific position. Always put your work experience above your education history. Smart PhDs never bury the lead on their resumes.

Your lead is what employers want to read most on your resume. Drop the dates and stress homework the dated mentality. Instead, create a strong visual center, followed by a list of work experience sorted by relevance to the position you#8217;re applying for. About Divorce Rates? Industry employers do not want to read about your job duties. They care about the outcomes you achieved, not how you achieved the outcomes. Your resume does not need a methodology section.

Delete any reference to “job duties” or “responsibilities included.” Instead, list key achievements as tangibly as possible. Unlike your typical CV, a good industry resume is esl writing contrast, always accomplishment-focused. This means that within seconds of reading your resume, employers should be able to see that the return on investment for hiring you is higher than the salary you are asking for. You must demonstrate that you can save your potential employer time and thesis about make them money. If you’ve spent your entire career in academia, you can still add tangible outcomes to your resume. For example, you could say, “Helped PI recognize over $1,000,000 in grant funding by skillfully leading a team of scientists to essays about in baseball complete all projects on time, resulting in divorce rates, grant renewal every year.” Do not waste precious resume space on listing the essays, contact information of three professional references. Don’t even waste space on writing “References Upon Request.” Employers know that you have references. Thesis Statement About Rates? If you don’t, then you shouldn’t be applying for the job in the first place.

You should be networking. 7. Typos and grammatical errors. If you can’t spell #8220;Technical Specialist#8221; correctly, you shouldn#8217;t be one. At least that#8217;s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume. Surveys and studies show that top companies care more about communication and interpersonal skills than anything else when interviewing new candidates. Literary? One of the very first indicators employers will have of your communication skills is your industry resume.

If it is thesis about, riddled with mistakes, you will not move to the interview stage. About Steroids? Your industry resume must be absolutely perfect. If you’re not a good writer or if English is statement divorce, not your native language and you’re submitting your resume in English, make sure you have a professional editor proofread it for personal leadership essay errors. You don’t need to thesis divorce pay hundreds of level quality cover, dollars for this. You can find worthy editors on eLance and Fiverr who will polish your resume for as little as $5. Once you’ve had your resume professionally proofread, go back and insert relevant keywords into it.

Then have it proofread again. This is the best and about rates most successful sequence to follow. First, write your resume without considering keywords so it flows well. Then, have it proofread. Next, add keywords. And finally, have it proofread again.

Using relevant keywords is critical to getting your resume past the Applicant Tracking Software checkpoint. It’s also important for entry level getting your resume past recruiters and hiring managers who will use the “Find” function on statement about divorce their computers to do quick keyword searches on your resume. The best place to find the keywords you should use is in leadership, the job description of the thesis statement about divorce rates, position you’re applying for. For example, if the description contains the phrase “project management” over and over stress homework, againas in, project management experience requiredyou can bet the hiring managers entered it into thesis, their Applicant Tracking Software and personal that they will search for it themselves once they have your resume in hand. Publications don#8217;t matter in industry. Even hiring managers for industry RD positions don’t care about your publications. This is especially true at about rates the resume-reading stage of the hiring process. I know—it hurts. I’m sorry.

There may be a few outdated hiring managers or RD directors who will insist that publications should be listed on an applicant’s resume, but they’re simply wrong. Smart PhDs know that putting their publication record on an industy resume is a waste of level quality, time. They know that industry employers want to see work experience and results, not publications or education history. You’ve worked hard on your publications and should be proud of them, but don’t let your pride get in statement divorce, the way of personal leadership essay, creating a sharp resume. Besides, your publication record isn’t going anywhere. Once you get to the interview stage, if hiring managers want to bring up the statement about divorce, papers you’ve published, they will. Recruiters and hiring managers have mountains of resumes sent to them daily. Recall that some companies receive thousands of resumes a day and most of stress homework, these will be filtered out by about rates, Applicant Tracking Software.

The remaining resumes will be further filtered out by employers who are unwilling to personal essay read anything beyond a bullet point followed by a single sentence. Think of writing an industry resume as the opposite of writing an statement, academic journal article. Essays About Steroids? Instead of using dense text and long paragraphs to divorce construct a well-formulated argument, you want to in baseball simplify everything down into digestible nuggets of information. Avoid turnoffs like small, dense font styles and sizes. Avoid run-on sentences. Avoid paragraphs altogether.

Smart PhDs put everything on their resume behind a bullet point, number, or header and never put more than two sentences together at a time. Statement? 10. Overly personal information. Assurance Cover? Industry resumes that are submitted with photos are rejected 88% of the time. Why? Because submitting a photo is too personal. Don’t make the mistake of getting too personal too soon. The most important rule of writing an effective industry resume is to statement about divorce rates leave off all personal information. If you’re smart and have followed the other points in this article, you know that networking and stress homework finding strong references is the statement divorce rates, most important thing you can do to get your resume read. The only personal information you should submit with your resume is a short cover letter with a personal greeting and a personal reference—a reference who works at the company you’re applying to.

However, don’t be afraid to critical add a line (just one, single line) to thesis about divorce your resume indicating a particular award you’ve received or leadership role you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership role. Things like “Captain of the swim team winning 3 consecutive awards for leadership” or “Four-time Habitat for Humanity project leader and Eagle Scout” will help differentiate you from the stress homework, piles of resumes coming in from PhDs who having nothing but academic achievements to reference. Finally, it’s important to understand that almost every company you apply to statement divorce rates (up to stress homework 93% of them) will Google your name and look up your social media profiles. Before you submit your resume, make sure your social media profiles are professional and thesis divorce display a unified message. To learn more about personal leadership essay transitioning into a non-academic career, including instant access to our exclusive training videos, case studies, industry insider documents, transition plan, and private online network, join the statement, Cheeky Scientist Association. Latest posts by Isaiah Hankel Ph.D. (see all) Industry Transition Spotlight: Karin Weigelt, PhD - September 28, 2017 Climbing Career Ladders (Industry Careers For PhDs Podcast) - September 28, 2017 Industry Transition Spotlight: Kristy Bialas, PhD - September 21, 2017. Get Your Free Industry “Insider Booklet” Your First Step In Your Transition To Industry. Some good advice here. The visual centre is a good concept however if the organisation uses resume scanning software then graphics will cause problems. Keep it clean and readable by the software and then by a human if you are lucky enough to make the first cut. Thanks for sharing your opinion Sally.

Some very good points made and to stress the point on typos and literary critical essays grammatical errors please take notice of the following: #8220;However, don’t be afraid to add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’re received or leadership roll you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership roll.#8221; I believe you meant to say #8220;you#8217;ve#8221; instead or #8220;you#8217;re#8221; and #8220;role#8221; instead of #8220;roll#8221; Thanks for statement about divorce rates the find Marwah, though you may have missed the point of the article. No actually, I appreciate the article and I am implementing your suggestions accordingly. #8220;7. Typos and grammatical errors. If you can’t spell “Technical Specialist” correctly, you shouldn’t be. one. At least that’s what employers will think when they read a typo on entry level quality assurance letter your resume.#8221; ..condescends poster for being pedantic#8230; PS: this is your resume for people you#8217;re convincing to take your advice.

Thanks a lot for this great article !. Statement About Divorce? Where can i find a clear picture of the example shown in law school, advice number 3.) Objective statement ? Thanks for the advice. The above are very handy. Should I even mention my PhD when applying for industry jobs? Sorry, it sounds like a stupid question, but sometimes I feel it quite awkward and out of place given that my PhD topic is totally unrelated to many of the about rates, jobs I apply for anyway. Excellent advice. Any chance the stress homework, #8220;After#8221; template is available for download somewhere? Are there any examples of how a resume should look like for recently graduated PhD? Im curious, because I just don#8217;t know what to include in thesis statement about, my resume if my publications does not matter (not that I have that many)? I only have education and in my country a PhD is considered as work.

Also, in my resume I have a section called key skills mentioning things like software, lab equipment etc. Essay? My PhD has been more of engineering type of work. About Divorce Rates? I have been developing an optical sensor. I would prefer to go to industry now. so I am trying to increase my chances. Esl Writing Contrast? Really enjoy reading your posts. Keep up the great work! I do not question your suggestion in point #8 to remove publications from a resume.

However, a first author publication on thesis about divorce a resume shows successful teamwork, strong communication skills, and essay conclusive results! It would seem to me that those are exactly the qualities that companies would be looking for in prospective candidates. Can you explain why these qualities should be devalued? Suggestion for publications: just put a link to your MyNCBI publication list at the bottom of your resume. This will not eat up more than two lines of thesis, space.

If a potential employer is really interested in you and your work, then everything that you#8217;ve done is there. Excellent advice. Anybody have an existing LaTeX template that is laid out level assurance according to these principles? These articles make me nauseous; not because they are untrue, but because they are very true. Just sad when even a PhD in a complete #8216;nerd#8217; position has to rates impress the former clothing sales girl with ADD, then the bean counter who needs to know how much money you can save the corporation. Stress Homework? If you#8217;re applying for a PR/marketing or finance position then fine, but seriously#8230; Does nobody care that #8216;getting hired#8217; is now the divorce, primary skill in today#8217;s job market? Could this conceivably not end well?

In fact it already is. PS- also not knocking your advice, but on every page an expert offers a different take; case in essays, point the photo on a resume. Agree. I#8217;m not a PhD but a writer. I have taken a hint from the resumes of software engineers I#8217;ve worked with in tech. Write for the person who understands the statement about divorce, skills you bring, and critical try to get to that person directly.

As an industry RD hiring manager (currently hiring), this article frustrates me quite a bit. Thesis Divorce Rates? In my scan of resumes, one of the first things I look at entry letter is the dates of your education and work experience so I can understand your career path, and thesis about divorce rates right after that I want to look at your publications. I don#8217;t want to hear how you got a $1M grant, I want to know that you were able to get a high quality scientific publication published because that was the primary output of your PhD. While I agree that industry hiring managers are looking for specific things and some of essays, this post I agree with, I think some is plain bad advice. The biggest thing I want in your resume is clarity I want to see every major accomplishment in your career so far, including publications, as quickly and clearly as possible. Thank you Yvar!

I#8217;m currently looking for jobs and I was debating on if I should list my publication records (which is very good) on my CV or not. And I saw this article, and thesis about rates I was so frustrated because I believe somebody who did their job well in his previous position is more likely to do their next job well. Even that the publication record shouldn#8217;t mean everything, it should mean something. It#8217;s a representation of what you have achieved and literary what you are capable of as a Ph.D. or researcher. I#8217;m glad that as a hiring manager you think the same, that gives me quite a lot encouragement #128578; Hi, I am a recent PhD graduate and actively looking for divorce rates an industry job, though not really successful! I am looking for a professional Resume writer to help me with re-construct my industry CV.

Anyone here has a suggestion where I can find one? I too am in the same fight and this person at top resume really gave me the almost exact advice and offers packages to help you with your overall industry profile. emily@topresume.com. Ready To Get Started? Join Cheeky! Cheeky Scientist is esl writing essay, a training platform for academics who want to statement about rates transition into non-academic careers.

The Cheeky Scientist Association is our specialized training program for PhDs who want to stress homework transition into industry. The site is not a part of the Facebook website or Facebook inc. Thesis Statement About Divorce Rates? Additionally, this site is NOT endorsed by Facebook in any way. FACEBOOK is a trademark of FACEBOOK inc.

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Free Essays on Paradigm Shift Essay. October/November 2010 Words (without quotes): Essay Philosophy of Science INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT For the rates course: Philosophy of Science (30J205) In the logical positivistic sense it is often mentioned that the field of economics is not scientific . Whenever one would try to refute this. Paradigm Shift Example - Thomas Kuhn. Philosophy of Science Mid-term Essay Professor: Dr. Herman C.D.G. de Regt By: V. V. Budiman ANR: 238183 Word count: 1264 Disciplines, or the so-called rules in determining what science is and what is literary critical essays not has made it difficult for thesis about rates economics to be considered as science. But how reliable are. Marshall Sahlins’ has a quote that we stand on the shoulders of giants to shit on their heads reflects the idea of paradigm shift . The shoulders personify the collective knowledge of those researchers before us, as students it is where we gain our information. It is not through our own work that we. various summaries I read, I found the book interesting because it was not a conventional science book.

Yes, it talked a lot about science but the paradigm shift that Kuhn wrote about got my interest. The ‘scientific revolutions’ were true and believable and somehow, I agree with them. Science, or normal. Small Cars: New Paradigm Shift ? Our country has long had an esl writing comparison contrast, obsession with the automobile. The designs of the thesis statement about divorce sixties and seventies remain fond memories that still dominate our garages and car shows today. Nobody can be anybody without owning a car in personal leadership essay today’s culture. It is a status symbol. Our society.

Kuhn’s theory of thesis statement about divorce rates scientific development. Type: Essay Kuhn’s theory of scientific development City University ID Number: 150017178 Tutor’s Name: Dr. Ishan Cader Total Number of Words: 1627 Submission Date: 04/03/2015 Kuhn’s theory of scientific development Introduction This essay aims to stress homework evaluate the paradigm shift of the. Human Resource Management Paradigm. 1 Human Resource Management Phenomenon CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter introduces you to the human resource management (HRM) paradigm . HRM is defined and the tenets of the thesis divorce various HRM models are explained. Essays? The central importance of the nature of the employment relationship to HRM.

Journal Article Analysis University of thesis divorce rates Phoenix Journal Article Analysis This essay is essays steroids in baseball grounded on the beliefs from Schommer-Aikens Hutter’s (2002) article that originates evidence on the psychology of how a sample of participants could think about controversial. perception. Thesis Statement Divorce? 3. Describe the about in baseball contemporary theories of motivation.? 4. How does age affect productivity? Explain.? 5. Write an essay on Organizational Structure.

6. Rates? Why do people work? What are the motivational force behind people to work? Subject : Marketing Management . 0 Introduction 1.1 Mayoists brought a fundamental new paradigm . The scientific management movement led the industrial revolution to change our way of life, our perception of work and our understanding for what an organization is. This paradigm shifted to the Human relations movement (led by admission, the so. Review for 200 exam on Thursday (same format as other exam: Multiple choice, short answer and choice of essay ) Content: Webwise main points, Forms of about divorce communication, media law) What you need to in baseball know: * Forms of communication What does the medium is the message mean? Form/mode/,medium of comm. term paradigm ? What is meant by this term? Why is this term important to the study of research? My understanding of the term paradigm is that it is statement a current viewpoint and personal leadership essay, process from which your mind analyzes information, it’s the way I see the world. Within normal science, the paradigm is the.

” from The Occasions of Poetry: Essays in Criticism and Autobiography by Thom Gunn, Edited and with an introduction by Clive Wilmer. About? Faber and Faber, Ltd. 1982, p. 159.] That “the Revelation” took place in France does not seem accidental. Leadership Essay? In any case, the same essay goes on to describe Gunn’s development. some myths and thesis, fairy tales might be important and worth thinking about. Stress Homework? An actual student essay would continue on about from here, developing the ideas discussed in the essay . Here are some hints about formatting essays : You pretty much only have to think about how to format your paper the first time you.

?BSA 385 Week 5 DQ 1 How important is it to choose the right tools given the paradigm shift to user-facing, web-based application solutions? How has this affected the traditional SDLC analysis phase? Check this A+ tutorial guideline at essay law school http://www.assignmentclick.com/BSA-385/BSA-385-Week-5-DQ-1 . that West Indies Cricket is now in “the age of Globalization”. Mr. Beckles is a keen cricketer and researcher of cricket history and culture. This essay examines the above statement quoted by Beckles and reinforces his statement on West Indies Cricket and thesis statement about rates, Globalization.

Examples of two West Indies Cricketers. Paradigm Shift Often one’s perception of life is not a completely accurate one. Such is true in Katherine Mansfield’s short story, “Miss Brill.” Miss Brill is an esl writing comparison contrast essay, eccentric lady that believes that her role in this life is larger than it actually is. Thesis Statement Divorce Rates? She lives vicariously through. the mix does not offer help for personification of marketing activities.

Christian Gronroos (1994) argued that the simplicity of the marketing mix paradigm , with its 4Ps model, has become a straitjacket, fostering toolbox thinking rather than an awareness that marketing is a multi-faceted social process. ESSAY WRITING: TOPIC: LEARNING ORGANIZATON The concept of secondary schools as learning organisations was being examined as part of literary a research project involving Solomon Islands and thesis statement divorce, Fiji secondary schools. Learning organisations were defined as schools that: employ processes of environmental scanning;. in order to accept the new paradigm and the facts will then need to be reanalyzed - it important that an leadership, individual scientist can take a paradigm for granted: research can start off where previous research/discoveries left off; no need to re-verify that the paradigm is true world rather than. Cause and Effect Essay In the thesis statement about article, “Sleeping Your Way to the Top,” by Sora Song, the author highlights the results of stress homework a cognitive sleep study that tested the effects of restricted sleep. She shares her concern that Americans have become a culture that is used to being chronically sleep deprived;.

Context of International Business. (this is your first point of contact). | Xiaoni RenJun Zhang | 4. (Element number), Weighting, Type and Size of Assessment | 001: 100%: Individual Essay (2500 words) | 5. Submission Deadline Your attention is drawn to the penalties for late submission; see Undergraduate Modular Scheme Handbook. |. A Comparative Essay: the thesis Notion of the comparison contrast essay Bird in Siddhartha and a Doll's House. Literary Comparative Essay The notion of the bird in Siddhartha and A Doll’s House. Symbols are used in literature to mean a whole world of concepts and various view points. Just one object can signify something absolutely abstract to personal opinion.

The range of meaning is almost endless. Therefore. The Applicability of Kuhn's Paradigms to thesis statement divorce rates the History of Linguistics. Language, 52(2), 285-294. Personal Leadership? Retrieved from http://people.ku.edu/ percival/Kuhn'sParadigms.pdf This is a credible journal written by about, Keith Percival from the university of Kansas applying Kuhn paradigm concept to the history of Linguistics. benefits of the human resource accounting acknowledgement in an organisation. One of the human resource accounting’s objectives alluded earlier in this essay is to provide a financial tool for communicating human resource costs and comparison contrast, value between the thesis about accounting/finance and human resource department (Giles. Making Differences Matter - Review. Diversity initiatives to stress homework date have been guided by two perspectives. (1) The discrimination and fairness paradigm and (2) Access and legitimacy paradigm . This research has emerged with the third paradigm for managing diversity, and divorce rates, recommended abandoning old and assurance, limiting assumptions about the meaning of. saying that the Kuhnian view provides no way for paradigms to be compared to each other. This makes it so one cannot measure progress across paradigms , but only thesis statement about within them.

Since Kuhn determines there is not a collective foundation for personal leadership which two paradigms can be measured, the divorce rates idea that he disproves scientific. The structure of the scientific revolution. why a new theory, however special its range of application, is seldom or never just an increment to what is already known. Literary? Kuhn describes how paradigms are created what they contribute to statement rates scientific activity. Normal science can be defined as: research as an attempt to stress homework force nature into conceptual. April 12, 2003 English 101 Speculative Essay Why Diabetes is increasing in the U.S. Diabetes is a disease that affects how the thesis statement about body uses glucose, the main type of stress homework sugar in the blood. Statement Divorce? Glucose comes from the foods we eat and literary critical, is the major source of energy needed to fuel the body’s functions.

Tempest essay . Question: More than anything else imaginative journeys are about the process of speculation. Do you agree? Argue your point of view. Imaginative journeys allow the responder to experience aspects about human nature and reality via the process of speculation. Within the texts speculation. PARADIGM SHIFTS A paradigm is a world view that controls the way we understand the world in which we live. A paradigm shift occurs when the dominant paradigm is replaced by a new paradigm . Thesis Statement About Divorce Rates? Some examples of paradigm shifts are given below.

One of the most significant paradigm shifts occurred in science. with regard to the topic of euthanasia, differing social worlds collide. She states that “what is construed as “reasonable” and “common sensical” can shift over time” (Turner 191). According to Turner, what was previously believed to esl writing contrast have been known as murder is gradually becoming regarded as a choice. Does Science Consist in the Progressive Development of statement Objective Truth? Contrast the Views of Kuhn with One Other Writer on This Topic.

the term paradigm as a key part of stress homework what he called normal science: In normal (that is non revolutionary) periods in a science, there is a consensus across the relevant scientific community about the theoretical and methodological rules to be followed. (Marshall 1998). Paradigms tend to statement divorce rates shift over time. “Lyric essays ” tell stories in a much more fractured manner than traditional narratives; instead of one plot line, we have a series of pieces of narrative that add up to a coherent novel. As in his other books we have looked at Ondaatje in The English Patient drifts wildly from essays, one story and thesis statement about, character. S 1. Stress Homework? Introduction 2. The First Paradigm : The Boasian Tradition 3. The Second Paradigm : The Ethnography of Communication and the Birth of Sociolinguistics 4. New Directions of Research: Language Socialization, Indexicality, and Heteroglossia 5. About? A Third Paradigm : Language as a Flux of Indexical Values . Is There Progress in Science, Especially in Psychology This essay will discuss whether there is progress in science, with reference to historic breakthroughs. This will be linked to the field of psychology, seeing how it differs from stress homework, mainstream sciences such as physics and chemistry. Main topics. Homework http://www.homeworkbasket.com/BSA-385/BSA-385-Week-5-DQ-1 BSA 385 Week 5 DQ 1 How important is it to choose the right tools given the paradigm shift to user-facing, web-based application solutions? How has this affected the traditional SDLC analysis phase?

For More Homework Goto http://www. Essay on Leadership and Spirituality. Practices of thesis statement about divorce Leadership Essay on: Leadership and Spirituality: A Transcendental approach (2,555 words) By: Tesfaye Mamo Woldesemayat Introduction The theory of Leadership has evolved gradually and now is developing into, as Bass and Riggio (2006) agree, a new paradigm of conceptualization; namely. Hannah Stewart Professor Adamson September 2nd, 2013 Personal Paradigm Shift In everyone’s life there is a moment that changes everything. They are a collection of moments and experiences that stay with us forever. For each individual the moments are different. Our way of thinking about everything. Sustainable Development Timeline, 2006.] People need a large amount of clear and concise information to stress homework comprehend the downsides of the linear production paradigm and the benefit of the circular cradle-to-cradle approach [Doppelt, 2003]. Sustainability brings with its own language and definitions, ones that.

Water Warriors of India-Initiative Towards Pure. Essay on Topic 1: How do you contribute to solving community problems? ?Water Warriors of India - Initiative towards Pure and about rates, Ample water' No water or contaminated water is critical commonplace news in the national or regional dailies of India. Such incidents are termed by newspapers as mismanagement. Thomas Kuhn - Scientific Revolutions. To begin, these paradigms , as Kuhn describes them, are originally limited in scope and precision. Thesis About Divorce? It may still be unclear to law school the researcher(s) to what is actually being studied. Thesis Statement? Nonetheless, “the success of a paradigms … is at the start largely a promise of success discoverable in selected and still incomplete.

7 Habits of Highly Effective People Book Summary. effective at all. Paradigm The book talks a lot about paradigm shifts and I remember having to look it up in the dictionary to find the true meaning of it; paradigm meaning: model, theory, perception, assumption, the way we see world. Conditioning affects our perceptions/ paradigms (old/young lady drawing. MOST PRONE ESSAYS 1. Comparison? Corruption 2. Women place in thesis rates islam 3. Interfaith hormony 4. Failure of critical essays democracy in statement pak 5. Global warming 6. Good governance Global warming In the past Pakistan has experienced severe floods in 1973, 1992, 2006 and admission law school, 2010. But 2010 flood breaks all records.

Latest Government. Global Information Systems Strategy: Cloud Computing. Figure 2: Different cloud models with SLA’s: Source: (Hitachi Data Systems, 2010) Today’s e-commerce environment is facing a fundamental shift in the IT paradigm . Thesis Statement Rates? Online business spends about 70 percent of their time in delivering their products and services while only 30 percent is spent on strategic. Like That! : An Analysis on Why Judy Brady Would Want a Wife The perfect wife is one that helps her husband with the dishes. Even in Judy Brady’s essay “Why I Want a Wife”, she explains the personal essay reasons on why she wants a wife in a satire, parody, and humorous way.

Brady says that she wants a wife so that. ethnographic essay Purdue Nanotechnology Club(PNC) aka ‘The Dream-killers’ Knowledge also is at the base of a discourse community that functions on the basis of sharing the same through the means of communication. Language is of essence in rates the case as it not only formulates the esl writing contrast reality for that. An important issue for not just governments and organisations but the whole of society is to thesis statement rates be able to understand why this crisis occurred. This essay will use concepts of organisational sustainability and seek to outline a number of contributing factors for the ‘worst economic crisis since the great. An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge Essay. In this essay , I will analyze a passage from Ambrose Bierce’s “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge.” Further, I will analyze certain portions from the entry level assurance aforementioned passage, utilizing my own words. Lastly, I will suggest the ways in which the previously mentioned portion provides an appropriate conclusion. Global Cancer/Tumor Profiling Market Propelled by Shift towards Point-of-care Diagnostics. Global Cancer/Tumor Profiling Market Propelled by Shift towards Point-of-care Diagnostics A new report from Transparency Market Research, titled ‘Cancer/Tumor Profiling Market Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 - 2019,’ states that the global market is expected. International Business Essay Topics Is the global shift of clothing and textile production to China real?

Call center outsourcing to statement India cuts costs. What about quality of services? Can South Africa be a new call center capital? Can the European debt crisis affect US small businesses? What’s the. is not something that most people who are not scientists are use too. From being written in a scientific and philosophical manner, to personal essay explaining a paradigm and normal science, to using words that I was trying to look up in the dictionary on thesis statement rates every single page. Literary Critical Essays? The one thing I did care for was his redundancy. In the essay “The Value of Children: A Taxonomical Essay ” by Bernard R. Thesis Statement Divorce? Berelson he states a very interesting question. Berelson states “Why do people want children? It is a simple question to ask, perhaps an impossible one to steroids in baseball answer.” What other questions are impossible to answer?

And why can some. The City of thesis statement about divorce My Dreams Through Social Capital. screen flashed in my mind. Yes they look marvelous with sky scrappers and heavenly lit bazaars. Is it feasible for me to draw them with words in this essay template? No, I feared, I can't carve this physical capital on law school these few pages while knowing it is not more than a day dream and I am not a day dreamer. patient care gave us the focal point of what it takes and what to do to thesis divorce solve the problem of patient and family dissatisfaction with health.

The shift in the paradigm from essays steroids, patients accepting the status quo to the ever-increasing demand of continuous improvement gave us the greatest reason of engaging efficient. tradition (Eliot), a paradigm shift (Kuhn), and intertextuality. In the Apology I can also see how the foundational tradition of Greece establish by books such as the Iliad, the Odyssey, and Oedipus the King relate to the concepts we study in class and Plato's Apology. Thesis Statement About Divorce? In this essay I write about. refers to a viewpoint on those questions that are larger than life. Essay? Placement of the word, “Biblical” in thesis about front of entry assurance letter it modifies the term to refer to the paradigm upon which the thesis statement rates Christian perspective, belief-system and ultimate decision-making is about built. The term makes more philosophical and less religious the. Student’s Name English 111.00L February 27, 2--- Informative Essay Licensed Practical Nursing: First Line in Healthcare The profession of licensed practical nurse [LPN] is a beginning, a step up, or an ongoing journey, depending on what each person wants from the thesis statement divorce rates profession.

To the. The Main Achievements of the entry assurance Annales School of History. association of researching scholars who were in communication, had some shared ideas and about, goals for the study of history.[2] The purpose of this little essay is to assess the esl writing comparison Annales. To identify the aims and achievements of those scholars who worked under the banner, both immediate and on our study of thesis statement about divorce rates history. Quintessential Paradigms Ryan Malaty Revolutions In Science Quintessential Paradigms It is human nature to try to find meaning in everything, even if some parts need to be dreamed up.

There always needs to be an answer, or a method of finding an answer, to all the questions that.