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Brazil Challenges International Order by Backing Iran Fuel Swap. The Why College Essay! In recent years, Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula de Silva has championed his country#39;s civilian and thesis on use of insecticide treated nets in africa military nuclear programs, providing more funds for college essay new power reactors and approving a new National Defense Strategy that enshrines the importance of building a nuclear submarine and the capacity to enrich uranium on business an industrial scale. Lula#39;s promotion of Brazil#39;s nuclear infrastructure and writing the why essay know-how parallels his bid to raise Brazil#39;s and on use treated his own profiles in international diplomatic, security, and writing the why trade fora. In spring 2010, in the midst of a U.S.-led effort to seek a fifth UN Security Council resolution on Iran#39;s nuclear program, Lula joined with Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan to attempt to revive earlier proposals for a fuel swap deal with Iran, a country whose declared nuclear ambitions are similar to Brazil#39;s but whose true motives have been called into question by its lack of cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and unanswered questions about what appear to be nuclear weapons related activities. While Lula heralded the tentative fuel swap deal as a victory for diplomacy that obviated the need for further sanctions, U.S. officials and best b2b marketing case others complained that the deal failed to address concerns that had led to the four previous UN sanctions resolutions targeting Iran, and ignored Iran#39;s enrichment progress since a somewhat similar fuel swap deal was first proposed in the why, October 2009. Brazil opposed the essays on individualism fifth round of UN sanctions that were approved on 9 June while the writing the why college essay tentative fuel swap was still pending with the IAEA.
Why did Lula jump into the long running fray between Iran and the P-5? This issue brief provides a short history of the thesis nets forces behind the Brazilian-Turkish fuel swap proposal. It then examines possible reasons for Lula#39;s decision to broker the fuel swap deal, including Lula#39;s personal interest in promoting himself and Brazil as rising stars on the global stage, and essay Brazil#39;s pursuit of new commercial opportunities with Iran. It also questions whether the terms of the deal might serve Brazil#39;s interest in developing its own nuclear enrichment and of insecticide in africa propulsion activities. The brief concludes by addressing how the deal might inform Brazil#39;s future nuclear and diplomatic efforts. By the fall of 2009, Iran had been the subject of four sets of writing, UN sanctions aimed at compelling the essays country to comply with IAEA demands to disclose the full extent of its nuclear program and to stop its uranium enrichment activities. In September 2009, Iran informed the IAEA that it was constructing a second fuel enrichment plant near the city of Qom, but refused to answer all of the Agency#39;s questions about the new plant. At that time, Iran had an estimated stockpile of 1,500 kilograms of low enriched uranium (LEU), enriched to between 3.5 and the why college essay 5 percent. When Iran announced that it would begin enriching uranium to 19.75 percent because it was running out of of critical and the, fuel for use in its Tehran Research Reactor that produces medical isotopes, the writing college essay United States, France, Russia, and satire obama the IAEA (the Vienna Group) proposed a fuel swap as a confidence-building measure pending renewed talks with Iran. This proposal called for essay Iran to satire about ship roughly three-quarters of its then LEU stockpile to writing the why Russia and France to be further enriched to nearly 20 percent and thesis footnote then returned to Iran as fuel for its Tehran Reactor. Iran initially expressed interest in the proposal, but then withdrew its support, continued its enrichment activities, and spurned further negotiations with the five permanent members of the the why college UN Security Council plus Germany (P5+1).
With the satire essays obama negotiations between Iran and college the P5+1 stalled, President Lula saw an opportunity to capitalize on his popularity and prove his point that it is easier for non-nuclear weapon states to thesis footnote negotiate nonproliferation agreements. Essay! Iranian President Ahmadinejad indicated his interest in Lula#39;s mediation efforts, and the Iranian public reportedly also strongly supported Brazil#39;s and Turkey#39;s new role.According to Hossein Seifzadeh, a researcher at business, the Tehran University, it is easier for the Iranian government to sell to its people a proposal made by college essay Lula and essays Erdogan than one made by the P5, all nuclear weapon states (NWS). President Lula has endorsed this view, stating it is more difficult for those who have nuclear weapons to ask others not to develop them. While the college essay P5 remained dubious about Brazil and on individualism Turkey#39;s chances of writing essay, getting Iran#39;s agreement to send its LEU to a third country pending receipt of uranium enriched to nearly 20 percent for the Tehran Research Reactor, they continued to support these two countries#39; attempt to thesis footnote convince Iran to agree to the terms of the proposed fuel swap. In particular, President Obama met with Lula and Erdogan at the Nuclear Security Summit in April 2010. He followed up with a letter stating that despite Iran#39;s defiance of UN Security Council Resolutions, the United States would support and facilitate action on the why a proposal that would provide Iran nuclear fuel using uranium enriched by Iran.  Obama urged Lula to thesis footnote encourage Iran to accept the still pending IAEA offer to escrow its LEU in Turkey as it would be unacceptable for Iran to retain its LEU on its territory until its exchange for HEU. Obama expressed his doubts about Iran#39;s willingness to bargain in good faith, and noted that the United States would continue to the why college pursue sanctions against Iran as its nuclear program poses a challenge to the security of the international community.
In the treated in africa midst of the NPT Review Conference where it was becoming increasingly clear that the P5 were close to agreement on new sanctions against the why college, Iran, Brazil and Turkey announced that Iran had agreed to the fuel swap arrangement with the 1,200 kilograms of LEU to be held in Turkey for a year pending the Vienna Group#39;s delivery of process of critical and the content of your, 120 kilograms of writing college essay, HEU for the Tehran Research Reactor. The 17 May Joint Declaration also affirmed Iran#39;s right to pursue all nuclear energy and fuel cycle activities, including uranium enrichment, for peaceful purposes, and thesis on use of insecticide nets in africa touted the nuclear fuel exchange as the beginning of a new era of nuclear cooperation. Fuel Swap Deal Results in Tension Between Brazil and P5+1. While Brazilian officials celebrated the writing essay Joint Declaration as a victory for diplomacy over sanctions, members of the P5 and others saw it as another attempt by Iran to on individualism slow the momentum toward a sanctions resolution. Further complicating reactions was the announcement by Ali Akbar Salehi, Director of the Iranian Atomic Energy Agency, that Iran would not stop enriching uranium to approximately 20 percent. Initially, President Lula and other high level Brazilian officials heralded the declaration as evidence that diplomacy by non-nuclear weapon states could succeed where the Western powers negotiations and writing the why sanctions strategy had failed. According to Brazilian Foreign Minister Celso Amorim, the declaration removed the Western powers#39; justification for imposing sanctions on Iran while continuing negotiations. Marco Aurelio Garcia, Lula#39;s foreign policy advisor, called for P5+1 to essays expand to the why essay P5+3 with the inclusion of Brazil and Turkey at the negotiating table. Using a soccer analogy, he said that both countries accomplished what the P5+1 were not able to thesis footnote because it lacks two forward players. Salehi#39;s announcement that Iran would continue to enrich to nearly 20 percent took Brazilian officials by surprise and somewhat dampened Lula#39;s enthusiasm for public pronouncements about the deal. Garcia, however, continued to defend Brazil#39;s mediation and declared he did not see any problem with the Iranian announcement. The United States and other P5 powers, while acknowledging Brazil#39;s and essay Turkey#39;s efforts to thesis footnote help resolve the issues related to writing the why essay Iran#39;s nuclear program, pointed out the many shortcomings of the best b2b marketing studies fuel swap deal and its suspicious timing during the the why essay NPT Review Conference and on the eve of agreement regarding new sanctions. Immediately after the master's thesis on use of insecticide nets in africa declaration was announced, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev informed Lula during a phone conversation that his suspicions about the why Iran#39;s nuclear program persisted and that a package of sanctions was almost ready. The following day, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced that the business research P5 had agreed to college submit a draft of a new sanctions resolution to the UN Security Council. Later she noted that the swap deal had a number of business, deficiencies and was a transparent ploy to writing essay avoid Security Council action. In their official response to the Joint Declaration filed with the IAEA on thesis footnote 9 June 2010, France, the United States and writing the why college essay Russia listed several of those deficiencies, including: The Joint Declaration permits Iran to engage in thesis footnote, enrichment activities despite several UN resolutions prohibiting such activity.
It does not address Iran#39;s production of uranium enriched to 19.75 percent or the stockpile of the why college, LEU that Iran has produced since the swap was first proposed in October 2009. The Joint Declaration does not mention Iran#39;s willingness to continue negotiations with the P5+1. It does not indicate when the LEU would be removed from Iran and it allows Iran to maintain ownership of the LEU while it is in Turkey. It provides that the fuel assemblies would be delivered to Iran within one year, which is unrealistic. Brazilian Foreign Minister Amorim was particularly disappointed with the U.S. reaction to on individualism the Tehran joint declaration and writing the why college said in b2b marketing case, an interview that he believes the United States was not expecting that Iran would accept the terms of the agreement and was surprised with the outcome. The Brazilian diplomatic team claimed that while the United States publicly encourage Brazil#39;s negotiations with Iran, it privately applied exceptional pressure behind the scenes to make sure President Lula#39;s mission would fail. In a 14 June editorial for the International Herald Tribune, Amorim claimed that in brokering the writing college essay deal, Lula and Erdogan had followed precisely the script that had been on the table for some months and whose validity had been recently reaffirmed at the highest level. Amorim referred to the letter that Obama wrote to Lula in April 2009 encouraging him to pursue the fuel swap with Iran. Amorim concluded, the master's on use of insecticide treated nets traditional centers of power will not share gladly their privileged status. During a 28 May background briefing, U.S. senior administration officials had tried to deflect this criticism of the Obama administration by emphasizing that while Obama#39;s letter did not spell out all of the U.S. reservations to the fuel swap deal, U.S. officials did raise their concerns at several meetings with their Brazilian counterparts, and the U.S. administration were not given the writing college opportunity to essays on individualism comment on the deal struck with Iran in May. The same officials also noted that the college essay Brazilian government is skeptical about sanctions in general and of insecticide treated does not agree with the United States that sanctions can be an effective part of a dual track diplomatic effort. They speculated that Brazil and Turkey saw the fuel swap deal as a means to put sanctions on writing essay hold and not as merely a confidence-building measure to encourage negotiations. Sanctions Adopted While Fuel Swap Being Considered. While Brazil and Turkey had expected that the fuel swap deal would halt the move toward new sanctions, in fact, the announcement of the deal seemed to strengthen the proposal resolve of the P5 to proceed with their new sanctions draft. On 9 June 2010, the writing the why college U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution 1929 again calling on process and the content thinking Iran to comply with its IAEA obligations and past UN resolutions and to the why college suspend all reprocessing, heavy water-related and enrichment-related activities.
The resolution recognizes the efforts of best b2b marketing, Brazil and the why essay Turkey in trying to achieve a fuel swap agreement with Iran that would serve as a confidence-building measure. It also spells out several prohibitions on foreign transactions related to Iran#39;s nuclear and best case missile programs. The resolution had the support of all five permanent Security Council members and seven of the 10 temporary members; Lebanon abstained and the why Brazil and Turkey made a joint decision to of insecticide treated nets in africa vote against it. Writing! Brazilian Ambassador Maria Luisa Ribeiro Viotti protested the negotiations conducted behind closed doors with the research proposal participation of Germany, a country not currently a member of the Security Council. Later Amorim said that Brazil had to vote against the resolution to avoid losing credibility. Lula criticized the Security Council saying, We [Brazil and Turkey] gave a chance for writing college the members of the Security Council to negotiate, but they proved that they don#39;t want to negotiate. He was particularly disappointed with the votes of Gabon and Nigeria, two African countries that received favorable treatment from Brazil in the form of local investments and debt write-off. Thesis Footnote!  (Dr. Ruhakana Rugunda, Uganda#39;s permanent representative to the United Nations, justified his vote on the importance of guaranteeing NPT members#39; compliance with IAEA safeguards.) While Brazilian officials opposed the writing the why college sanctions resolution, President Lula told Al Jazeera in an interview that Brazil would comply with them. Lula#39;s initiative to help settle Iran#39;s dispute with IAEA and to avoid a new round of sanctions has not been successful to date, although Iran has said that it wants the talks on the fuel swap deal to continue with the case studies participation of Brazil and Turkey. But the writing the why college effort raises the question of essays on individualism, why Lula and other Brazilian officials decided to enter the long-running controversy and to champion Iran#39;s right to a complete fuel cycle, while ignoring previous UN Security Council sanctions on Iran and writing the why IAEA reports detailing Iran#39;s noncompliance with its safeguards agreement.
One possible explanation is master's thesis in africa, Lula#39;s desire to capitalize on his popularity to writing essay enhance his image and that of Brazil#39;s as rising international powers in a new world order not dominated by the United States. There is evidence that Lula sought to defuse the long-running crisis over Iran#39;s nuclear program to burnish his own image as an proposal international statesman as he approaches the end of his presidency. Lula has scored some diplomatic successes during his two-term administration. He is the writing the why first Brazilian to participate in a working meeting at Camp David with President George W. Bush and is recognized as one of the leaders that helped shift power from the G-8 to thesis footnote the G-20. He implemented trade policies to writing college essay make Brazil less dependent on the United States and the European Union by expanding and diversifying agreements with Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. Brazil hosted in 2010 the meetings of two emerging groups: IBSA (India, Brazil, and South Africa) and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Enjoying high approval ratings at home and many accolades from abroad, Lula told the European Union-Latin America and Caribbean Madrid summit in Spain that he is having a hard time keeping his ego in check. When he leaves office on 1 January 2011, President Lula has aspirations for an international career that would allow him to keep working for the poor in case, countries in Latin America, Caribbean and Africa. In an op-ed for the Financial Times, he writes: I want to continue the efforts my government has made towards creating a multilateral and writing college essay multipolar world that is free from hunger and poverty.  Le Monde#39;s Man of the best b2b marketing studies Year and Time Magazine#39;s most influential leader for 2010, Lula is determined to project Brazil#39;s power beyond Latin America and obtain membership in a select group of countries that have a permanent seat in the U.N. Security Council. In an Al Jazeera interview, President Lula said that he has been fighting for writing the why essay that [permanent seat] for eight years. A former Brazilian ambassador to the United States considered that issue to be one of the top priorities of Brazil#39;s current foreign policy. Lula has sought to change global governance by expanding the master's thesis on use Security Council#39;s geopolitical makeup to include emerging powers such as Brazil, India, and Japan as permanent members.
He has compared the council with a fancy party where a few beautiful people want to block access to everybody else. According to Lula, none of the writing the why essay current permanent Security Council members - all nuclear weapon states - wants to share the power they have. There is no shortage of domestic criticism for the Lula#39;s foreign policy. Some believe that Brazil tried to play to role of peace dove but missed the opportunity to project the process of critical content image of writing the why college, a neutral mediator by taking the Iranian side in the impasse with the Security Council. Critics, however, believe that the Lula administration has actually decreased Brazil#39;s chance to become a permanent member by developing close ties with, in their view, radical governments and moving Brazilian foreign policy too far to the left. Others call it a diplomatic suicide and believe that Brazilian mediation in essays about, the Iranian nuclear issue harmed bilateral relations with the United States and college essay jeopardized the country#39;s bid for research a Security Council seat. Rubens Barbosa, a former ambassador to the United States, questions Lula#39;s ability to writing essay identify issues that are in the Brazilian national interest. He believes the essays about Itamaraty (Brazilian Foreign Service) miscalculated Chinese and Russian strategic interests, ignored internal and external pressures on writing college essay Obama to get tougher on Iran, and jeopardized Brazil#39;s chance to thesis footnote obtain a permanent seat at the U.N. Security Council by harming relations with the United States. Amorim has already downplayed the importance of a permanent UN seat saying that it would be better for Brazil to forget the writing permanent seat if that means being subservient to the other permanent members. In any case, there is little indication that Lula#39;s foreign policy and his involvement in the Iranian nuclear program will be a political issue during the presidential campaign. Dilma Roussef, his former chief of staff and now the presidential candidate of his Workers Party, has faced criticism from her opponent, center-right candidate Jose Serra, former governor of São Paulo on the issue. Serra has said that the Iranian government is violent and untrustworthy and proposal believes that Brazil should not have been involved in the uranium enrichment issue. The criticism appears to have little public resonance.
In the most recent public opinion poll released on writing college essay 5 July 2010, Roussef and Serra remain tied at 39 percent of likely votes. More Trade Opportunities for Brazil if Iran Avoids Sanctions. On Use Nets! At the core of writing college, President Lula#39;s strategy to thinking content lessen Brazil#39;s economic dependence on the United States and the European Union is a policy of writing the why college essay, diversifying Brazil#39;s foreign trade partners. The Middle East has become a region of strategic relevance for Brazil#39;s commercial interests and President Lula has focused his efforts on process content furthering commercial trade with various governments in the region. Central to Brazil#39;s strategy in the Middle East is the why college essay, Iran, a country with 70 million people, vast oil resources but limited refinery capacity, and potential demand for Brazilian ethanol. Before Resolution 1929 was adopted, Brazil was exploring commercial opportunities in Iran#39;s energy sector. Lula undertook mediation of the fuel swap agreement to try to avoid further sanctions on Iran and to thesis footnote protect business opportunities for Brazilian companies, particularly those interested in oil exploration, the modernization of Iran#39;s oil sector, and provision of ethanol. In March 2009, Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs Manouchehr Mottaki visited Brazil seeking technical cooperation on various projects involving electrical energy, oil and college gas, especially generation of and the content of your, electricity from natural gas to be used in the why college essay, the auto industry. Thesis Footnote! (According to Foreign Minister Amorim, export of uranium was not the subject of negotiations.) Brazilian international energy giant Petrobras#39; activities in Iran had already run afoul of U.S. sanction. Despite making a $100 million investment in writing the why, Iranian oil exploration in the Persian Gulf, Petrobras received a $2 billion loan from the Export-Import Bank of the United States (U.S. Ex-Im Bank) in April 2009 to finance Petrobras#39; new exploration and upgrades to existing facilities. Petrobras#39; investment in Iran put the company in violation of the U.S.
1996 Iran Sanctions Act, although the United States has taken no action against the company. According to essays a New York Times article, Petrobras had assured the Ex-Im Bank that it had finished its activities in Iran. Despite Petrobras#39; scrutiny by the United States, Minister for Development, Industry, and college essay Foreign Trade Miguel Jorge stated that the Iranians were interested in Brazilian ethanol because they were having difficulties buying gasoline in the international market. Process Thinking And The Content! Jorge had raised the possibility of selling ethanol to writing essay Iran during a visit he and process of critical thinking a delegation of more than 80 businessmen made to Tehran in April 2010. (The delegation included mostly agricultural companies but the trip raised suspicion among European diplomats that Brazil would be attempting to bypass sanctions to be imposed on writing the why Iran.) According to Amorim, the Brazilian delegation was surprised with the about number of participants to the negotiations on the Iranian side, about 400 business representatives, and sensed that Iranians were fearful of pending sanctions and were looking for the why college essay Brazil as a way out of the best studies impasse. Brazilian officials agreed that a new round of sanctions would harm commercial relations between Brazil and Iran, and specifically might deprive Brazil of the lucrative ethanol market. Essay! Petrobras, already concerned about essays U.S. sanctions and possible retaliation against its U.S. interests, announced that it had no plans to export ethanol to writing the why Iran. Resolution 1929, adopted on 9 June 2010, bans Iranian investment in sensitive activities such as uranium mining and master's on use of insecticide enrichment, specifies other measures for preventing Iran from receiving conventional arms or sensitive nuclear or missile items, and blocks any financial transactions that might aid Iran#39;s nuclear proliferation. It did not bar some energy cooperation with Iran and did not mention ethanol. Essay! But on 24 June, the master's thesis of insecticide treated U.S. Congress sent a direct message to Brazil by passing the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions act (signed into law by President Obama on 1 July) that imposes new restrictions on the why college companies doing business with Iran and requires the U.S. Essays On Individualism! government to monitor ethanol exports to Iran. According to a congressional source, this could be the first step for writing the why essay an amendment banning export of ethanol to on individualism Iran.
The new round of writing the why, U.S. Obama! sanctions forced the writing the why college essay Brazilian government to re-evaluate its Iranian export strategy. Reportedly, Brazilian companies have been exporting products to master's on use of insecticide treated Iran through the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in order to lower their visibility in dealing with a country under UN sanctions. Currently, Brazilian exports to writing the why college Iran are reported to be valued at $1.2 billion; but the true value could be 40 percent higher since almost half of all trade between the countries is research proposal, believed to be undertaken through UAE companies. According to an article in O Globo, analysts have proposed that Brazilian companies could avoid the writing college essay full impact of the new sanctions by increasing the use of UAE companies and transshipment points and by limiting exports to satire essays obama agricultural products in high demand such as beef, corn, soy, and sugar. The same article reported that a confidential Brazilian government report concluded that Brazil is well positioned to compete with other countries seeking business in Iran and identified three competitive advantages: independent foreign policy, willingness to lend credibility to Iran#39;s foreign policy, and the why production capacity of the products in master's thesis on use of insecticide in africa, high demand by the Iranians. Jorge speculated that the new sanctions might actually help Brazilian exports because several countries should retract (exports) with the writing sanctions imposed by the UN. Business! This opens a door of opportunity for Brazil. According to Otávio Cançado, President of ABIEC (Brazilian Beef Export Industries Association), Iran has demonstrated interest in writing college, making Brazil its main supplier of beef because of Brazil#39;s position on the Iranian nuclear issue. Brazil has also adopted measures to help Brazilian exporters evade new restrictions on Iran#39;s ability to obtain credit from the of insecticide international banking system. During his trip to Tehran in May 2010, Lula announced that Brazil would provide a direct line of credit totaling $1 billion to help Iran finance Brazilian food imports. Writing College Essay! This amount will be released over five years and paid directly to companies in Brazil, thus avoiding the risk that financing could be affected by new international or unilateral sanctions. Given Brazil#39;s interest in business, expanding trade with Iran, Lula#39;s negotiation of the the why essay fuel swap can be seen as an on individualism effort to avoid additional sanctions on Iran that would hamper new commercial opportunities.
Brazil#39;s Nuclear Activities: Some Parallels with Iran#39;s Nuclear Program. Besides furthering Lula#39;s and Brazil#39;s diplomatic and writing trade agendas, the fuel swap deal also bolstered Brazil#39;s position that all NPT non-nuclear weapons states, including Iran and Brazil, have the right to best case develop a complete nuclear fuel cycle and to enrich uranium for peaceful nuclear purposes and military naval propulsion. Essay! In the past, Brazil had been wary of drawing any international attention to its nuclear activities, including uranium enrichment, because of similarities with Iran#39;s sanctioned activities; in 2006, Brazil delayed the announcement of the start up of its first commercial uranium enrichment plant because the IAEA was in best b2b marketing case studies, the process of writing college, recommending that the UN Security Council sanction Iran for its noncompliance with its safeguards agreement and unanswered questions about its uranium enrichment program. However, more recently, Brazil officials and policies have been explicit about the importance of nuclear materials and technology, including a complete fuel cycle and an indigenously-developed nuclear submarine, to Brazil#39;s national and international security and commercial policies. Brazilian officials have made it clear that they view mastery of b2b marketing, nuclear technology as an writing college important attribute of business proposal, a great power; to that end, they view a domestically produced nuclear submarine both as a deterrent and as a way to project diplomatic power. Brazilian officials#39; decision to champion Iran#39;s cause has brought more attention to college essay Brazil#39;s nuclear ambitions, and more suspicions that Brazil might again be interested in developing a nuclear weapons capability. (In 1990, then Brazilian President Fernando Collor de Mello renounced the previous military government#39;s efforts to develop peaceful nuclear explosions and perhaps the business proposal capability to the why college essay build a nuclear weapon.) These suspicions have been heightened by recent statements by Brazilian officials and research proposal analysts that a nuclear weapon might be in writing essay, Brazil#39;s best interest. Master's Thesis In Africa! Adopted in December 2008, Brazil#39;s National Defense Strategy (NDS) portrays nuclear initiatives as a means to enhance Brazil#39;s development, strengthen its defensive posture, and bolster its global standing. To capitalize on writing the why essay the potential strategic value of the nuclear sector, the of critical thinking and the content NDS calls for Brazil to undertake several initiatives, including developing a nuclear-powered submarine and industrial scale enrichment programs; intensifying efforts to the why mine uranium; and increasing nuclear energy capacity. While the NDS acknowledges Brazil#39;s commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, it states that Brazil will not subscribe to any additions to the Nuclear Weapon Nonproliferation Treaty, [sic] intended to broaden restrictions established by the Treaty without the nuclear powers having made any progress on the central premise of the Treaty: its [sic] own nuclear disarmament. The text thus enshrines Brazil#39;s decision not to sign the 1997 Model Additional Protocol, which would allow the IAEA greater access to essays Brazil#39;s nuclear infrastructure, in writing college, particular the naval uranium enrichment program. The NDS also supports Brazil#39;s position that all nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) states, including Iran, have the right to enrich uranium for nuclear power plants. Notwithstanding previous Security Council resolutions mandating that Iran stop its enrichment activities, Lula took it upon himself to fight for Iran to have the same rights as Brazil to develop nuclear technologies for energy and medical uses.
When announcing Amorim#39;s trip to Turkey, Russia, and thesis footnote Iran in the why essay, April 2010 to discuss the fuel swap proposal, Lula said: I#39;m going to say it loud and clear: Brazil defends Iran#39;s right to produce nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and we want for essays on individualism Iran what we want for Brazil. (During that trip, Amorim left open the possibility that Brazil would enrich uranium for the why essay Iran in Brazil.) When addressing the May NPT Review Conference, Amorim reinforced the point: No country should be denied the right to peaceful nuclear activities as long as it complies with NPT and agreed IAEA requirements. The Joint Declaration signed by thesis footnote Brazil, Turkey and writing the why Iran highlighted that the NPT gives all state parties, including Iran, the right to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy (as well as nuclear fuel cycle including enrichment activities) for peaceful purposes without discrimination. As it was not a member of the essays UN Security Council at the time, Brazil did not have the opportunity to vote on the resolutions that ordered Iran to stop its enrichment activities pending a settlement of its dispute over compliance with its IAEA safeguards agreement. The Joint Declaration text serves as Brazil#39;s challenge to the UN resolutions and implicitly renews its arguments that as written and applied the college NPT is unfair to thesis of insecticide treated in africa non-nuclear weapon states. Brazil is an NPT member, and also a regular critic of the writing the why essay treaty. Business Research! Most recently at the May 2010 NPT Review Conference, Amorim stated that: The Nonproliferation Treaty is an intrinsically unfair Treaty, which divides the world between #39;haves#39; and #39;have-nots#39;. He went on to criticize progress towards nuclear disarmament by nuclear-weapon states saying that Forty years after the college essay entry into force of the thesis footnote NPT, the fundamental goal of a world free of nuclear weapons remains little more than a mirage. Amorim#39;s statement echoed voices in Lula#39;s administration that view Brazil#39;s decision to join the treaty in 1997 as a strategic error and an act of capitulation to the United States. One of these voices is writing the why, Minister Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães, head of the Strategic Affairs Secretariat and responsible for formulating the country#39;s long term strategic policies for master's of insecticide treated in africa national development including nuclear technology.
He is a strong critic of the NPT and firmly opposes any additional restriction to the country#39;s right to enrich uranium. In his assessment, Brazil joined the NPT for two reasons: the right to develop nuclear technology for peaceful purposes and the disarmament of the writing college essay nuclear-weapon states. Thesis On Use Of Insecticide Treated Nets In Africa! On disarmament, he does not see progress by the NWS. On the writing the why college right to thesis footnote technology, he believes the writing the why NWS use the Additional Protocol and proposals for nuclear fuel banks as measures in disguise to restrict countries like Brazil from developing nuclear technologies and thus participating in essays, the lucrative nuclear fuel market. Writing The Why College Essay! According to him, accepting the master's thesis on use treated Additional Protocol and the internationalization of uranium enrichment would constitute a #39;crime de lesa-patria#39;. Brazil repudiated signing the the why college Additional Protocol in its 2008 NDS, and on use of insecticide nets in africa blocked efforts to recognize the essay Additional Protocol as a mandatory requirement for satire essays non-nuclear-weapon states to obtain nuclear material and technology at a Nuclear Suppliers Group meeting in 2009 and at the NPT Review Conference in 2010. Lula does not share the P5+1#39;s suspicion that Iran is enriching uranium for use in a nuclear weapons program. Writing The Why! Although Lula has conceded that he has no guarantees that Iran is not enriching uranium for military purposes, he has said he trusts Ahmadinejad#39;s word that the Iranian nuclear program is for of critical thinking and the of your peaceful purposes only. Brazilian government officials have also stated that they do not believe Iran is developing nuclear weapons. As far as I know, there is no proof that Iranian uranium enrichment has military purposes, Guimarães said in the why, an interview to TV Brasil. During a Committee on Foreign Relations debate on best b2b marketing case studies Iran, Amorim stated, There is no chance that Iran will produce nuclear weapons with the amount of uranium it possesses. Amorim said that uranium enrichment is an issue of sovereignty for college essay Iran and defended the Middle East country by telling reporters that Iran has never questioned or denied access to IAEA inspectors. Furthermore, he has no reason to believe that the Iranian nuclear program has a military purpose. Brazil#39;s position on business proposal Iran found support in statements made by former IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei in a 29 May interview with Jornal do Brasil;he said that there had been no evidence that Iran was developing nuclear weapons while he was in office. However, two recent IAEA reports concluded that Iran has not provided the necessary cooperation to permit the Agency to confirm that all nuclear material in Iran is in peaceful activities. Brazilian officials generally support universal nuclear disarmament and writing college essay have stated that they do not believe Iran has a nuclear weapon program.
However, they have also suggested that Iran - and Brazil - might have reasons to develop nuclear weapons for deterrence. In an thesis footnote April 2010 interview with the Spanish newspaper El Pais, Lula justified Iran#39;s potential quest for nuclear weapons. Pakistan has nuclear weapons, so does Israel. It is understandable that those who feel pressured by the why essay this situation would think about developing their own [weapons]. A few months later, Vice President José Alencar defended Iran#39;s right to develop nuclear weapons for case dissuasive purposes. His statement about writing the why essay Iran was in essays, keeping with his belief that Brazil also has a right to possess a nuclear weapon; referring to Brazil, Alencar said during a conversation with journalists that a nuclear bomb as a dissuasive weapon is of great importance for a country that has 15,000 km of borders. He said that Brazil needed to use the writing the why essay nuclear technology it has already mastered to thesis footnote go ahead with a nuclear weapon program. Defense Minister Nelson Jobim dismissed Alencar#39;s comments about an Iranian bomb but Sergio Rezende, Minister for Science and Technology, admitted that the relationship with Iran could create an unfavorable international perception of the Brazilian nuclear program. Alencar is college, not alone in his views. In 2008, General José Benedito de Barros Moreira, military adviser to thesis footnote the Brazilian Permanent Mission to writing the why essay the United Nations in Geneva and former advisor to Defense Minister Nelson Jobim, advocated on national television that Brazil develop nuclear weapons to use as a padlock to defend the essays country#39;s natural resources. Brazil#39;s negotiation of the the why fuel swap deal and defense of Iran#39;s enrichment activities have heightened concerns about essays on individualism whether Brazil#39;s nuclear ambitions are limited to a nuclear submarine. In spring 2010, the the why college German Council on master's of insecticide in africa Foreign Relations published an article that raised doubts about whether Brazil#39;s nuclear intentions are entirely peaceful. The author, Hans Rühle, former director of the planning staff in the German Ministry of Defense, stated that although there is no definitive proof yet. the country#39;s earlier nuclear weapons programs and the policy of the why, President Lula da Silva#39;s government suggest that Brazil#39;s quest for power and international recognition will ultimately lead her to discard her commitment to non-proliferation and put an end to President Obama#39;s vision of thesis footnote, a world free of the why essay, nuclear weapons. In an interview with Deutsche Welle, Brazilian nuclear physicist Luiz Pinguelli Rosa, refuted Rühle#39;s allegation saying that Brazil has demonstrated it does not have the essays political will to develop nuclear weapons. He emphasized that Brazil ratified the essay NPT and business research proposal the Tlatelolco Treaty, has setup a joint nuclear verification agency (ABAAC) with Argentina, and has a clause in writing the why, its constitution prohibiting the development of nuclear weapons. However, nuclear physicist and former Brazilian Minister for Education and the Environment Jose Goldemberg, recently stated that President Lula wants to business keep open the option of writing the why essay, developing a nuclear weapon just as Brazil#39;s former military government did in 1975 when it signed a nuclear deal with West Germany purportedly for business proposal peaceful purposes (but then allegedly pursued a covert nuclear weapons program). In an interview to Época Magazine, Goldemberg criticized President Lula for defending the Iranian nuclear program, refusing to sign the Additional Protocol, and the why allowing members of his inner circle to openly defend building an atomic bomb.
Lula#39;s silence encourages the suspicion that Brazil has intentions to make nuclear weapons to affirm its sovereignty. Essays On Individualism! Brazil wants the bomb, he said. Whatever Brazil#39;s true nuclear ambitions, it appears likely that Lula negotiated the fuel swap agreement to further his goal of pointing out the inequities in the NPT and emphasizing the right of all states to pursue enrichment programs free from IAEA interference. But Brazil#39;s defense of Iran has increased scrutiny of college, Brazil#39;s own nuclear activities. Conclusion: Mixed Results for Lula#39;s Nuclear Diplomacy. Lula undertook the negotiation of the proposed fuel swap deal with Iran for business proposal several reasons: to college burnish his legacy, to raise Brazil#39;s international standing and research challenge the writing the why essay international power structure, to try to prevent additional sanctions that would put a damper on thesis footnote Brazil#39;s expanding trade with Iran, and to defend Iran#39;s - and Brazil#39;s - right to writing pursue all peaceful nuclear activities, including uranium enrichment. It is questionable whether Lula achieved his goals. The fuel swap deal is still pending with the IAEA and satire about obama Iranian officials have hinted that they will renew talks with the P5 and others at writing the why, a later date.
But the proposed deal did not stop the United Nations from adopting another sanction resolution or the b2b marketing studies United States from passing unilateral sanctions that could greatly restrict Brazil#39;s commercial dealings with Iran. The deal put Brazil at odds with U.S. policy again just when the two countries had signed a new defense cooperation agreement in April 2010. While some in the international community expressed appreciation for Lula#39;s negotiating efforts, others questioned whether he had been duped by the Iranians and used as a pawn in an attempt to stall new sanctions. In an interview with the Financial Times, Amorim seemed to realize that Brazil spent too much political capital defending the Iranian nuclear program; he said that Brazil would no longer pro-actively act as mediator in the Iranian nuclear program. However, Brazil and writing the why college Lula might wade into other difficult international security disputes. Ambassador Arnaldo Carrilho told Reuters that Brazil sees room for nuclear and case studies security dialogue with North Korea; and Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, noting that Brazil is an emerging force in the world stage, asked President Lula to writing essay facilitate a peace agreement with Israel. It is not clear whether Brazil#39;s role in negotiating the fuel swap will help or hurt its chances of proposal, becoming a permanent member of the UN Security Council. The Why College Essay! What is certain is Brazilian officials#39; belief that mastering nuclear technology, including a nuclear submarine and thesis footnote even possibly a nuclear bomb, is writing, a prerequisite to great power status. Business Research! As Lula said, in defending Iran#39;s right to the why nuclear enrichment, he was defending Brazil#39;s right to the same. At the same time, Brazilian officials once again demonstrated their disdain for the perceived inequities of the NPT and master's on use of insecticide treated nets in africa the UN sanctions meant to enforce compliance with NPT obligations. Writing The Why! As many commentators noted, Brazil#39;s support for Iran raises concerns about thesis footnote Brazil#39;s nuclear intentions, particularly in writing the why essay, light of recent statements by high-level officials that Brazil might need to pursue a nuclear weapon. It seems that until the nuclear weapons states take further steps toward complete nuclear disarmament and agree to share their power at the UN Security Council, rising powers such as Brazil will view military nuclear technology as a necessary tool for challenging the current global power structure.  Iran Signs Uranium Exchange Deal with Brazil, Turkey, Global Security Newswire, 17 May 2010. Process Content Of Your Thinking!  According to the most recent UN Resolution, Iran has not established full and the why essay sustained suspension of all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities and heavy water-related projects as set out in resolutions 1696 (2006), 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007) and essays obama 1803 (2008). Writing The Why College! UN Security Council Resolution 1929, 9 June 2010.
 Report of the IAEA Director General, Implementation of the thesis footnote NPT Safeguards Agreement and Relevant Provisions of Security Council Resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 31 May 2010, GOV/2010/28, p. 2.  Institute for Science and International Security, Iran#39;s Proposed LEU Deal: Skeptical but Awaiting Clarification, 17 May 2010.  David E. Sanger, Iran Threatens to Back Out of Fuel Deal, New York Times, 19 October 2009. Writing College Essay!  Andrew Lee Butters, Iran#39;s New Nuke Proposal: Progress, or Delaying Tactic?. Time Magazine, 17 May 2010, www.time.com.  Ahmadinejad, Chavez converse over phone, Presidency of The Islamic Republic of Iran Web site, 5 May 2010, www.president.ir. Thesis Footnote!  Bernard Gwertzman, Shifts in Iran on the why Nuclear Policy, Council on Foreign Relations, 20 May 2010, www.cfr.org.  Roberto Simon, Após Pacto Com Irã, Brasil Reivindica Condição De Porta-Voz Dos Emergentes, O Estado de S. Process Of Critical And The! Paulo, 23 May 2010.  Al Jazeera Interview With Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Al Jazeera YouTube channel, 18 May 2010, www.youtube.com.  Letter from President Obama to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, dated 20 April 2010, as posted on Politica Externa Brasileira; Andrea Murta and Cristina Fibe, Obama Ignora Lula e Pede Sanções Imediatas ao Irã, Folha de S. Paulo, 14 April 2010.  Joint Declaration by Iran, Turkey and Brazil, Aljazeera.net, 17 May 2010, http://english.aljazeera.net.  Lula Diz Que Acordo Nuclear Com Irã é #39;Uma Vitória da Diplomacia, EFE, 17 May 2010, www.estadao.com.br.  See, Background Briefing on Nuclear Nonproliferation Efforts with Regard to Iran and the Brazil/Turkey Agreement, U.S. State Department, 28 May 2010, www.state.gov; West Dismisses Iran Nuclear Deal, Aljazeera.net, 17 May 2010.  Iran to resume uranium enrichment despite Turkey deal, CNN, 17 May 2010, www.cnn.com.  Sanction Has No Basis with N-Fuel Swap Agreement: Brazil FM, ISNA, 17 May 2010, www.isna.ir.  Anelise Infante, Brasil Quer Integrar Grupo Que Negocia Com Irã, Diz Assessor de Lula, BBC Brasil, 18 May 2010; Fernando Eichenberg, Jailton de Carvalho, Chico de Gois and Roberto Maltchik, Irã Rejeitará Mudanças No Acordo Nuclear , O Globo, 25 May 2010.  Andrei Neto, Anúncio Iraniano Pegou Brasil de Surpresa, O Estado de S. College! Paulo, 20 May 2010.  Anelise Infante, Descrença Em Acordo é de Países Que #39;Satanizam#39; Irã, Diz Garcia, BBC Brasil, 17 May 2010.  Assis Moreira, Nem os Aliados de Ahmadinejad Confiam Nele, Reconhece Lula, Valor Econômico, 21 May 2010.  Matthew Lee, Clinton: Iran Nuclear Fuel Swap Offer Is #39;Ploy#39;, The Associated Press, 25 May 2010. See also, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Remarks on UN Sanctions on Iran, U.S. Department of State, 9 June 2010, www.state.gov.  Text: Powers Dismiss Iran Fuel Offer Before U.N. Vote, Reuters, 9 June 1010.  Vitória da Conversa Amistosa, Jornal do Brasil, 23 May 2010.  Assis Moreira, Brasil Vê Ação Forte do Governo Obama Contra a Mediação de Lula, Valor Econômico, 19 May 2010.  Celso Amorim, Let#39;s Hear From the of critical thinking content New Kids on writing the why college essay the Block, International Herald Tribune, 14 June 2010, www.nytimes.com. Best Case!  Background Briefing on Nuclear Nonproliferation Efforts with Regard to Iran and college the Brazil/Turkey Agreement, U.S. State Department, 28 May 2010, www.state.gov. Satire About!  Security Council Imposes Additional Sanctions on Iran, Voting 12 in writing the why, Favour to 2 Against, with 1 Abstention, UN Security Council, 9 June 2010, www.un.org.  Os Erros da Política Externa, O Estado de S. Paulo, 12 June 2010.  Sergio Leo, EUA Ameaçam Brasil Por Ação Contra Sanção Ao Irã, Valor Econômico, 10 June 2010. Business Research!  Planalto Lamenta Apoio de Africanos às Sanções, O Estado de S. Paulo, 11 June 2010.  Cyprian Musoke, Rugunda Explains Stand on Iran Sanctions, The New Vision, 13 June 2010, www.newvision.co.ug.  Al Jazeera Interview With Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Al Jazeera YouTube channel, 18 May 2010, www.youtube.com.  Iran to Continue Nuclear Discussions with Turkey, Brazil, Global Security Newswire, 30 June 2010.  See Roque Planas, Brazil#39;s Lula Blocks U.S.
Agenda, but with a Smile, World Politics Review, 10 June 2010.  Alexei Barrionuevo, Iran Deal Seen as Spot on Brazilian Leader#39;s Legacy, The New York Times, 24 May 2010; Sara Miller Llana, Iran Nuclear Fuel Swap Deal: Is Brazil#39;s Lula Now a Diplomatic Big Boy? The Christian Science Monitor, 18 May 2010; and Alan Clendenning, Silva#39;s Brazil Star Shines Brighter with Iran Deal, The Associated Press, 18 May 2010. Writing Essay!  Luiza Villamea, O Confronto dos #39;Caras#39;, Isto é Magazine, 25 May 2010.  José Roberto de Toledo, Popularidade de Lula Impulsiona Dilma, O Estado de S. Proposal! Paulo, 6 June 2010.  Anelise Infante, Premiado em Madri, Lula Diz Que Se Preocupa com Ego Diante de Elogios, BBC Brasil, 18 May 2010, www.bbc.co.uk.  Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, A Nation#39;s Destiny, Financial Times, 28 June 2010, www.ft.com.  Lula #39;lhomme de l#39;annee 2009, Le Monde, 25 December 2009.  Michael Moore, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Time, 29 Apr 2010, www.time.com.  Al Jazeera Interview With Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Al Jazeera YouTube channel, 18 May 2010, www.youtube.com.  Rubens Barbosa, Erro de Cálculo, O Estado de S. Paulo, 25 May 2010.  Al Jazeera Interview With Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Al Jazeera YouTube channel, 18 May 2010, www.youtube.com. College Essay!  Ibid. Note: Speaking in Portuguese, Lula said he has been working for 8 years but it was translated into English as 5 years.  Quem é Contra o Irã Atômico Levante a Mão , Veja Magazine, 1 June 2010.  Marcos Coimbra, Política Externa e Opinião Pública, Carta Capital, 1 June 2010.  Marcelo de Paiva Abreu, Brasil Fanfarrão, O Estado de S. Paulo, 31 May 2010; Suicídio Diplomático, O Globo, 24 May 2010.  Rubens Barbosa, Erro de Cálculo, O Estado de S. Paulo, 25 May 2010. On Use Of Insecticide In Africa!  Brasil Não Será Subserviente, Jornal do Brasil, 29 May 2010.  João Naves de Oliveira, Serra Critica Intervenção de Brasil em Favor do Irã, O Estado de S. Writing! Paulo, 11 June 2010.  Pesquisa Dá Novo Fôlego a Serra, Correio Braziliense, 5 June 2010.  President Lula negotiated a free trade agreement between Israel and Mercosul and there are negotiations for a similar agreement with Jordan and the Palestinians. He also sent a commercial delegation to Iran, Egypt, and Lebanon. Obama! Acordo com Israel Melhora Competitividade, Valor Econômico, 22 March 2010; Sergio Leo, Jordânia é Vista Como Vitrine Para Grupos do País no Oriente Médio, Valor Econômico, 19 March, 2010,; Lula Reforça Apoio à Causa Palestina, Jornal do Brasil, 17 March.  Fernando Exman, Brazil Says Likely to Sign Iran Oil Sector Deal, Reuters, 15 May 2010, www.reuters.com. Essay!  Irã propõe parceria energética, Correio Braziliense, 27 March 2009.  U.S. Satire! Ex-Im Bank approves a Preliminary Commitment to writing college Petrobras, Petrobras Press Release, 29 April 2009, www2.petrobras.com.br.  Jo Becker And Ron Nixon, U.S.
Enriches Companies Defying Its Policy on thesis footnote Iran, New York Times, 6 March 2010, www.nytimes.com.  Patrícia Campos Mello, Em Recado a Brasil, Texto de Sanções dos EUA ao Irã Inclui Menção a Etanol, O Estado de S. Paulo, 26 June 2010; Eliane Oliveira, Brasileiros Buscam Negócios em Teerã, O Globo, 12 April 2010.  Jamil Chade, Empresários do Brasil Chegam Hoje a Teerã, O Estado de S. Writing College Essay! Paulo, 12 April 2010.  Eliane Oliveira, Amorim: Sanções Prejudicariam Brasil, O Globo, 27 April 2010.  Patrícia Campos Mello, Em Recado a Brasil, Texto de Sanções dos EUA ao Irã Inclui Menção a Etanol,, O Estado de S. Paulo, 26 June 2010.  Kevin Bogardus, Congress passes Iran sanctions, The Hill, 24 June 2010, http://thehill.com. Essays On Individualism!  Peter Baker, Obama Signs Into Law Tighter Sanctions on Iran, New York Times, 1 July 2010, www.nytimes.com.  Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and the why college essay Divestment Act of master's treated, 2010, H.R. 2194, The Library of the why, Congress, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov.  Jamil Chade, Brasil Desafia Pressões e Garante Crédito ao Irã, O Estado de S. Paulo, 13 April 2010. Essays About Obama!  Roberto Maltchik, Brasil Procura Saída Para Manter Exportações, O Globo, 11 June 2010.  Renata Veríssimo, Para Ministro, Sanção Ampliará Exportações, O Estado de S. Paulo, 11 June 2010.  Marcos de Moura e Souza, Apesar do Risco, Irã Atrai Empresário do Brasil, Valor Econômico, 12 April 2010.  Lula Anuncia Criação de Linha de Crédito de 1 Bilhão de Euros Para Alimentos, Valor Econômico, 15 May 2010.  Jack Boureston, Brazilian Nuclear Debate Highlights Parallels and Contrasts with Iran, WMD Insights, July/August 2006, www.wmdinsights.com. The Why Essay!  See, Sarah Diehl and Eduardo Fujii. Brazil#39;s Pursuit of a Nuclear Submarine Raises Proliferation Concerns, WMD Insights, March 2008, www.wmdinsights.com.  Michael Barletta, The Military Nuclear Program in Brazil, CISAC Working Paper, 7 August 1997, http://iis-db.stanford.edu; Joseph Cirincione, et al., Deadly Arsenals, Second Edition, (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005), pp. 393-399.  For a discussion of the essays obama National Defense Strategy, see Sarah Diehl and Eduardo Fujii, Brazil#39;s New National Defense Strategy Calls for writing college essay Strategic Nuclear Developments, NTI Issue Brief, 30 October 2009, www.nti.org.  Estratégia Nacional de Defesa, Brazilian Ministry of Defense, 17 December 2008. Business Research!  The Additional Protocol (INFCIRC 540) shifts the focus of safeguards from writing the why college essay detecting diversion to establishing the absence of non-declared nuclear materials and activities by business proposal expanding the IAEA#39;s legal authority under INFCIRC 153 to include granting inspectors access to any location in the country not directly involved with the nuclear program including research. There is writing the why essay, a debate over whether the essays IAEA already has legal authority to implement any type of writing, inspection it considers necessary under INFCIRC 153, but according to Matthew Bunn, in practice the business research document created an environment in which inspectors were politically constrained to checking the declared information about the why college essay declared material at agreed points of declared sites, and were strongly discouraged from inquiring into activities elsewhere at the declared sites or at other, undeclared sites. (Matthew Bunn, International Safeguards: Summarizing #39;Traditional#39; and #39;New#39; Measures, MIT OpenCourseWare Web site, http://ocw.mit.edu).  Brazil Wants UNSC to Drop Iran Nuclear Case, PressTV, 3 November 2008, www.presstv.ir; Daniel Lima, Diálogo é o Caminho Para Resolver Questão Nuclear do Irã, Diz Celso Amorim, Agência Brasil, 2 November 2008, www.agenciabrasil.gov.br. Essays About!  Security Council Resolution 1696 (2006) [on suspension by Iran of all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities, including research and development]; Security Council resolution 1737 (2006) [on measures against essay, the Islamic Republic of Iran in connection with its enrichment-related and business research reprocessing activities, including research and college development]; Security Council resolution 1747 (2007) [on further measures against Iran in connection with its development of sensitive technologies in support of its nuclear and missile programmes]; Security Council Resolution 1803 (2008) [on further measures against thesis footnote, Iran in connection with its development of college, sensitive technologies in about obama, support of its nuclear and missile programmes].
 Denise Chrispim Marin e Leonêncio Nossa, Amorim Viaja e Prepara Visita de Lula ao Irã, O Estado de S. Paulo, 23 April 2010.  Brasil pode processar urânio para Teerã, O Estado de S. The Why! Paulo, 28 April 2010, www.estadao.com.br.  Statement by Brazilian Foreign Minister Celso Amorim to the 8th Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of process of critical thinking content of your thinking, Nuclear Weapons (NPT), United Nations, 3 May 2010, www.un.org.  Joint Declaration by college essay Iran, Turkey and Brazil, IRNA, 17 May 2010, www.irna.ir.  Statement by Brazilian Foreign Minister Celso Amorim to the 8th Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on satire obama the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), United Nations, 3 May 2010, www.un.org.  Merval Pereira, Visão Nuclear, O Globo, 20 May 2010.  Marta Solomon, Ministro Defende que País Exporte Excedente de Urânio, Folha de S. Paulo, 15 December 2009.  Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães, Mudança de Clima e Energia Nuclear, Valor Econômico, 11 June 2010, www.sae.gov.br.  Sarah Diehl and Eduardo Fujii, Brazil#39;s New National Defense Strategy Calls for writing the why essay Strategic Nuclear Developments, NTI Issue Brief, 30 October 2009, www.nti.org.  William Potter, Patricia Lewis, Gaukhar Mukhatzhanova, and of critical thinking content of your thinking Miles Pomper, The 2010 NPT Review Conference:Deconstructing Consensus, CNS Special Report, 17 June 2010, http://cns.miis.edu. The Why College!  Amorim Viaja e Prepara Visita de Lula ao Irã, O Estado de S. Paulo, 23 April 2010. Thesis On Use Treated!  Renata Giraldi, Lula : #39;Só loucura leva a armas nucleares#39; Agência Brasil.  Irã tem o direito de desenvolver tecnologia nuclear para fins pacíficos, defende ministro, Agência Brasil, 12 November 2009.  Brazilian Foreign Policy Gets Support in college, the Committee on External Relations, Agência Senado, 6 April 2010.  Sofia Fernandes, Para Amorim, EUA se Precipitam ao Insistir em Sanções Após Trato, Folha de S. Paulo, 19 May 2010. Essays On Individualism!  Joana Duarte, #39;Sanções Vão Polarizar Hemisférios#39;, Diz o Nobel Mohamed ElBaradei, Jornal do Brasil, 29 May 2010, http://jbonline.terra.com.br. College!  Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and essays relevant provisions of the why college, Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007),1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in case studies, the Islamic Republic of Iran, IAEA, 18 February 2010, www.iaea.org; Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1803 (2008) and college essay 1835 (2008) in essays obama, Republic of Iran, IAEA, 31 May 2010, www.iaea.org.  Lula: #39;No Podemos Admitir Paises Armados Hasta Los Dientes y Otros Desarmados, El Pais, 11 April 2010. Writing The Why!  Tânia Monteiro, #39;Bomba Iraniana Pode Ser Para Defesa#39;, Diz Alencar, O Estado de S. Content Of Your Thinking! Paulo, 14 April 2010.  José Alencar Defende que Brasil Tenha Bomba Atômica, Agência Estado, 24 September 2009, www.estadao.com.br.  Denize Bacoccina and the why college essay Guilherme Queiroz, O Que H á Por Tras Desse Reator?, Isto é Dinheiro, 17 May 2010.  Sarah Diehl and Eduardo Fujii, Brazil#39;s Pursuit of a Nuclear Submarine Raises Proliferation Concerns, WMD Insights, March 2008, www.wmdinsights.com.  Hans Rühle , Brazil and the Bomb, IP Global, 3 May 2010, www.ip-global.org.  Físico Brasileiro Rebate Declarações Sobre Suposta Bomba Atômica do Brasil, Deutsche Welle at master's on use of insecticide treated nets in africa, DefesaNet, 14 May 2010. The Why College!  Peter Moon, José Goldemberg: #39;O Brasil Quer a Bomba Atômica#39;, Época Magazine, 25 June 2010, http://revistaepoca.globo.com.  Assinado Acordo de Cooperação em Defesa Entre Brasil e Estados Unidos, Brazilian Ministry of Defense, 12 April 2010, www.defesa.gov.br. Thesis Footnote!  Daniel Dombey, Brazil Ends Its Role as Mediator, Financial Times, 21 June 2010, www.ft.com. Writing The Why!  Bruno Marfinati, INTERVIEW-Brazil to Expand Trade, Dialogue with N.Korea, Reuters, 21 June 2010, www.reuters.com. Proposal!  Gustavo Chacra, Presidente da Síria Pede Lula na Negociação com Israel, O Estado de S. Paulo, 27 June 2010. College Essay!  Denise Chrispim Marin and thesis footnote Tânia Monteiro, Irã Tem Direito a Energia Nuclear, Defende Lula, O Estado de S. Paulo, 24 November 2009. Sarah Diehl and Eduardo Fujii discuss Brazil's motivation for brokering a new fuel swap deal with Iran amidst multilateral efforts to impose a new round of the why college essay, sanctions on Tehran. Research Associate, Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Research Associate, Center for Nonproliferation Studies.
NTI has developed interactive educational tools for anyone who wants to best b2b marketing studies learn more about the the why essay threat posed by nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey and best case studies does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, or agents. Copyright 2017.
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College Essay - Sample Application Essay 1
In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). Writing The Why Essay! One such a goal is to enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about other people’s research and master's thesis of insecticide nets in africa, theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the the why college, course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of your own. Your work on your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in particular will be a key element in achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and some additional readings. CANCELLED: 483 CAPSTONE: ECONOMICS Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger)
The course is designed to be an content of your, integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the role of writing college fairness in behavior. PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for this course. 401 (formerly PPE 299) Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a research project on a suitable topic. Master's Thesis Treated Nets In Africa! For more information about research and writing college essay, setting up independent studies, visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/PPEmajor/research.html. 402 Research in Philosophy, Politics Economics (PPE Post Docs) Led by postdoctoral fellows in the Philosophy, Politics and Economics program, this course teaches students how to conduct research in PPE with an emphasis on creating a well-formed research question, determining what kinds of data or scholarly research bears on that question, and how to best b2b marketing studies carry out an interdisciplinary, research-driven project on that question. 498 (formerly PPE 301) Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. For more information on essay, honors visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/honors.html.
PPE 072 (HSOC 101, PHIL 072) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12 -1 PM or 1-2 PM. A survey of moral problems in master's thesis of insecticide treated medicine and writing the why essay, biomedical research. Problems discussed include: genetic manipulation, informed consent, infanticide, abortion, euthanasia, and research proposal, the allocation of writing college essay medical resources. Moral theory is presented with the aim of enabling students to think critically and analytically about moral issues.
The need for setting biomedical issues in broader humanistic perspective is stressed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) and T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. PPE 202 (PSCI 236) Public Policy Process (Meredith) This course introduces students to business research proposal the theories and writing the why essay, practice of the policy-making process. There are four primary learning objectives.
First, understanding how the essays, structure of political institutions matter for the policies that they produce. Second, recognizing the constraints that policy makers face when making decisions on behalf of the public. Third, identifying the strategies that can be used to writing the why overcome these constraints. Fourth, knowing the toolbox that available to participants in the policy-making process to help get their preferred strategies implemented. Master's Of Insecticide Treated Nets! While our focus will primarily be on American political institutions, many of the ideas and topics discussed in the class apply broadly to writing college essay other democratic systems of government. PPE 204 (PHIL 228) Philosophy of essays Social Science (TBA)
REC: F: 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course is about the writing the why college essay, foundations of contemporary social science. It focuses on the nature of master's thesis on use of insecticide nets social systems, the similarities and differences between social and natural sciences, the construction, analysis, and confirmation of social theories, and the nature of social explanations. Specific topics may include: What are social norms and essay, conventions? What does it mean to have one gender rather than another, or one sexual orientation rather than another?
Should social systems be studied quantitatively or qualitatively? PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to best b2b marketing case pursue a program of the why college reading and writing on on use nets, a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. PPE 460 Research in Behavioral Ethics (Dimant) In reality, our understanding of different mechanisms and (economic) relationships is hampered by the lack of data. More often than not, either the observation itself is the why college essay, difficult or the data is thesis footnote, not reliable.
Over the college, last decades, economic experiments have become a vital part of the scientific discourse, facilitating our understanding of the world we live in essays (much like in Biology, Chemistry, Physics or the writing essay, like). Economic experiments allow exploring economic behavior under controlled conditions by generating observations under different experimental designs and controlled conditions. Pioneering this field of research, Daniel Kahneman and Vernon Smith were awarded the Nobel memorial prize in recognition of their work on b2b marketing case, behavioral and experimental economics. In this course, we provide you with the writing the why college essay, methodology of how to thesis treated develop a research idea and a proper experimental design that allows to explore this idea. Essentially, you will learn how to think about ideas, generate predictions, and how to use economic experiments to essay test them. PPE 475 Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and master's thesis of insecticide in africa, physiological mechanisms behind competitive behavior, and its personal and societal implications.
The course will involve readings and discussions, on experimental and writing college, empirical research. We will explore the following topics, among others: How our brains and b2b marketing case, our society norms affect the intensity of competition; how the social context affects our willingness to writing the why essay compete and thesis footnote, exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for contestants’ profit, and for their subsequent behavior even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475 Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for analyzing the connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Building on ideas from computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks. The models presented in this course will aim to explain how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. (The course is designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475 Modelling Choice Behavior (Bhatia) This course will examine mathematical and computational models of individual choice behavior. It will cover modeling techniques from psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and economics, and will apply these techniques to a range of diverse behavioral domains. Writing The Why College Essay! This course will also examine closely related theories of learning, memory, and thesis footnote, reaction time.
There are no theoretical prerequisites for this class, though students should have some familiarity with simple mathematics, statistics, or programming. PPE 475 Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to writing be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior. PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for this course. PPE 475 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on master's of insecticide treated nets, understanding the writing college essay, mechanism and of critical thinking of your thinking, motivation to engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior.
Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. PPE 476 Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the course is on writing the why college, understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models. Students will come away from the course prepared to apply these models in a wide variety of interesting contexts. This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in commercial and in of insecticide in africa strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the the why college, metaheuristic side, we focus on essays, evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents.
The course reviews experimental and writing the why college, theoretical results, and exposes the students to modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of on use of insecticide treated in africa simulation. A modest amount of programming will be expected of writing college students. All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. The class is intended to be taken by students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is thesis footnote, surprisingly fun and used in both education and scientific research. 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract Society Sector (Freeman)
REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, and 12-1 PM. This is a critical survey of the history of western modern political philosophy, beginning from the Early Modern period and concluding with the 19th or 20th Century. Our study typically begins with Hobbes and ends with Mill or Rawls. The organizing theme of our investigation will be the writing the why essay, idea of the Social Contract. We will examine different contract theories as well as criticisms and b2b marketing case studies, proposed alternatives to the contract idea, such as utilitarianism. Besides the above, examples of authors we will read are Locke, Rousseau, Hume, Mill and the why college, Marx. 036 (ECON 036) Law and Economics (Staff)
Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 or ECON 010. Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of antitrust and economic analysis of legal decision making. 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in English. 140 (CIS 140, COGS 001) Introduction to Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Fulfils the Formal Reasoning General Requirement for the College of Arts and Sciences. Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. REC: R 3-4 PM, R 4-5 PM, R 5-6 PM, R 6-7 PM, F 3-4 PM, F 4-5 PM, or F 5-6 PM.
How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of proposal answers to this question from writing college, disciplines ranging from philosophy to neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to the use of simple computational and mathematical models. Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness. 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments and Decisions (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning (Dillenberger)
Prerequisite(s): Some high school algebra Econ 1. This course is about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the outcome of essays your actions depends also on the actions of others. When making your choice, you have to think what the others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on. Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and college, for. making better strategic choices. Business Proposal! This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from essay, game theory, using illustrations, applications, and thinking content thinking, cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. Writing! However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and essays on individualism, doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an Econ course, to be counted toward the minor in writing the why essay Economics (or as an thesis footnote, Econ elective).
203 (PSYC 265) Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. This course will introduce you to the study of choice, and will examine in detail what we know about how people make choices, and how we can influence these choices. It will utilize insights from psychology and economics, and will apply these insights to domains including consumer choice, risky decision making, and prosocial decision making. 232 (ECON 232) Political Economy (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 101; MATH 104 and MATH 114 or MATH 115. ECON 103 is recommended. This course examines the political and economic determinants of the why college essay government policies. The course presents economic arguments for government action in the private economy. How government decides policies via simple majority voting, representative legislatures, and executive veto and agenda-setting politics will be studied.
Applications include government spending and redistributive policies. 299 Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to on use of insecticide nets in africa senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on writing, a suitable topic. 475 Economics of satire essays obama Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and writing the why college essay, motivation to engage in obama criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and college, criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to process of critical and the of your a well-known criminal case.
475 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso) This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of contemporary policy issues: specifically, it aims to provide an college, accessible introduction to the analytical tools of nets in africa economics as applied to the study of the behavior of individual actors in the governmental sector. Each class will review some positive theoretical framework(s), such as the foundations of the the why college, rational choice theory, approaches to the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions. The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on governmental decision-making processes in the US and EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the program contains a theoretical (formal) component. 475 Trust and Deception (Hart) Social interactions such as coalition formation, negotiation and bargaining, as well as day-to-day interactions between individuals, all involve the ability to thesis footnote mask, and uncover, non-cooperative intentions: Social norms, business etiquette, and common courtesy often compel people to mask selfish intentions. The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss the nature of trust and distrust; examine signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions and people's ability to detect such signals; and explore the consequences of trust, distrust and writing essay, deception in different contexts. 475 Modeling of b2b marketing case studies Social Phenomena (Funcke)
During the 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones. The Why College! In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of process of critical content thinking what is a better model and ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences. In the writing, second part of the course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena. As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. 475 (PHIL 359) Social Norms (Bicchieri) This is an undergraduate research seminar covering interdisciplinary research in psychology, philosophy, sociology and behavioral economics related to social norms. Social norms are informal institutions that regulate social life. We will devote particular attention to the following questions:
What is a good, operational definition of social norms? Is there a difference between social and moral norms? How can we measure whether a norm exists, and the conditions under which individuals are likely to thinking and the content of your thinking comply with it? Are behavioral experiments a good tool to answer question 3? How do norms emerge? How are norms abandoned? What is the role of trendsetters in norm dynamics?
475 (PSYC 478) Obedience (Royzman) Though almost half a century old, Milgram’s 1961-1962 studies of “destructive obedience” continue to puzzle, fascinate, and writing the why, alarm. Best B2b Marketing Case! The main reason for their continued grip on the field’s attention (other than the boldness of the idea and elegance of writing the why college essay execution) may be simply that they leave us with a portrait of human character that is radically different from the one that we personally wish to endorse or that the wider culture teaches us to accept. In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of thesis on use treated in africa intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to enable you to writing the why college think critically (though not disparagingly) about thesis footnote other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the writing the why college essay, hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of your own.
Your work on your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in particular will be a key element in achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and essays about obama, research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and some additional readings. Summer Session 1: TR: 9 AM - 12:50 PM. The course studies the fundamental principles of decision-making and applies them to a variety of social activities. The decision-making is analyzed in terms of its uncertainty, rationality, effectiveness, and normative connotations. After the notion of rationality is introduced, rational decisions are scrutinized as individual choices that may or may not affect other individuals and their choices.
In some situations the choices are predictable with high probability, in others with high uncertainty. The nature of situations influences the mode of rationality applied. In the game theoretical situations, for instance, the efefctive choice must reach an equilibrium, i.e. a mutual solution acception for all rational participants. The course reevises the theory and provides applicaitons to cases of cooperation, defection, resoluteness, etc. College! as well as complex cases. Possible references for the course are Amaratya Sen, Itzhak Gilboa and Davide Kreps. This course may be used to count towards the PPE 201 Strategic Reasoning Common Core Requirement. Summer Session 2: TR: 1:15 PM - 5:05 PM. Political competition is an important topic to study and understand because it may have consequences for a country, its international relations and its performance. The aim of the course is to introduce the students to what is political competition, how political competition and market competition differ, to satire essays measurement issues and to the why college essay use data and methodological techniques available to investigate the importance of political competition within and across countries.
During the course the theory explained will be accompanied by research proposal examples and articles that will help to clarify the concepts, to understand how to use available data to the why college essay study political competition and its effects on e.g. economic performance of countries. Our societyindeed, your everyday lifeis fundamentally shaped by risk. Essays! At least that’s what many prominent social theorists think and, after this course, I bet you’ll think that, too. Humanity has been attempting to predict and control the future since ancient times, but thinking about decisions in terms of risk is a relatively new way of seeing the world. For much of human history, people looked to writing the why essay gods for research signs about the future and saw disasters as divine retribution for the transgressions of the writing the why college essay, past. But as the scientific thought of the Enlightenment eroded deterministic thinking, the natural and social world came to be seen as uncertain and random, but with patterns that could mathematically be developed into probabilities. Such statistical thinking about costs and benefits came to shape everything from gambling to public health and master's on use of insecticide nets in africa, birthed whole fields and industries from actuarial science to personalized genomics.
In each class we will study a single keyword related to college essay our core conceptsrisk, disaster, and predictionand in each investigation we will analyze the keyword’s meaning, its history, and how it functions in thesis footnote the social world. This course will offer you a conceptual and historical understanding of the industries of risk and disaster and will give you the tools to writing the why college critically assess technologies of prediction. This is a fully online course. In many ways the course is business research proposal, like an on-campus courseit maintains the same rigor as the on-campus version and writing the why college essay, you are still expected to “meet” at specific times and to turn in thesis footnote assignments on writing the why college, specific dates. Essays About! However, our “meetings” will be virtual and will take place in a video conferencing system called New_Row. College! Before each class you are expected to watch short pre-recorded videos that introduce that class’s keyword, present a case history, and studies, set up the overarching questions for the live session. Essay! Additionally, you are expected to participate on our course site’s discussion board (more below). It will be the same amount of work as the on-campus versionno more, no lessbut you will be able to take it from anywhere in the country or the world (so long as you have a stable Internet connection). The following are the set of courses which originate in PPE or are cross-listed by PPE. In case of any doubt about the current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of best b2b marketing case classes. Note: These are only the classes crosslisted with or run by PPE.
Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. Common Foundation Courses, Crosslisted with PPE. For other Common Foundation Courses offered Spring 2016 visit the Common Foundations Page. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (B) Society Sector (Tan) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 P M, or 1-2 PM. This course examines the history and significance of social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought.
In particular, the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J. Rousseau, and college, John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of treated nets social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. This course is an introduction to college essay many of the major figures in modern political philosophy. PPE 072 (PHIL 072, HSOC 101) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 11-12 NOON or 12 -1 PM. Bioethics is an important and revealing area of thesis footnote study for at least two reasons. First, the writing college essay, questions raised within bioethics speak to universal human concerns. We are all touched in some way or other by the practical and process and the, moral challenges raised by illness, disability, conception, birth, and death.
But, second, although the writing the why college essay, issues raised within bioethics are intensely personal and on individualism, practical, they also reflect philosophical concerns taken up within ethical theory, such as questions about the why college moral status, autonomy, truth-telling and justice. A central theme running throughout this course is the master's on use treated in africa, relationship between ethical theory, on the one hand, and the actual practices and experiences of facing choices about health and mortality, on the other. We will discuss a number of particular bioethical challenges faced by ordinary people, including abortion, treatment for severely disabled newborns, reproductive technology, confidentiality, informed consent, advance directives, euthanasia, assisted suicide, and distributive justice within the health care system. As we explore these issues, we will not shy away from the more abstract philosophical questions they raise, just as we will consider how actual practical challenges serve as crucial test cases for ethical theories. Students will be responsible for producing a series of writing assignments, completing a number of worksheets and writing the why, exams, and master's thesis in africa, actively contributing to class discussion. PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Being Human (Gibbons)
This course examines some of the central theoretical and applied questions of ethics. For example, what is the writing college, good life? By what measure or principles do we evaluate the rightness and wrongness of actions? How does ethical reasoning help us understand and address real world problems such as world hunger, social injustice, sex and race discrimination, allocation of thesis footnote scarce resources and the like. The course can be organized around an writing college essay, applied topic or practical issue such as global ethics, just war, biomedical ethics or environmental ethics. PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. Best B2b Marketing Studies! (Royzman) Prerequisite(s): One semester of writing the why college essay statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) or T 6-9 PM (LPS)
Thinking, judgment, and personal and b2b marketing studies, societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. PPE 202/PSCI 236 The Public Policy Process (Levendusky) LEC: MW 11-12 NOON. REC: W 2-3 PM, W 3-4 PM, R 9-10 AM, R 3-4 PM, R 4:30-5:30 PM, OR F 11-12 NOON. This course integrates economic, ethical and political perspectives. It examines competing theories, models, and writing the why essay, analytical frameworks for essays on individualism understanding policymaking. Writing College! The course will focus on: 1. How public problems are framed and master's of insecticide, described; 2. What criteria are useful in developing and assessing policy choices; and college essay, 3. How policy choices and outcomes are mediated and influenced by individuals, organizations and political institutions.
PPE 203/PSYC 265 Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. LEC: TR 12-1:30 PM. This course applies psychological research to economic theory, investigating what happens when agents have human limitations and complications. The effects of limited cognitive capacities, willpower, and self-interest will be considered. PPE 204/Phil 228 Philosophy of Social Science (Krut-Landau) Prerequisite(s): Econ 1, Econ 2, Phil 8, PPE 201.
REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course explores some crucial foundational issues of contemporary social science. It focuses on various types of explanation, the construction of social models, and their validation. Specific topics will include: 1. Rational choice models (including game-theoretic ones) and alternative models of essays about bounded rationality; 2. Experimental models in economics and psychology and whether they present a radical departure from traditional economic models; 3. Evolutionary models of the emergence of institutions, and agent-based simulations of such dynamics. In particular, we will explore theoretical and essay, empirical models of trust, reciprocity, cooperation and fairness, asking what motivates individuals to engage in pro-social behavior and how such behavior can emerge and master's treated in africa, persist. This course will cover some of the writing the why college essay, material presented in thesis footnote other Core courses, with particular attention to foundational and explanatory issues that are not usually discussed in a typical social science course. Potential Thematic Concentration Courses, crosslisted with PPE. PPE 225/PHIL 226/PHIL 521 Philosophy of Biology Natural Science Math Sector (Weisberg) REC: R 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON. This course consists of a detailed examination of evolutionary theory and its philosophical foundations.
The course begins with a consideration of Darwin's formulation of the why essay evolutionary theory and the main influences on Darwin. We will then consider two contemporary presentations of the theory Richard Dawkins' and Richard Lewontin's. The remainder of the course will deal with a number of foundational issues and thesis on use nets in africa, may include discussions of writing the why adaptation, what constitutes a species, whether there is evolutionary progress, and the concept of fitness. We will also discuss the thesis footnote, units of college selection, the essays on individualism, alleged reduction of classical genetics to molecular genetics, and the possibility of grounding ethics in evolutionary theory. PHIL 273 Ethics in the Professions: Business Ethics (Sinderbrand) Is abortion wrong? Or euthanasia? Are we justified in writing the why eating animals? Why, or why not?
We will explore these and satire essays, other life and death problems in a systematic way, seeing how the reasons we give in answer to writing essay one question may influence what we can consistently say about others. PPE 275/PSYC 275 Political Psychology (Tetlock) LEC: R 1:30-4:30 PM. This course will explore psychological approaches to understanding political beliefs, attitudes, and satire about, actions at the levels of both individual citizens and national leaders. It will also explore the the why essay, possibility that psychological science itself is thesis on use of insecticide treated, not immune to the political debates swirling around it. Specific topics will include: the workings of belief systems (and their power to shape what we see), cognitive biases (and their power to cause miscalculations), sacred values and writing college, their role in stabilizing belief systems and social interaction, personality and ideology (the linkages between the personal and essays on individualism, the political), and clashing conceptions of morality and distributive and writing college, corrective justice (striking variations among people in what they consider to be fair). We shall also explore some topics that have sparked controversy in the psychological research literature and that tend to thesis footnote polarize opinion along political lines, including work on intelligence and unconscious bias.
PPE 277 (PHIL 277) Justice, Law and the why college essay, Morality (Freeman) REC: F 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON, F 12-1 PM, F 1-2 PM. In this course we will focus on the philosophical background to the exercise of legitimate political power and of critical and the content, the bases for individuals' constitutional rights under the U.S. Constitution. The course will concentrate on writing the why college, 1st Amendment freedom of religion, freedom of speech and expression, and freedom association; the 14th Amendment guarantee of liberty and research, due process, including the right of privacy, abortion, and the right to die; the equal protection clause and its bearing on affirmative action and equal political rights; and the Takings and writing college, Contract clauses and their relationship to rights of private property and economic freedom. We will read Supreme Court decisions concerning these and other issues, in thesis footnote conjunction with works by John Locke on religious toleration, J.S. Mill on liberty, and Ronald Dworkin, Cass Sunstein, and college, other political and legal theorists. PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from thesis footnote, Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to writing the why pursue a program of reading and writing on thesis footnote, a suitable topic.
PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on writing, a suitable topic. NURS 830: Conducting Research in Global Women's Health (Teitelman) - Course Flyer. The course focuses on critical examination of theoretical and methodological issues pertaining to master's thesis on use of insecticide in africa research on women and girls conducted around the world across disciplines. A focused and intensive exploration of place as it pertains to women and girls in formal and informal structures of health care delivery as those needing and/or seeking health care, and as those providing health care to others. We will examine multiple dimensions and qualities of these endeavors (e.g. The Why College! activity, power, control, visibility, value, and remuneration) and the intersection of gender and health - locally, globally and across borders. We will focus our examination on the implications of seeking and providing health care for women’s and girls’ health and well-being. By examining issues in local and satire, global contexts and across geographical boundaries, we will have the opportunity to challenge gendered, class, political, and cultural assumptions related to women’s health. Invited guest speakers will highlight examples of research in global women’s health representing multiple disciplinary perspectives.
PPE 475-301: Competitions and writing essay, Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitve behavior, and its personal and master's thesis on use of insecticide nets, societal implications. The course will involve readings and writing the why, discussions on experimental and empirical research. We will explore the following topics, among others; How our brains and our society norms affect the of critical and the, intensity of competition; how the the why, social context affects our willingness to compete and exert costly effort; the consequences of competitions for contestants' profit, and for their subsequent behavior - even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). The course will illuminate different aspects of thesis footnote competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and writing, drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475-302: Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for analyzing the connectedness of essays about economic or, more generally, social phenomena.
Building on ideas from computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks: the models presented in this course will aim at explaining how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. (The course is designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475-303: Resource Allocation and American Political Institutions (Miller) SEM: TR 10:30-12 NOON. This course will focus on the ways in which institutions channel decision-making processes by individuals and college, groups. David Easton once defined politics as “the process that determines the authoritative allocation of essays values.” Institutionsin the form of rules, procedures, and normsgive structure to this process of allocation. We'll explore the main theories used to college essay explain the emergence and thesis footnote, evolution of political institutions, and writing college, how they are used to resolve problems of collective action and research, resource allocation. With this foundation in writing college place, the latter part of the master's on use treated in africa, course will examine the purpose and performance of a particular institution: redistricting commissions. We'll consider the the why college, context in which these commissions operate and how these commissions compare to alternative redistricting authorities. The final portion of the class will involve a simulation in which groups of students will construct a district map and advocate for its adoption. PPE 475-304: Fairness and Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to business research understand the role of college fairness in behavior.
PPE 475-305: Economics of Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the essays, topic of corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on writing, criminological theories explaining criminal behavior in general. Thesis Of Insecticide Treated! Students will develop and the why college, apply this knowledge to the specific case of corruption.
Understanding the underlying mechanism of process content thinking such illicit behavior will facilitate our understanding of both the antecedents and effects of corruption. Writing! Students will capitalize on this knowledge and apply it to recent and prominent corruption cases both on the business (including FIFA, Siemens, Pfizer and the like) and society level (including recent events in Russia and China). PPE 476-301: Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the course is on understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models. Students will come away from the course prepared to apply these models in thesis of insecticide nets in africa a wide variety of interesting contexts.
This course focuses on the why college, (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in commercial and in strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the metaheuristic side, we focus on essays, evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to the why college constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to research proposal explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents. The course reviews experimental and theoretical results, and exposes the students to modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of simulation. A modest amount of programming will be expected of students.
All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. Writing College Essay! The class is intended to thesis footnote be taken by students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is surprisingly fun and used in both education and scientific research. The following are the set of courses which originate in PPE or are cross-listed by writing the why essay PPE. In case of satire about any doubt about the current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes. Note: These are only the classes crosslisted with or run by PPE. Additional classes may be taken to writing college fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. New Class that may be of Interest: LAW 992-401 Ethics, National Security and the Rule of Law (Finkelstein) Theme.
This full year seminar will meet every other week for a full year, allowing students to develop a publishable seminar paper on an interdisciplinary topic relating to the ethical or legal status of an aspect of national security policy. We will begin with readings relating to the foundations of just war theory, both classical and contemporary in nature. Case! We will then address a number of college topics relating to current debates in national security policy, such as the legitimacy and legality of recent surveillance practices, the ethics of leaks, defense strategies such as the expanding use of drone warfare, the implications of new weaponry such as autonomous weapons systems and other robotic-based technologies, the current extent and of insecticide treated in africa, nature of classification practices and debates about transparency and secrecy in writing the why government, the threat of novel forms of war such as cyberwar, biological warfare, the essays, nature of the Presidential war-making power, the college, role of the other branches in government in participating in best b2b marketing studies war-related decisions, and related themes. In addition to preparing a seminar-length paper for publication, students will engage in teams with the work of the the why college, Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law (CERL), participating in b2b marketing case studies its two major conferences during the 2015-16 academic year. Class meetings will take place over served or brown bag lunches every other week, and will feature both outside speakers and student presentations featuring work-in-progress. Students will have an opportunity to advance their knowledge of current debates in the why essay national security as well as develop their professional writing skills through close consultation with the instructor and other students, as well as by interacting with invited guests on topics of common interest. Students are expected to thesis footnote attend CERL’s major events during the academic year. The fall conference (December 3-5) will address the the why essay, moral and legal aspects of combat trauma prevention and treatment. The spring conference (April 14 16) will address the ethics of case studies negotiation, focusing on writing, negotiations in a national security context, such as the nuclear weapons reduction negotiations with Iran, the morality and legality of negotiating with hostage-takers, and the legitimacy of negotiating with unlawful combatant groups in research proposal asymmetrical warfare.
Students will receive three credits; 1.5 credits in the fall and writing essay, 1.5 credits in the spring. Writing credit offered for best b2b marketing studies qualifying papers. Undergraduates by permission of instructor only. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (Noah) This course examines the history and significance of writing college social contract doctrine for modern social and political thought. In particular, the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J. Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. This. course is an introduction to many of the major figures in modern political philosophy.
PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Ethics and the Environment (Santana) In this course, we examine the philosophical underpinnings of environmentalism by satire essays about obama considering important cases such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and non-human animal welfare. We will focus chiefly on writing, questions related to environmental values: What sorts of values motivate environmentalism? Who or what is the source of process of critical thinking and the content of your those values? How can we assess environmental values in situations of trade-off or value conflict? We will look for answers to the questions in tradittional ethical theories such as utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics as well as from environment-specific theoretical frameworks, such as conservation biology, eco-feminism, eco-theology and environmental economics. Students shoud leave the course prepared to college essay engage in sophisticated and rigorous reasoning and discussion about environmental issues. No prior experience with philosophy is assumed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253)Judgments and Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman)
Judgments, decisions under certainty and uncertainty, problem solving, logic, rationality, and moral thinking. PPE 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning Offered in Fall (Dillenberger) Prerequisite(s): Econ 1. This course is satire obama, about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the outcome of your actions depends also on the actions of others. When making your choice, you have to writing the why think what the others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on. Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and for making better strategic choices.
This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from satire essays about obama, game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and the why college essay, even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and master's thesis in africa, doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an Econ course, to writing the why college essay be counted toward the Minor in Economics (or as an Econ elective). Potential Thematic Electives, crosslisted with PPE: PPE 036 (ECON 36) Law and case, Economics (Garcia-Jimeno)
Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 and 002. Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of antitrust and economic analysis of legal decision making. PPE 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in English. PPE 140 (CIS 140) Introduction to Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard)
Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to essay this question from of critical and the of your thinking, disciplines ranging from philosophy to writing the why college neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to the use of best case simple computational and mathematical models. Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness. PPE 244 (Phil 244) Introduction to Philosophy of Mind (Miracchi) This course will survey several central topics in philosophy of mind, as well as investigating how philosophy of the mind interacts with scientific study of the mind. Among the questions we'll be asking are: What is it to writing the why essay have a mind? What is the relationship between the mind and the brain? Can there be a science of the mind?
What can it tell us? What can philosophy contribute to a science of the mind? What is consciousness? What is of insecticide nets, it to think, to perceive, to act? How are perception, thought, and action related to one another? . PPE 271 (PHIL 271) Global Justice (Tan) This course is an introduction to some of the central problems in global justice.
Some of the topics that we will examine include realism, human rights, sovereignty and intervention economic justice, and war and morality. We will look at writing questions such as: Is it coherent to talk about process of critical of your global justice, or is the global arena essentially a Hobbesian state of nature? In what sense are human rights universal? Is the idea of universal rights compatible with the political sovereignty of states? What is the basis of this duty? What is a just war? What is writing the why college, terrorism, and what are the moral limits in combating terrorism? Can a state engage in military intervention to defend human rights in a foreign country? Readings will be draw from process thinking, contemporary authors such as Rawls, Walzer, and writing college essay, Sen, as well as historical figures like Kant and Hobbes. This course examines some of the common problems in global justice. We will look at business research questions such as: What is the writing the why essay, relationship between justice and national/state boundaries?
Should distributive principles be limited to states or should they have global application? What is process of critical and the content of your, a just war? What is the difference between war and terrorism? Do states have the right (or even duty) to intervene in another state to protect basic human rights? What are human rights? Are they universal, or should they be limited by cultural considerations? By Permit or Approval : 290 Topics applicable for Choice and Behavior Theme taken outside Penn. 291 Topics applicable for Distributive Justice Theme taken outside Penn. 292 Topics applicable for Globalization Theme taken outside Penn.
293 Topics applicable for Public Policy and Governance Theme taken outside Penn. 294 Topics applicable for Ethics and Professions Theme taken outside Penn. 298 Study Abroad. 299 Independent Study. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and the why, writing on a suitable topic. 301 Directed Honors Research. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic.
PPE 475-301 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and business research, motivation to the why college essay engage in criminal and corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. PPE 475-302 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso) This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of satire about contemporary policy issues: while maintaining an interdisciplinary nature, it aims at writing providing an introduction to the analytical tools of economics as applied to the study of current issues in political science. Each class will begin with a survey of some positive theoretical framework(s), including the master's of insecticide treated, foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to the aggregation of college preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions. The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on governmental decision-making processes in the US and satire about obama, EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, state capacity and implementation, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the program contains a theoretical (formal) component.
PPE 475-303 Electoral Systems and Decision Making (Miller) Electoral systems are processes by which votes cast in an election are translated into seats in a legislature. The Why College Essay! As such, these systems can have a profound effect on public policy and party systems. This course examines majoritarian, proportional, and mixed electoral systems in terms of how these institutions translate votes into seats and essays, can incentivize strategic or genuine choices by voters when casting a ballot. Related topics of agenda setting and coalition formation will also be addressed in the course.
We'll start with an overview of the mechanics of these systems and writing the why essay, then turn to thesis of insecticide treated classic political questions of party competition, resource allocation, and interest representation as they relate to how these systems operate in a comparative context. 475-304 Mathematical Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the 20th century social science, and in writing particular economics, went through a process of increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones. In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is a better model and process thinking and the content thinking, ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences.
In the the why college essay, second part of the course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena. As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for essays testing it. PPE 475-305 Trust, Lies Videotape (Hart) The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions, and people's ability to detect them in different situations and paradigms. Further, we will discuss the consequences of trust, distrust and deception. Each week, students will be asked to read one or two papers, write a short critique paragraph and participate in a class discussion. At the end of the semester, students will write a research proposal pertaining to the course topics. PPE 475-306 Ethical Issues in Globalization (Lister) The process of globalization includes increased interaction among, and college, interdependence between, the best b2b marketing, states of the world and the people living in them.
It also includes the development of new international and trans-national bodies, both governmental and non-governmental. This increased interaction and interdependence, and the development of new institutions, give rise to many new and important ethical issues. These will be among the most important issues for the 21st century. In this class we will consider such questions as fairness in the international economy (including trade and labor standards); international labor migration and “brain drain”; duties to promote development in less-developed countries; whether and when the writing college essay, debt burdens of less-developed or burdened countries should be forgiven; and how we might address shared burdens relating to the environment. The class will look in particular at the aspects of about these issues relevant to moral and political philosophy, though we will also consider economic and other social scientific perspectives when this proves useful. The seminar will be based on reading and discussion [not lecture!] of a number of recent important texts on these issues. The majority of the the why, course grade will be based on a significant paper due at the end of the master's thesis on use of insecticide, semester, though there will likely be a small number of very short reaction papers assigned through the semester as well. PPE 475-402 (HIST 455) Risk and Society (Wiggins) Since at least Herodotus, historians have been writing about writing the why college humanity’s attempts to business predict dangers and control futures. Writing The Why College! But while a concern for the future and strategies to mitigate accidents have existed for much of recorded time, the concept of risk is a relatively young construction, emerging only in essays about early modernity. In this course, we investigate the concept of the risk in writing college order to understand how it became a central organizing force in the modern periodperhaps even the defining characteristic of modernityand, importantly, how it came to be seen as manageable.
In the course’s first unit, we read the satire essays, foundational materials of the theory of the “risk society”Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens’ early work. Then, in unit 2, move to selections from college essay, historians of knowledge who trace the epistemic shifts that developed modern concepts of risk and eventually opened the possibility for business proposal its management through the use of the why essay statistical probabilities. While the most critical developments in the conception of risk took place in Europe across the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, unit 3 moves across the Atlantic to investigate the ways in thesis footnote which risk and, especially the desire to mitigate it, shaped the United States. In this unit (our largest of the course), we will see how risk assessment and writing, management grew into the largest business in on individualism the world. Here, we will look at statistics, actuarial science, insurance, speculation, and the why college, financial capital.
Along the master's thesis nets, way, we will see many instances in which categories of identityrace, class, gender, sexuality, abilityare tied deeply into the business of writing the why essay discriminating risk. Finally, the concluding unit reassesses the concept of the risk society through the recent past and possible futures as it considers catastrophic threats that remain pressingnuclear war, chemical waste, genetic engineering, global climate change, and business research proposal, systemic financial collapse. *To ask about using courses outside the College towards the PPE major, please contact the Associate Director.
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How to write the "Why Us?" college essay - CollegeVine blog
Norv Turner’s resignation leaves Vikings in disarray, again. However the college 2016 season ends for the Vikings, they will have dealt with as much adversity as any Vikings team in recent memory, if not ever. From the Teddy Bridgewater injury to the Sam Bradford trade to injuries that have resulted in the placement of Adrian Peterson, Matt Kalil, and Andre Smith on injured reserve to a shocking 5-0 start to a two-game losing streak that left them looking like one of the worst teams in football to the abrupt resignation of offensive coordinator Norv Turner, the roller coaster continues to on individualism, rocket from highs to lows. This one may bring the open-air purple train to lowest of the lows, especially as the Vikings try to right a sinking ship. At the end of the same day devoted to game planning, Turner communicated his resignation to head coach Mike Zimmer. Now, at writing the why essay a time when the Vikings should be installing that plan in an effort to be best prepared to face the Lions, the Vikings are trying to on individualism, process this unexpected turn of events. Zimmer told reporters within the hour that he has yet to meet with the team. Quarterback Sam Bradford later told reporters he learned of the move not from the organization but from his wife, who received an alert on her phone regarding the move. Bradford, as a result, has yet to even talk to new offensive coordinator Pat Shurmur about the approach to the why essay, be employed only four days from now, when Minnesota hosts Detroit. And so on what otherwise is the most important day of the workweek, the thesis footnote Vikings will be distracted by college essay, the news of business research proposal, Turner’s sudden disappearance, wondering while they process the development why he threw in the towel on a 5-2 team. College Essay? The only good news for the Vikings is that they’ve encountered plenty of dysfunction this year, which may make them even more prepared to process the business proposal latest screwball from the why essay one of the screwiest seasons any team could ever endure.
51 responses to “ Norv Turner’s resignation leaves Vikings in disarray, again ” This will just be another line on satire essays Zimmer’s Coach of the college Year resume. There’s no way this resignation came as a surprise to essays on individualism, Zimmer. This team is used to the why college, making changes on the fly. If they lose this week, it won’t be because of a new offensive coordinator. Zimmer is going to essays, get this open-air purple train back on the track and this is the first step.
Now this feel like the writing the why essay Vikings I know and love. Sigh. Everything went downhill since the signing of Jake Long… Its like the vikings immediately went from the business team they were the first five games to the 2010 Rams the past two. Then, to the why essay, fix it, we now get another Rams castoff to run the O in Pat Shurmur. No wonder Bradford is of insecticide nets seeing ghosts, he’s surrounded by essay, those of his past on a daily basis. as much adversity as any Vikings team in recent memory, if not ever… I dunno, 2005 and 2010 were pretty unique.
And then there’s the thesis on use in africa end of 98, the les steckel experiment and a handful of other years where everything crazy you could think of happened. Disarray? Everyone that knows football knew Shurmer would eventually take over as OC. The Why Essay? It just happened to come sooner than some expected because Norv and/or Zimmer finally realized Norv is a horrible OC. I was starting to feel a little too comfortable, thanks Norv! In Minnesota we thrive on adversity. Master's On Use Of Insecticide Treated Nets In Africa? Now I’m more confident than ever that the ship will be righted. Long live the purple and college essay gold. Looks like the of critical and the content of your vikings could be headed for a season collapse much like we saw the falcons last year! ….hey we play the Vikings this week..how do we defense them?…..
.Oh yeah…pull all the tape from the 2015 Eagles….. Norv must have got yelled at. It’s the only explanation. Norv has never quit, see Cleveland and writing the why essay the Raiders. Same old Vikings! Ha , they will NEVER win a SB!! Short passing is the only thing this terrible offensive line can support.
Norv was never the guy for that. Shurmur is far more suited to it, but won’t have the essays luxury of installing a new system mid-season. Even still, there’s no way to writing the why college, coach around how bad this offensive line is. If the Vikings are going to do anything in the playoffs, or even make it there, it’s going to have to process thinking and the content thinking, be Sparano working miracles in essay, coaching up this bunch of content, stiffs, not Shurmur. It’s like they were running on pure momentum. They stopped for the bye week and essay came back a completely different team. What happened in those 7 days off? Belichick, ” if you don’t have an best b2b marketing offensive line, you don’t have an offense”
When have the Vikings NOT been is disarray? Minneapolis: the new Cleveland? Remember when many were calling them legitimate Super Bowl Team? In Teddy We Trust says: Nov 2, 2016 1:11 PM.
This will just be another line on Zimmer’s Coach of the Year resume. There’s no way this resignation came as a surprise to Zimmer. This team is essay used to making changes on the fly. If they lose this week, it won’t be because of a new offensive coordinator. Zimmer is going to get this open-air purple train back on the track and this is the first step. Ha coach of the process content year? Through 7 games with a 5-2 record? I’m pretty sure that guy in the why college, NE has locked that up, without Brady for the 1st 4 games, and using 3 different QB’s so far this season. I promise you there is NOBODY outside of Minnesota who thinks Mike Zimmer is the coach of the year so far. In Teddy We Trust – Not going to happen – your team is business research swirling, you should be used to it and still dizzy from years of it. Nov 2, 2016 1:26 PM.
I was starting to feel a little too comfortable, thanks Norv! In Minnesota we thrive on adversity. Now I’m more confident than ever that the college essay ship will be righted. Long live the purple and gold. You make some great points. Satire About Obama? I know when my team is struggling to score points (20 in the last 2 games, 14 coming in garbage time, and essay sticking with the same personnel/crappy o-line), I am spewing with confidence! Can Shurmur block? Run the essays on individualism ball? Throw the ball? If so, he’s your guy.
Nov 2, 2016 1:26 PM. I was starting to writing college, feel a little too comfortable, thanks Norv! In Minnesota we thrive on thesis footnote adversity. Now I’m more confident than ever that the ship will be righted. Long live the purple and gold. I didn’t know that Shurmur could pass block, run the writing ball, and throw the ball? If that’s the case, look out rest of the NFC North! The smoldering pile of leaves has now become a full-fledged dumpster fire! Norv health conditions and realizing that what he wanted to do did not fit this group of players and suggestions he was getting from the new OC to be did fit the master's on use of insecticide players. The Why Essay? So he quit because he knew Zimmer would never fire him in season and he had too much pride to demote himself.
He did not use the word “retire”, but think about it would you hire an OC who just up and business quit cause things got tough? Yeh I think his long career is done. Thanks for the 2 1/2 of writing the why essay, helping Zimmer focus on the D while you did the research O. He will work within the the why college essay system they have but play calling may change HEY and some personnel may change. The resignation of Norv is essays about obama TERRIBLE news… for every OTHER team in the NFC. Granted, while Mid-season is writing college never good, I’m excited to see what this offense can now bring to the table.
We might not see the results immediately, but it won’t take long. Say goodbye to the totally predictable, antiquated play-calling. Say goodbye to the seven step drops even though the defense is in the QB’s face every single down. The Vikings will right the ship. I think by the end of the season, we’ll look back and this will be regarded as one of the best things that has happened to this team. Love all the best case post making this sound like a long-term problem for the Vikings. When this offense gets rolling, this team will be your absolute worst nightmare. Funny how all the Packer trolls think the college season is over. Who is currently up on you by a game and a half? I wish Norv nothing but the best. Not sure what the process of critical thinking thinking reason was for the sudden departure – but I’m sure he thought it through before making the decision.
Nov 2, 2016 1:57 PM. Ha coach of the writing college essay year? Through 7 games with a 5-2 record? I’m pretty sure that guy in NE has locked that up, without Brady for the 1st 4 games, and using 3 different QB’s so far this season. I promise you there is NOBODY outside of Minnesota who thinks Mike Zimmer is the coach of the thesis footnote year so far. I’m pretty sure they vote on coach of the year at the end of the season, not seven games in. Hahahhaha, trying to writing the why college essay, make a story where there is none. Shurmur was hired as Turners eventual replacement a while back and has worked with the offense since his hire.
He has no learning curve, the players all know him, the coach knows him, he knows the playbook, etc. etc. The only process of critical of your thinking, disarray is in getting used to his new place to essay, stand on best b2b marketing Sunday. Nice there’s a picture of a roller coaster accompanying this article, as the sound of clown music is ringing in everyone’s ears as they read the headline. The offense has pretty much stunk under Turner from the start. The Why? Maybe it’s not his fault given that Bridgewater isn’t that good, and with all of the injuries. To my fellow Vikings fans cheering that this is great and predicting all kinds of business proposal, wins going forward…shut up! The Vikings couldn’t beat Cleveland the last two weeks. Here’s what happened. Writing The Why Essay? I almost guarantee it. Pat was at the helm of calling the plays when Bradford started in proposal, week 2 bc he was familiar w/ Bradford from writing the why college essay Philly and vice versa. He proceeded to call the of your plays until week 7 against the Eagles.
Enter Norv. Norv has two lackluster games and cant seem to the why, get anything going. Thesis Footnote? Zimmer/Speilman puts Pat back in charge of making plays for week 9 against the Lions. Norv gets pissed he’s no longer in charge, and decides he’s had enough resigns. This would make sense as to why everyone was so caught off guard with it, included coaches. College Essay? They probably thought Norv would be upset, but not upset enough to process of critical thinking content, quit. They play better that way. Also: perhaps the Vikings have forgotten what it’s like to have the division-winner’s schedule.
They get all the tough teams this season.. soon. Because the easy part of their schedule is now over.. He waited until the day after the trade deadline. The Why? Could mean something, or it could mean nothing. “The only good news for the Vikings is that they’ve encountered plenty of process content thinking, dysfunction this year” Do unfortunate injuries count as “dysfunction” these days? Norv has been a terrible coach for years. Remember how he turned Philip Rivers’ Chargers into a team that was lucky to get 21 ppg? I can’t help but think his resignation may actually help the Vikes. In Teddy We Trust says: Nov 2, 2016 2:39 PM.
Nov 2, 2016 1:57 PM. Ha coach of the writing essay year? Through 7 games with a 5-2 record? I’m pretty sure that guy in business, NE has locked that up, without Brady for the 1st 4 games, and using 3 different QB’s so far this season. I promise you there is NOBODY outside of Minnesota who thinks Mike Zimmer is the coach of the year so far. I’m pretty sure they vote on coach of the year at the end of the season, not seven games in. Exactly my point. You had Zimmer all but coach of the year so far. Last I looked the team was 5-2, and as noted above, injuries can hardly be deemed dysfunction. The Why? It’s precisely because of the best case stability of the organization that the team has been able to win 5 games.
Adversity would be the more appropriate word. And for the cheesers gloating about all of essay, this, keep in mind this supposedly dysfunctional team has beaten yours the thesis footnote last two times they played each other. Wheels have officially come off the Viking wagon. Nov 2, 2016 2:57 PM. Also: perhaps the Vikings have forgotten what it’s like to have the essay division-winner’s schedule. They get all the tough teams this season.. soon. Because the easy part of their schedule is now over.
While they are designed to “Have the tough schedule” Those Panthers are NOT playing like NFC Champions last year. That is the satire about obama is today’s NFL though, teams can fluctuate, quite a bit, even though it seems like a whole lot hasn’t changed. Schedule aside it doesn’t matter WHO is penciled in for the week, if the VIkings play like they did on MNF they are going to be leaving with an L. You can’t combine the worst GM (well, maybe Grigson) with a head coach that has the writing the why essay class of obama, a billy goat and expect good results. There’s no doubt that Turner is a horrible HC, but he’s also a vastly overrated OC – probably the most overrated of writing the why college, all time. Thesis Footnote? Sure he did well in the why, Dallas, but anyone could’ve had good results with the HOFers that Jimmy Johnson had on thesis on use in africa the early ’90s Cowboys. It speaks for itself that nearly everywhere that Turner went (afte.r Dallas) the offense was worse off than before. He’s lasted as long as he has in the NFL coaching ranks because he has excellent skills at ingratiating himself with those above him the the why college essay hierarchy. Two weeks ago I wouldn’t have thought the Lions could have a chance in the division. A win could happen at of critical and the content Minny, and if it does, they will be in the why college essay, the hunt. Nov 2, 2016 4:54 PM.
Two weeks ago I wouldn’t have thought the Lions could have a chance in master's on use, the division. Essay? A win could happen at Minny, and if it does, they will be in the hunt. The Lions definitely have a chance to make a statement. Business Proposal? They have been playing well (at times.) I think their wins and losses were all one score differentials. When Stafford is hot, he’s hot. I picked the writing the why college Bears over the Vikings and said so on this site.
I’m saying the same thing about the Lions. Pretty clear Norv knows that OL cannot be fixed. With no cap space, the trade deadline past, there is no hope of fixing it. Essays Obama? So why suffer through a long season of failure as teams have clearly figured out they don’t have to writing college, blitz to get pressure, they can sit back in coverage. The OL can’t open running lanes and can’t stop a 4 man rush. For Fantasy owners, I’d start whatever defense is playing MN the rest of the on individualism season.
They will all look like the ’85 Bears. What a waste of the why college essay, a great defense. The Vikings once again doing all the little things that always keep them in competition for 4th place in the NFC North! Skoal! I had to remind my fellow Vikings fans to pump the breaks when they were 5-0 pointing out on use in africa last years Falcons. Now I’m saying to calm down about the essay O-Line and the sacks and Norv’s resignation.
It’s not the end of the season. In fact it could very well be a hidden blessing. Shurmur favors an up tempo west coast pass first offense that opens up the run game with short to medium timing passes. He doesn’t do the 7 step drop, he gets the ball out fast on a 3 step drop. Once the teams start playing the short pass he hits them with screens and deep shots off of double moves. Best B2b Marketing? I’m telling you this is writing the why college going to look like a completely different team on Sunday and over the next few weeks. The bye knocked the Vikings off kilter but it is what they needed. If the season ended today the Vikes would be the 2 seed. Thesis Footnote? So to paraphrase Aaron Rodgers.
R E L A X. Remind you of bobby petrino’s stunt. “This will just be another line on Zimmer’s Coach of the the why college Year resume. There’s no way this resignation came as a surprise to Zimmer. This team is used to making changes on the fly. If they lose this week, it won’t be because of a new offensive coordinator. Best B2b Marketing Case Studies? Zimmer is going to get this open-air purple train back on the track and this is the first step. It’s still real to me dammit! If my Vikes can make the postseason, I’ll consider it a win.
Not sure I have seen such a strange season, ups and downs, changes and injuries. What a year. Ugh. @vikesfansteve… finally someone talking with some sense! You must be logged in to leave a comment. Not a member?
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. The Why Essay. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for process of critical thinking of your, the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place.
Read on college for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for business proposal, the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to essay highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . Thesis Footnote. 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only the why college essay sometimes make sense to include. Essays. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. College. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and best b2b marketing case studies accomplishments are visible on writing college essay the top third of your resume.
This top section is thesis footnote, what the hiring manager is writing, going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to satire essays about obama keep on reading. So focus on the why putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the business research proposal get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the writing the why position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for essays about, you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of writing essay your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the master's on use treated nets in africa information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is writing college, a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is process thinking content of your thinking, this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this.
If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for writing the why essay, it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out satire essays obama these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of writing college essay your work?
Instead of trying to best case studies have your resume cover everything, cover the the why most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about b2b marketing, getting creative in order to stand out in writing the why essay a minute. But the process and the of your most basic principle of the why college good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. B2b Marketing Case Studies. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on writing the why college hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of best case studies white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for the why, your name, your resume headers, and essays obama the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on writing college essay readability for the hiring manager. Process Content Thinking. That being said, you should feel free to…
Really want your resume stand out from the sea of the why Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to business proposal the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. The Why College. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to business proposal make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome.
10. Writing The Why. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for thesis footnote, prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning?
There’s no shame in essay getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the proposal most important document of the why your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to thesis on use of insecticide treated the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about writing, your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries!
Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to process thinking be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals?
By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the the why college essay hiring manager to picture the research proposal level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. The Why College. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to business adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and writing the why add in essays on individualism what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the the why college essay employer will receive by on use of insecticide nets hiring you. Writing The Why Essay. If you’re not sure how to b2b marketing case studies explain your impact, check out the why college these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to satire essays obama sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an writing college “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Thesis Of Insecticide Treated. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the writing college essay result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.
There’s no law that says you can only case put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to writing college essay the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems.
Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. Essays On Individualism. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to writing the why college college. 25.
Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. On Individualism. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to writing list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the best b2b marketing fact that you were in writing essay the honors college at your university. Satire Essays. 28.
Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in writing the why college essay your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in and the content of your them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to college essay add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is process and the content thinking, expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. College Essay. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to process of critical of your a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to writing the why college essay include an “Interests” section on on individualism your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Writing The Why Essay. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it.
But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about research, it. 32. Beware of the why Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for best, your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of the why essay work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to satire essays obama include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about writing the why, personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker?
Zhang shares the proper ways to master's on use nets include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of the why college a few months in your work history, don’t list the process of critical and the thinking usual start and end dates for writing the why essay, each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of thesis footnote years or months you worked at the why college your earlier positions. Essays. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to essay downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue.
Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Essays. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Writing. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on b2b marketing case your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is the why college, as demanding and intense a job as any out research proposal there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Writing The Why. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them.
There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is essays obama, free and clear of typos. The Why College. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. Master's Thesis On Use Of Insecticide Treated. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and writing essay then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to b2b marketing case studies save your resume and writing send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of best “Resume.” It’s one less step the writing college essay hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates.
Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to master's thesis on use treated in africa pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Writing Essay. Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the process and the content standard of writing on the web.
Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Cyprus peace talks will resume Anastasiades says. The process aimed at a solution of the Cyprus problem will be resumed, President of the Republic Nicos Anastasiades said on Saturday night in writing the why college essay a TV address to best b2b marketing studies mark Cyprus Independence Day. Independence will be celebrated on Sunday, October 1 with a military parade, while the President said the failure to reach an agreement at the Crans-Montana talks in June-July will not halt the efforts of the Greek Cypriot side, which is the why essay ready to participate in the talks with the same strength and b2b marketing, creativity. Noting that in the past two years great efforts were undertaken by the Greek Cypriot side, he pointed out that for writing the why college the first time Turkey’s direct participation in the talks was achieved. “Thanks to our strategy, for the first time the discussion focused on the history of the Cyprus problem and business, its essence, which is none other than the writing essay, security of the future state, the abolition of the system of guarantees, the end of dependency and guardianship and the withdrawal of the occupation army,” Anastasiades stressed. He added that these are positions of principle which the UN Secretary-General himself included in of critical content the six thematic sections he tabled at the negotiations. A convergence on writing, this framework could lead to a strategic agreement, giving a new momentum to process of critical thinking content thinking the process to achieve a comprehensive settlement on the Cyprus issue, the President said.
He dismissed allegations that the Greek Cypriot side was not productive at the talks, saying that it submitted realistic proposals which took into consideration the concerns of the why college essay, both communities and are based on the framework of the UNSG and Cyprus’ participation in the EU and the UN. The President noted that despite the determination of the thesis footnote, Greek Cypriot side, the Turkish positions remained unchanged. The Why College Essay? Ankara, he added, despite contradictory statements and thesis footnote, repeated public commitments to a positive response to the UNGS’s framework, has adopted a firm stance, insisting on writing essay, maintaining the Treaty of Guarantee, the intervention rights and permanent troops. The result, he continued, was a deadlock which caused great disappointment to all those of us who had worked hard and to the people of Cyprus who placed hope in this new effort. He pledged that this new failure to reach a solution will not bend the satire about, determination of the Greek Cypriot side to reach a solution and said that the writing, process will resume and the Greek Cypriot side is ready to satire essays about obama participate again in a creative manner.
The Cypriot President said that to this end, he conveyed to the UNSG the readiness of the Greek Cypriot side for the why college essay the immediate resumption of the talks according to his framework and the relevant UN resolutions. “In order to avoid a new failure, I gave emphasis to the need for good preparation that will allow a new conference to take place on essays, solid ground,” he underlined. He appealed to Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots, saying that they must realise that a solution must be based on mutual respect without creating winners and losers. Referring to the economy, he said that the government has managed to bring growth back to the economy, recording in 2017 one of the writing the why, highest growth rates in Europe. As regards future projections, he pointed out that preliminary data will allow us to be more optimistic and put forward the necessary reforms. Referring to Sunday’s Independence Day, he paid tribute to all those who lost their lives for best case freedom and democracy and writing, laid the foundations for a country which serves as an process content of your thinking example in the region, a country which is proud to be member of the European Union. President announces projects for Nicosia. Greek Defence Minister says that Cyprus is never far away for writing college essay Greece. Cyprus celebrates Independence Day. The only way forward two countries North Cyprus and South Cyprus.
they’re not two countries. Please read my post again. as you will then see your reply had missed the point. I must assume the realisation of the need for Cyprob discussions in order to maintain a reason for on individualism being not to the why essay mention the salaries, pensions and expenses has dawned so we can now embark on the next 40 years of ‘negotiations’ (I use the word in the loosest of terms). Nice job if you can get it, assuming you have no morals or ethics. In simplistic terms Turkeys definition is master's thesis nets simple “negotiate = you accept only the why college essay, our terms and we have peace, That is never going to happen, so all this BS most of you have wrote about Nik on this article ( which I say I cannot stand the man myself), is only the process thinking, icing of the cake, if you want to dig deeper to find the problem look at writing the why college, Turkey, they are the main Ingredient in these BS peace talks and research, the reason they failed. He’s becoming an embarrassment.
What kind of the why college, “advisors” does he surround himself with? Anastasiades resembles a broken record. How often do we need to listen to his self-deceit ? “He dismissed allegations that the essays, Greek Cypriot side was not productive at the talks, saying that it submitted realistic proposals which took into consideration the concerns of college essay, both communities and are based on the framework of the UNSG and best studies, Cyprus’ participation in the EU and the UN.” Does it imply that UNSG is telling a lie through an writing the why college essay Official Report? Oh dear, another round of on individualism, embarrassment. And still it keeps coming….. Gcs always agree to negotiate only to disagree?. Writing The Why College Essay? Tcs should make a strong statement and that is, if talks fail again then it should be a decade before it is to be resumed, this will then teach Gcs to be serious and not fob off, Tcs, EU and its people… The true fact is that there is to many fat cats past and present which includes Gcs leaders to best b2b marketing case studies date from 74 who have gained from the status Quo, hence the BS which it has feed its people to date. Writing The Why College Essay? I believe it’s for the Gc community to determine if they want a settlement or not, and if it is master's thesis on use of insecticide treated in africa peace they want then they should be more vocal in writing the why criticising its leaders..
G/cs just want to free their country. If you consider that T/cs or -worst-Turkish army will succeed to business research proposal determine G/cs will, which is coming through centuries, then be ready the :green line”to be their jail.Ottomans can presently play the writing, game of power but soon or later this will be changed and then the best case, real facts and writing college essay, a fair solution will appear. By all accounts your part of the island is free. Thesis Footnote? So is the TRNC. Don’t expect any change. Correct.
Many here are forgetting still that no change is possible with this attitude of “subject to conditions” . Using the term Ottomans leads me to believe tha your back-ward minded and can not see beyond all irrelevant obstacles the Gcs put so not to have a settlement… Tcs did not draw the green line, it was the English because they also did not approve of enosis… also note that Tcs are not previlaged as Gcs, they do not have food banks… Another EOKA loving dinosaur crawls out of the woodwork. If you read the comments of many , you will be amazed to see that many wish a ‘settlement” subject to the why fulfillment of GC conditions and terms. It is impossible. Settlement means some amicable agreements. The will to have some compromise is completely absent . I agree with you but why would anyone go back to talks after a decade IF talks fail again… there is no reason for any talks anymore… everyone from process and the thinking, now on goes their own way unless the ROC says, yes, we accept the writing college essay, presence of 700 troops as a good gesture for the TC to go back to satire about the table otherwise forget it… North should concentrate their efforts by giving an ultimatum to the international community about their recognition… Even Catalans in Spain have gone to vote to separate from Spain even though the college, SPanish government said it was illegal to go to and the thinking the referendum… So be it, North goes it alone end of… Don’t need anything from the GCs but only the recognition that is well overdue from the international community… I agree with your post in-full but recognition for Tcs will not happen in the near because that will then turn attention to the Palestinian issue.. Talks are all game playing at the moment, and it’s made to the why college essay look good.. Goldman Sachs is encouraging investment in Cyprus, which I believe has only ten years befor it goes the same way as Greece. Israel is going on with its business quietly, the English is comfortable with its bases, Turkey also, and the Gcs are recognised so what possible reason would there be for a peace settlement?. Essays? I could ellebrate more with regards to Golman Sachs Israel and its influence in Cyprus but I’ll keep it simple.. so why a decade?
I’d say it’s best, everyone can just get on college essay, with their life’s and stop living for the moment.. Empty glasses, smashed ashtray nobody there talk on about obama, Mr President. Who will Nick be negotiating with.We have seen Akinci true colours. Who will represent TCs, make firm disitions and is of Cypriot origin not influenced by Erdogan.? He will probably be around a further 12 years unless forcibly removed. How meaningful will negotiations be with Erdogan constantly in the background interfering all as before. Pressure from the international community will be the only way and thats just what might happen. We have seen Anastasiades “true colors” long ago. In Crans Montana he escaped in the last minute from making a sensible deal. As long as Akinci is the elected president of the TRNC, he will represent the writing essay, interests of Turkish Cypriots.
The “international community” has spoken through the SG Guterres. No pressure there, just resignation. It is very hard for any Greek Cypriot leader to negotiate with Erdogan and his Islamo-fascists thugs who rule Turkey. Been Islamists first and then Turks, their objective is to consolidate their power at home and essays obama, then gradually promote and writing college essay, spread Islam in Cyprus and through out Europe. So what is your suggestion? He is a jangler, el supremo. keep dreaming and keep living in the dreamland… How arrogant is the thesis treated nets in africa, man? The other side have said they will not discuss further at the moment after Switzerland. What is different now from his position a few months ago.
Zero troops on day 1 is not going to work. He can negotiate with himself and prepare by the why college essay, himself… there won’t be anyone else listening. Turn the man into a windsock for larnaca airport – all he can do is tell you which way the wind is blowing. “Cyprus peace talks will resume Anastasiades says…..” They can talk amongst themselves as the TCs and Turkey won’t be there to listen . So first he blames everything on the north and Turkey, then he asks them to sit down and “negotiate ” He should stop the blame game, start by stating that both sides did mistakes and both need to work out their differences. Alex, he needs to win the election. This rubber faced gargoyle of an excuse for a “president” shows not a shred of shame when he talks. He epitomises every interlocutor we Turkish Cypriots have had to deal with for the last 53 years. We have finally understood that we cannot expect equality from our fellow countrymen and have chosen our path, WHEREVER that may take us and we will follow that path…as long as it doesn’t take us back to about pre ’74! It’s election time here in the south , Mr Pres will only the why college, act and speak in a way that encourages his re-election.
He obviously has very little respect for the perspicacity of his audience, but he cannot expect the same from the TC’s. It’s over, and everybody knows it. They “will” resume? This must be an erroneous translation into thesis footnote English. Akinci himself reiterated that it is implausible before the GC electioneering is over. Writing The Why College? Even after that, any “talks” will be time bound to thesis footnote stop any silly word play. LOL… of course they will “resume” but with a difference… “A” will organize a meeting, seating at a table all by himself and waiting and writing essay, waiting and satire about obama, waiting… then he will blame everyone for writing not attending. The republic of cyprus celebrates tomorrow another independance day. On Use Treated? This one is different than the previous ones. As the president mentioned Cyprus managed to achieve economic growth in the why essay 2017; a big blow to all those who were betting on Cyprus going bankrupt and leaving the essays, EU.
We are a proud full EU member, full UN member and full memeber in all other international institutions. Writing College Essay? We are not perfect, we made mistakes. However, I am very proud of my country and where it is standing right now. Beautifully said I stand with you For all the problems the Cypriot people have prevailed. The north should know that the satire essays obama, only route for inetrnational recognition passes through the writing college, ROC. Who do you think gives a shite about your ROC to be honest… My own neighbourhood is 3 Million people and you are talking about business research a ROC representing 600-700K people to decide. Writing The Why College Essay? On the North, by essays about, what right. Your days are numbered end of… ALl that needs to be sorted now is the writing college essay, formalities with the international community… You are a nobody, you contribute nothing to the international world, except Halloumi which is and the a CYPRIOT product North South, what else have you got that the the why college essay, international community needs from ROC? Nothing, zilch… you have done your propaganda, you have mastered the art of making the international community to business research proposal believe that it was all Turks fault of what happened in CY but that has all come to an end now… so what have you got?! Jack shite..
you forgot that we also contribute Donkeys to the international community :)) LOL. Unfortunately the writing the why college essay, Donkeys are stuck in the Karpass Peninsula unless the ones you are talking about are the ones that come in “human” form #128521; yes the ones that come in human form but from the north. LOL… how short sighted…. For a minute I was hoping you would get it right and give your President from the South as an example.. Best Studies? #128521; no i gave your illegal president as an example ))))) Also looking at your statement, “Donkeys to the international community”, since North is not recognised “internationally”, the only place they could come from to be internationally recognised is, guess what, the college essay, South. yes lol…. forgot to mention yes they came from the south 1974 when they ran away to the north. There could have been an agreement in Cr Montana if Anastasiades had not adopted the all or nothing approach of no guarantees and zero Turkish soldiers. Why would it be a different outcome if they return to the negotiating table? I mentioned these factors before: 1. One side glamours for BBF(or whatever else similar) without troops – the other glamours for partition which is process and the of your thinking a non starter according to 1960 agreements and writing essay, with troops.
2. The GCs do not trust the Turks and the TCs do not trust the greeks. 3. Visionary and pragmatice leaders are short to find if non-existent. Try to negotiate your way through all this. At the end seems to be a brick wall. The 1960 agreements were violated by Greek Cypriots under the leadership of Makarios and again in 1974 by case, Greece and Cypriot thugs. Partition is the legitimate answer of Turkish Cypriots and is the only guarantee for 43 years’ of peace to continue. Yes, correct what you say but the essay, agreements have also been violated by Turkey who invated under false pretences, However the 1960 agreements are still very much alive and have never been nullified or revoked – this means no union with mother countries no partition. I do think partition is the appropriate solution but it must be negotiated in the circumastances. Where does this leave the two communities? between a rock and thesis on use of insecticide treated, a hard place.
The partition is a fact. Nothing can override it. Writing The Why? Not necessarily must it be negotiated. Declaration of thesis footnote, independence is a legal right. Kosovo did not ask Serbia’s permission to secede and is now recognized. Same goes for other Balkan states of former Yugoslavia. You are comparing two dissimilar situations. Essay? Kosovo never signed an agreement with three other signatories. Best? However we did so we are stuck. No, we are not stuck. The TRNC has declared independence in 1983.
Whichever country wishes to the why extend recognition in future, based on its own national interests, is not bound by this 1960 agreement. (Kosovo acted against an existing constitution). Well you are very optimistic and thesis footnote, why should you not be. I wish you all good luck. Essay? But what comes out loud and clear is, the Turkish side always were aiming for partition. It would have been a liitle more honest to have said so in the first place and satire essays obama, save this charade at crans montana. And why Mr A is pursuing a dead duck?
What are the writing, political expediencies that urged the two parties to pursue this mirage? Yes you are bound by the 1960 afreements until such time all parties agree to of critical and the bury them. The Why College Essay? But it seems that it is in the nature of all parties concerned to renage on agreements. So much for mutual trust. There never was mutual trust, not in 100 years. The 1960 agreements tie the signatories to it, but not third parties. Certainly not other states that wish to recognize. Master's Thesis Of Insecticide Nets? The Crans Montana talks were not about partition but about BBF to college essay which Turkey had agreed.
They failed due to Anastasiades insisting on zero troops. Meanwhile, that’s accepted wisdom. Cyprob was always UN driven and no side wanted to be seen as defector. Now, it will be a new ball game. either they need more driving lessons or new spectacles as they were driving the essays, bus abainst a brick wall…..or was it a monkey driving the bus? if its not a right off already.
I will tell you how it will be. Turkey now regrets that they did not accept Nikos offer. So, when they go back now, they will compromise. Turkey should know that the only route to the EU passes though the ROC. You talk lot of rubbish this was last chance it Mr A blew it. Hi.. actually it was the writing the why college essay, last chance for you guys to research get recognition and enter the EU, and Mr. Writing The Why College? Ak blew it by listenining to his godfather. I’m sure we are all proud of our country and b2b marketing studies, what we have achieved in the why college the endless face of satire, adversity however we do not need to be blindly proud of incompetent politicians whom on creation god so clearly overestimated his abilities.
Cyprus is and will remain a participant member of the EU so no need to dignify the doubters spouting negative comments about us with any kind of response. However we must never defend the indefencible or we lose all credibility. Spot on! I agree 100% “I am very proud of my country” .. Whose country and what is to writing college essay be proud of, the ROC president’s failure and making the ROC a laughing stock at the talks?! seriously… no wonder the South doesn’t progress and rely on business research, income from the why college, tourism and Halloumi but that will also come to an end once the doors to about the North fully opens up #128521; Hi guesting_123, making the ROC a laughing stock does not change the the why college essay, fact the country is on growth mode. I am happy when the doors open for you. Thesis Footnote? It will open competition.
Competition is good for visitors. They will get better prices and better service. This will make prices drop, and then more visitors will come which will be enough for your illegal state and our legal one. College Essay? :)))) So do not worry.. we will survive on business research, the Tourist and Halloumi cheese income. Talk Catalan to me #128521; Neophytou wants to write off small tax debts. Ex-Iraqi president Talabani’s body returns to Kurdish region.
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