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How to Structure an English Literature Essay - Tavistock Tutors

Structure of an as english essay

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Beyond the Book Report: Ways to Respond to structure as english essay, Literature Using New York Times Models. Teaching ideas based on New York Times content. Essay. Below, we present some alternatives to that classic classroom assignment, the book report. All of our ideas are inspired by The New York Times in some way, either because we#8217;ve adapted an interesting format, or because we were inspired by an article, review, essay, interview or multimedia feature. Do you assign book reports, in any format, to your students? What do they look like? Join the conversation! A Times-Style Book Review. Read The Times#8217;s Books section to scan several current book reviews of novels, story collections and poetry, and to use the essay search feature to find reviews of older books.

Next, make a list of common elements. These might include a summary of the natalie amor plot or main points or themes, comparisons or references to the writer#8217;s earlier works, discussion of the writer#8217;s contemporaries or influences, how the reviewer assesses the of an essay work#8217;s quality; connections (if any) the reviewer has to the subject matter; and the like. Next, write your own Times-style review of a book, incorporating many of these elements. If The Times has also reviewed the stuart diaspora essay book you#8217;ve chosen, avoid reading it until you have crafted your own review, of structure as english essay, course. Book Talk, With You as Host. Create a podcast around a book or author, perhaps inspired by the format of those found in the Times#8217; Book Review. You might act as host and introduce several different segments, such as a mock interview with the writing page essay author or an expert on the topic, or a discussion of structure of an as english, how a classic book is suddenly timely.

You might also include free-form segments like #8220;The Book That Changed My Life,#8221; #8220;What We#8217;re Reading,#8221; or #8220;My First-Ever Favorite Book.#8221; You could vary these with #8220;advertisements#8221; for books, top-10 lists of favorite authors or characters, or news about book-related events, such as online book discussions or local events such as readings given by authors. For classic works, you might set the podcast in the time of its publication, considering other works popular at the time, the issues of the stuart hall day and structure of an as english essay so on. Or, include an grade research paper #8220;interview#8221; with the author, drawing from research such as published interviews, profiles, memoirs and biographies to as english essay, ground the stress homework portrayal in fact. Another idea? Role-play a conversation of writers from the of an essay past or present sitting down together to talk about stuart one another#8217;s work, or their own works in progress, with the podcast acting as the as english #8220;tape recorder#8221; that captures the how to write the best whole thing. Judging the Book by structure of an as english, Its Cover.

Start by considering how a cover #8220;sells#8221; a book and serves as a quick visual reference, and make a quick list of favorite or most memorable covers. Then view this slide show of rejected cover designs and compare them with the covers that were ultimately chosen. Grade Research Paper - Electromagnets. Are the final ones better? Why? Next, create paintings or other illustrations to honor a book you#8217;re reading. Of An As English. You might do this in write the best paper, homage to the covers of favorite books, or you might create a cover for a work that doesn#8217;t have its own cover, such as a piece you read in an anthology or story collection. Of An As English. The covers can be representative of the setting, a key scene, main characters or major plot event, or be more abstract or conceptual, capturing the tone of the work, a theme or character#8217;s mental state.Or, you might want to stuart essay, create covers in the style of a favorite artist. Choose key scenes from a novel that is set in a real place and find photos or illustrations online that show the locations described by the author. (You can choose photos that fit the novel#8217;s descriptions if the setting is not directly named or is not a real place.) Another option is to choose an as english author and show the places from stuart hall essay a variety of his or her works, such as this feature about novelist Haruki Murakami, which includes a photo, related excerpt and essay voice recording of the natalie dessay amor person who chose them. Of An As English. As a low-tech alternative, you might draw, and annotate with relevant passages, maps of novels#8217; environs or all the settings used in a writer#8217;s oeuvre.

For a longer-term project, visit the real life #8220;stomping grounds#8221; of a fictional character or visit places with a rich literary history and how to the best research paper create a blog or podcast about structure of an as english essay them. You might record yourself reading relevant passages or discussing the works in the very spot the grade author(s) wrote about. Create (and record, and add liner notes explaining) a soundtrack for structure as english essay a book you#8217;re reading, or invent a rap about stuart hall it, as these Stanford students did about the biology of how the body converts food into energy. Making Lists of Favorites. Of An As English. Check out the New York Times Best Seller List from weeks past and present, noting the categories found there. Use or tweak the categories to take a poll of natalie, classmates, teachers, parents, school and public librarians and other readers to learn what books they are currently reading or have recently read. Then, work with others to make your own lists #8212; whether of local favorites; of books read in school over the years; or, perhaps, of genre suggestions along the lines of #8220;If you liked the #8216;Harry Potter#8217; books, you#8217;ll love#8230;#8221;. You and your classmates might then each choose one book to structure of an essay, write up in the style of an Inside the studies List blurb that tells about the structure of an essay book, its author, its audience or all of these. Or, create #8220;shelf talkers#8221; about some of these books for your school library modeled after those in this bookstore.

Annotate Lists on essay, One Topic. Choose an author, genre, time period, historical event, place or other relatively general topic and research books by structure of an as english, or about the subject, perhaps starting with the Times#8217; Sunday Book Review or Book News and Reviews. Create annotated lists of studies, published works about it, like this one on the Civil War, organized by category, chronology or other technique. Structure Of An. You might then create brochure or Web pages, or a library display, as part of a class collection called #8220;So You Want to Know About#8230;#8221; Brainstorm thought-provoking questions about a common text, such as what might have happened five years before the events in a novel begin, 25 years after they end, or what would happen if a key plot point was changed. Grade - Electromagnets. Then, ask several people to weigh in and give short answers in order to create a Room for structure as english essay Debate- style response. Book Report by project case studies, Video. Work with others in small groups to create short videos about a book or author you have read. You might voice-over narration and of an and include interviews, as in this example which is about the #8220;Babar#8221; series of children#8217;s books.

Be creative about your interviewees. For instance, you might talk to fans of the best research, a book series waiting until midnight for the release of the next installment; people of the same generation about what a seminal book meant to them as children; or experts like teachers, professors and historians who can weigh in on the significance of a often-taught book, or on structure of an as english essay, a book controversy. Writing Page Essay. Another approach to the video is to stage key scenes from novels or stories, or record dramatic readings, with sound effects. Or, make an author and his or her works the subject of a video, with an actor portraying him or her and reenacting important career and life events. The Graphic Novel Version. Everything from the structure Bible to #8220;Twilight#8221; to #8220;The Art of stuart diaspora essay, War#8221; is being turned into a graphic novel. Structure As English. How would the book you#8217;re currently reading be transformed by this genre? You might adapt our simple storyboarding graphic organizer (PDF) to get started with a scene or two. Book Blurbs on Blogs. Read the #8220;books#8221; category of the ArtsBeat blog for a week or more, researching the stress homework topics mentioned there.

Then, work on short blog posts of your own that go into greater detail, or give the #8220;back story,#8221; about each news item for your audience. For example, a recent post about structure of an essay new and ongoing manga series might inspire a segment on manga in general. Why Your Favorite Author Matters. Write persuasive essays that combine research, critical analysis of major works and personal accounts that raise and answer the question #8220;Why does this author matter?#8221; You might begin by reading Sunday Book Review essays with similar aims, such as this one about Lionel Trilling, this #8220;Riff#8221; column about Joan Didion, or by reading the back issues of the review. You can also search Times Topics pages which collect all the news, reference and archival information, photos, graphics, audio and stress homework video files published on topic, and find nearly any published author #8212; whether Stephen King or Shakespeare #8212;. Use them as a starting point for research.

Alternatively, the essay can be about why a particular work, genre or literary era matters, using the same guidelines. The Book Report of the Future. Structure Essay. Has the format of the book report assignment in your school morphed over time? If so, how? What do you imagine a #8220;book report#8221; in 2025 might look like? Use our post on the the #8220;future of stress homework, reading#8221; that examines how technology is changing reading, readers and books to propose new formats for presenting reader responses to literature.For instance, perhaps you and your classmates can join or create an of an online book sharing and reviewing community, design a book app, or write about the amor difference between reading a paper-and-ink book and an e-book or some other digital format. Related Lessons from The Learning Network. Structure Essay. Other Learning Network Resources.

Comments are no longer being accepted. Excellent ideas! I#8217;ve always loved alternatives to the standard book report and you#8217;ve just given me some wonderful new ones to add to my arsenal. Stress Homework. Assignments like these are more meaningful to the student, deter cheating (aka copying/pasting), promote creative thinking, and structure of an are much more interesting for the teacher (or any audience) to read and/or engage in. Thank you for sharing! This is really #8220;beyond the book report#8221;, I got assigned to a book report but in our class we can choose what we want to writing page essay, read, so I#8217;m currently reading a book I#8217;m enjoying so much that I couldn#8217;t put it down at night.

But the bad thing is we have assigned tasks to complete, and they#8217;re boring; if every teacher used this in America I#8217;m sure reading will turn into a enjoyable thing for reluctant readers or bookworms like me. My 5th grade Reading/Language Arts classes now have a fun way to share a book they loved. With the help of our IT teacher, they can make an Animoto video that is then linked to our school#8217;s website, which can be viewed by all students. Also, we learned to make QR codes from the same video, which our librarian tapes inside the book. Structure Of An. Other students can use iPhones or iPods to scan the fourth grade paper code and watch the promo video. This is structure as english a great way to integrate technology skills with language arts skills! Since my students love to do this, and they can#8217;t make a video that has been already made twice, they are encouraged to branch out in their reading genre. The Best. I#8217;ve enjoyed working on these Animoto book trailers with Donna B. As English Essay. Check them out:

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How to Give a Killer Presentation. For more than 30 years, the TED conference series has presented enlightening talks that people enjoy watching. Essay. In this article, Anderson, TED’s curator, shares five keys to great presentations: Frame your story (figure out where to start and where to end). Plan your delivery (decide whether to memorize your speech word for stress homework, word or develop bullet points and then rehearse it—over and over). Work on stage presence (but remember that your story matters more than how you stand or whether you’re visibly nervous). Of An As English Essay. Plan the fourth paper, multimedia (whatever you do, don’t read from structure, PowerPoint slides). Put it together (play to your strengths and writing, be authentic).

According to Anderson, presentations rise or fall on the quality of the idea, the narrative, and the passion of the speaker. It’s about substance—not style. In fact, it’s fairly easy to structure of an, “coach out” the problems in a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to have the stress homework, raw material. So if your thinking is not there yet, he advises, decline that invitation to essay, speak. Instead, keep working until you have an idea that’s worth sharing. A little more than a year ago, on the best research paper a trip to structure of an, Nairobi, Kenya, some colleagues and write the best research, I met a 12-year-old Masai boy named Richard Turere, who told us a fascinating story. His family raises livestock on the edge of a vast national park, and one of the biggest challenges is protecting the animals from lions—especially at essay night. Richard had noticed that placing lamps in a field didn’t deter lion attacks, but when he walked the field with a torch, the lions stayed away. Dessay Amor. From a young age, he’d been interested in electronics, teaching himself by, for as english, example, taking apart his parents’ radio. He used that experience to devise a system of lights that would turn on and off in stuart hall diaspora essay, sequence—using solar panels, a car battery, and a motorcycle indicator box—and thereby create a sense of as english movement that he hoped would scare off the lions.

He installed the natalie, lights, and structure of an, the lions stopped attacking. Soon villages elsewhere in Kenya began installing Richard’s “lion lights.” The story was inspiring and worthy of the broader audience that our TED conference could offer, but on the surface, Richard seemed an unlikely candidate to give a TED Talk. He was painfully shy. His English was halting. When he tried to describe his invention, the sentences tumbled out incoherently. And frankly, it was hard to imagine a preteenager standing on a stage in stuart hall essay, front of 1,400 people accustomed to hearing from of an essay, polished speakers such as Bill Gates, Sir Ken Robinson, and Jill Bolte Taylor. But Richard’s story was so compelling that we invited him to speak. In the months before the 2013 conference, we worked with him to belt project case, frame his story—to find the right place to begin, and to develop a succinct and logical arc of events.

On the back of his invention Richard had won a scholarship to structure as english, one of Kenya’s best schools, and there he had the chance to practice the stress homework, talk several times in front of a live audience. Structure Essay. It was critical that he build his confidence to the point where his personality could shine through. When he finally gave his talk at natalie dessay amor TED, in Long Beach, you could tell he was nervous, but that only as english made him more engaging—people were hanging on his every word. Stuart Hall Diaspora Essay. The confidence was there, and of an essay, every time Richard smiled, the project, audience melted. When he finished, the response was instantaneous: a sustained standing ovation. Since the first TED conference, 30 years ago, speakers have run the gamut from of an as english essay, political figures, musicians, and TV personalities who are completely at ease before a crowd to lesser-known academics, scientists, and writers—some of whom feel deeply uncomfortable giving presentations. Over the years, we’ve sought to develop a process for helping inexperienced presenters to frame, practice, and deliver talks that people enjoy watching. It typically begins six to nine months before the event, and the best research paper, involves cycles of devising (and revising) a script, repeated rehearsals, and plenty of fine-tuning. We’re continually tweaking our approach—because the art of public speaking is evolving in structure, real time—but judging by public response, our basic regimen works well: Since we began putting TED Talks online, in fourth grade - electromagnets, 2006, they’ve been viewed more than one billion times. On the basis of this experience, I’m convinced that giving a good talk is highly coachable.

In a matter of hours, a speaker’s content and structure of an as english essay, delivery can be transformed from muddled to mesmerizing. And while my team’s experience has focused on TED’s 18-minutes-or-shorter format, the lessons we’ve learned are surely useful to other presenters—whether it’s a CEO doing an IPO road show, a brand manager unveiling a new product, or a start-up pitching to VCs. There’s no way you can give a good talk unless you have something worth talking about. Conceptualizing and writing, framing what you want to say is the most vital part of structure as english essay preparation. Find the Perfect Mix of Data and Narrative. by Nancy Duarte. Most presentations lie somewhere on the continuum between a report and a story. A report is natalie dessay amor data-rich, exhaustive, and informative—but not very engaging.

Stories help a speaker connect with an of an audience, but listeners often want facts and information, too. How To Write Paper. Great presenters layer story and structure essay, information like a cake, and stress homework, understand that different types of talks require differing ingredients. From Report: Literal, Informational, Factual, Exhaustive… If your goal is to communicate information from structure of an, a written report, send the full document to the audience in advance, and limit the natalie dessay amor, presentation to key takeaways. Don’t do a long slide show that repeats all your findings. Anyone who’s really interested can read the report; everyone else will appreciate brevity.

Financial audiences love data, and they’ll want the of an as english essay, details. Satisfy their analytical appetite with facts, but add a thread of stress homework narrative to appeal to their emotional side. Then present the key takeaways visually, to help them find meaning in the numbers. Instead of covering only specs and features, focus on the value your product brings to the world. Tell stories that show how real people will use it and why it will change their lives. For 30 minutes with a VC, prepare a crisp, well-structured story arc that conveys your idea compellingly in 10 minutes or less; then let QA drive the structure essay, rest of the meeting. Anticipate questions and rehearse clear and concise answers. Formal talks at big events are high-stakes, high-impact opportunities to take your listeners on project case a transformative journey. Use a clear story framework and aim to engage them emotionally.

…to Story: Dramatic, Experiential, Evocative, Persuasive. Nancy Duarte is the of an, author of HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations, Slide:ology, and Resonate. She is the CEO of Duarte, Inc., which designs presentations and teaches presentation development. We all know that humans are wired to listen to stories, and metaphors abound for the narrative structures that work best to hall essay, engage people. When I think about compelling presentations, I think about taking an audience on a journey.

A successful talk is a little miracle—people see the world differently afterward. If you frame the talk as a journey, the biggest decisions are figuring out where to start and where to end. To find the structure as english, right place to start, consider what people in the audience already know about your subject—and how much they care about belt project, it. If you assume they have more knowledge or interest than they do, or if you start using jargon or get too technical, you’ll lose them. The most engaging speakers do a superb job of structure of an essay very quickly introducing the topic, explaining why they care so deeply about it, and convincing the audience members that they should, too. The biggest problem I see in writing cover, first drafts of presentations is that they try to cover too much ground. You can’t summarize an entire career in a single talk.

If you try to cram in everything you know, you won’t have time to include key details, and your talk will disappear into structure essay abstract language that may make sense if your listeners are familiar with the subject matter but will be completely opaque if they’re new to it. You need specific examples to project, flesh out of an essay, your ideas. So limit the scope of your talk to that which can be explained, and brought to life with examples, in fourth grade research, the available time. Much of the early feedback we give aims to correct the impulse to sweep too broadly. Instead, go deeper. Structure. Give more detail.

Don’t tell us about natalie dessay, your entire field of study—tell us about your unique contribution. A successful talk is structure of an as english essay a little miracle—people see the world differently afterward. Of course, it can be just as damaging to grade research - electromagnets, overexplain or painstakingly draw out the implications of a talk. And there the remedy is different: Remember that the people in the audience are intelligent. Let them figure some things out for themselves.

Let them draw their own conclusions. Many of the of an as english essay, best talks have a narrative structure that loosely follows a detective story. The speaker starts out by presenting a problem and then describes the hall diaspora essay, search for a solution. Structure Of An. There’s an “aha” moment, and the audience’s perspective shifts in a meaningful way. If a talk fails, it’s almost always because the speaker didn’t frame it correctly, misjudged the audience’s level of interest, or neglected to tell a story. How To The Best. Even if the topic is important, random pontification without narrative is always deeply unsatisfying. There’s no progression, and of an, you don’t feel that you’re learning. I was at an energy conference recently where two people—a city mayor and a former governor—gave back-to-back talks. The mayor’s talk was essentially a list of impressive projects his city had undertaken.

It came off as boasting, like a report card or an advertisement for his reelection. It quickly got boring. When the governor spoke, she didn’t list achievements; instead, she shared an stress homework idea. Yes, she recounted anecdotes from her time in structure as english, office, but the idea was central—and the stories explanatory or illustrative (and also funny). It was so much more interesting. The mayor’s underlying point seemed to how to write research paper, be how great he was, while the governor’s message was “Here’s a compelling idea that would benefit us all.” As a general rule, people are not very interested in as english, talks about organizations or institutions (unless they’re members of them). Ideas and stories fascinate us; organizations bore us—they’re much harder to relate to. (Businesspeople especially take note: Don’t boast about writing cover essay, your company; rather, tell us about the problem you’re solving.) Once you’ve got the framing down, it’s time to focus on your delivery.

There are three main ways to essay, deliver a talk. You can read it directly off a script or a teleprompter. You can develop a set of bullet points that map out what you’re going to the best paper, say in each section rather than scripting the whole thing word for word. Or you can memorize your talk, which entails rehearsing it to the point where you internalize every word—verbatim. My advice: Don’t read it, and don’t use a teleprompter.

It’s usually just too distancing—people will know you’re reading. And as soon as they sense it, the as english essay, way they receive your talk will shift. Suddenly your intimate connection evaporates, and everything feels a lot more formal. We generally outlaw reading approaches of any kind at TED, though we made an project exception a few years ago for a man who insisted on using a monitor. We set up a screen at structure as english the back of the cover page essay, auditorium, in the hope that the audience wouldn’t notice it.

At first he spoke naturally. But soon he stiffened up, and you could see this horrible sinking feeling pass through the audience as people realized, “Oh, no, he’s reading to of an, us!” The words were great, but the talk got poor ratings. Many of our best and most popular TED Talks have been memorized word for fourth research, word. If you’re giving an important talk and you have the time to do this, it’s the best way to go. But don’t underestimate the work involved. One of our most memorable speakers was Jill Bolte Taylor, a brain researcher who had suffered a stroke. She talked about what she learned during the eight years it took her to recover. After crafting her story and undertaking many hours of solo practice, she rehearsed her talk dozens of of an as english essay times in fourth paper - electromagnets, front of an structure of an as english audience to be sure she had it down. Obviously, not every presentation is worth that kind of stress homework investment of of an essay time. But if you do decide to memorize your talk, be aware that there’s a predictable arc to stress homework, the learning curve.

Most people go through what I call the structure of an essay, “valley of awkwardness,” where they haven’t quite memorized the talk. If they give the talk while stuck in that valley, the audience will sense it. Dessay Amor. Their words will sound recited, or there will be painful moments where they stare into the middle distance, or cast their eyes upward, as they struggle to remember their lines. This creates distance between the speaker and the audience. Getting past this point is simple, fortunately. It’s just a matter of rehearsing enough times that the flow of words becomes second nature. Then you can focus on as english essay delivering the talk with meaning and authenticity. Don’t worry—you’ll get there. But if you don’t have time to learn a speech thoroughly and get past that awkward valley, don’t try.

Go with bullet points on note cards. As long as you know what you want to say for page essay, each one, you’ll be fine. Structure Of An As English. Focus on remembering the natalie amor, transitions from one bullet point to the next. Also pay attention to your tone. Some speakers may want to come across as authoritative or wise or powerful or passionate, but it’s usually much better to just sound conversational. Don’t force it. Don’t orate. Just be you. If a successful talk is a journey, make sure you don’t start to annoy your travel companions along the way. As English. Some speakers project too much ego.

They sound condescending or full of themselves, and the audience shuts down. Don’t let that happen. For inexperienced speakers, the physical act of being onstage can be the most difficult part of giving a presentation—but people tend to overestimate its importance. Getting the words, story, and substance right is a much bigger determinant of success or failure than how you stand or whether you’re visibly nervous. And when it comes to fourth grade research paper, stage presence, a little coaching can go a long way. The biggest mistake we see in early rehearsals is that people move their bodies too much. They sway from side to side, or shift their weight from one leg to the other. People do this naturally when they’re nervous, but it’s distracting and makes the speaker seem weak. Simply getting a person to keep his or her lower body motionless can dramatically improve stage presence. There are some people who are able to walk around a stage during a presentation, and that’s fine if it comes naturally. As English. But the vast majority are better off standing still and amor, relying on hand gestures for emphasis.

Perhaps the structure as english essay, most important physical act onstage is making eye contact. Find five or six friendly-looking people in different parts of the audience and look them in the eye as you speak. Think of them as friends you haven’t seen in a year, whom you’re bringing up to date on natalie dessay amor your work. That eye contact is incredibly powerful, and it will do more than anything else to help your talk land. Even if you don’t have time to prepare fully and have to read from a script, looking up and making eye contact will make a huge difference. Another big hurdle for inexperienced speakers is nervousness—both in advance of the talk and while they’re onstage. People deal with this in different ways. As English. Many speakers stay out in the audience until the moment they go on; this can work well, because keeping your mind engaged in writing cover page, the earlier speakers can distract you and limit nervousness. Amy Cuddy, a Harvard Business School professor who studies how certain body poses can affect power, utilized one of the of an as english, more unusual preparation techniques I’ve seen. She recommends that people spend time before a talk striding around, standing tall, and extending their bodies; these poses make you feel more powerful. It’s what she did before going onstage, and she delivered a phenomenal talk.

But I think the single best advice is simply to breathe deeply before you go onstage. It works. In general, people worry too much about nervousness. Nerves are not a disaster. The audience expects you to be nervous. Natalie Dessay. It’s a natural body response that can actually improve your performance: It gives you energy to perform and keeps your mind sharp. Just keep breathing, and you’ll be fine. Nerves are not a disaster. The audience expects you to be nervous. Acknowledging nervousness can also create engagement.

Showing your vulnerability, whether through nerves or tone of voice, is one of the structure as english essay, most powerful ways to win over an audience, provided it is natalie authentic. Susan Cain, who wrote a book about introverts and spoke at our 2012 conference, was terrified about giving her talk. You could feel her fragility onstage, and it created this dynamic where the structure of an essay, audience was rooting for her—everybody wanted to hug her afterward. Stuart Hall Essay. The fact that we knew she was fighting to keep herself up there made it beautiful, and it was the most popular talk that year. With so much technology at structure as english our disposal, it may feel almost mandatory to use, at a minimum, presentation slides.

By now most people have heard the green project case studies, advice about PowerPoint: Keep it simple; don’t use a slide deck as a substitute for notes (by, say, listing the bullet points you’ll discuss—those are best put on note cards); and don’t repeat out loud words that are on the slide. Not only is as english essay reciting slides a variation of the teleprompter problem—“Oh, no, she’s reading to fourth grade, us, too!”—but information is structure as english interesting only once, and hearing and seeing the green belt case studies, same words feels repetitive. That advice may seem universal by of an as english essay, now, but go into any company and you’ll see presenters violating it every day. Many of the best TED speakers don’t use slides at all, and many talks don’t require them. Belt Project Studies. If you have photographs or illustrations that make the topic come alive, then yes, show them. Structure Of An As English. If not, consider doing without, at least for some parts of the presentation. And if you’re going to use slides, it’s worth exploring alternatives to PowerPoint.

For instance, TED has invested in the company Prezi, which makes presentation software that offers a camera’s-eye view of a two-dimensional landscape. Instead of a flat sequence of images, you can move around the landscape and zoom in to it if need be. Used properly, such techniques can dramatically boost the visual punch of a talk and enhance its meaning. Artists, architects, photographers, and natalie dessay, designers have the best opportunity to use visuals. Slides can help frame and structure of an, pace a talk and paper, help speakers avoid getting lost in jargon or overly intellectual language. (Art can be hard to talk about—better to structure as english, experience it visually.) I’ve seen great presentations in which the artist or designer put slides on cover an automatic timer so that the image changed every 15 seconds.

I’ve also seen presenters give a talk accompanied by structure as english essay, video, speaking along to it. That can help sustain momentum. The industrial designer Ross Lovegrove’s highly visual TED Talk, for instance, used this technique to bring the audience along on a remarkable creative journey. Another approach creative types might consider is to build silence into their talks, and just let the work speak for itself. The kinetic sculptor Reuben Margolin used that approach to stress homework, powerful effect. The idea is not to structure of an as english, think “I’m giving a talk.” Instead, think “I want to grade paper - electromagnets, give this audience a powerful experience of my work.” The single worst thing artists and as english, architects can do is to retreat into abstract or conceptual language. Video has obvious uses for many speakers. In a TED Talk about the intelligence of crows, for instance, the scientist showed a clip of a crow bending a hook to fish a piece of food out of a tube—essentially creating a tool.

It illustrated his point far better than anything he could have said. Used well, video can be very effective, but there are common mistakes that should be avoided. A clip needs to be short—if it’s more than 60 seconds, you risk losing people. Don’t use videos—particularly corporate ones—that sound self-promotional or like infomercials; people are conditioned to tune those out. Natalie. Anything with a soundtrack can be dangerously off-putting. And whatever you do, don’t show a clip of yourself being interviewed on, say, CNN. Of An. I’ve seen speakers do this, and it’s a really bad idea—no one wants to go along with you on your ego trip.

The people in your audience are already listening to you live; why would they want to simultaneously watch your talking-head clip on a screen? We start helping speakers prepare their talks six months (or more) in advance so that they’ll have plenty of time to stress homework, practice. Of An Essay. We want people’s talks to be in final form at least a month before the event. Essay. The more practice they can do in structure essay, the final weeks, the better off they’ll be. Ideally, they’ll practice the talk on their own and in front of an the best paper audience. The tricky part about rehearsing a presentation in front of other people is that they will feel obligated to offer feedback and constructive criticism. Often the feedback from different people will vary or directly conflict. This can be confusing or even paralyzing, which is of an as english essay why it’s important to be choosy about the people you use as a test audience, and whom you invite to offer feedback. In general, the more experience a person has as a presenter, the better the grade paper, criticism he or she can offer. I learned many of these lessons myself in structure of an essay, 2011.

My colleague Bruno Giussani, who curates our TEDGlobal event, pointed out cover page essay, that although I’d worked at TED for nine years, served as the emcee at our conferences, and introduced many of the speakers, I’d never actually given a TED Talk myself. Structure As English. So he invited me to give one, and I accepted. It was more stressful than I’d expected. Even though I spend time helping others frame their stories, framing my own in a way that felt compelling was difficult. I decided to natalie, memorize my presentation, which was about how web video powers global innovation, and that was really hard: Even though I was putting in a lot of hours, and getting sound advice from my colleagues, I definitely hit a point where I didn’t quite have it down and began to doubt I ever would. I really thought I might bomb. Structure As English Essay. I was nervous right up until the stuart essay, moment I took the structure of an, stage. But it ended up going fine. It’s definitely not one of the stress homework, all-time great TED Talks, but it got a positive reaction—and I survived the stress of going through it. As hard as it may be to give a great talk, it’s really easy to structure essay, blow it.

Here are some common mistakes that TED advises its speakers to avoid. 1. Take a really long time to explain what your talk is natalie amor about. 2. Speak slowly and dramatically. Why talk when you can orate? 3. Make sure you subtly let everyone know how important you are. 4. Refer to your book repeatedly. Structure. Even better, quote yourself from it. 5. Cram your slides with numerous text bullet points and how to the best, multiple fonts. 6. Use lots of unexplained technical jargon to make yourself sound smart. 7. Speak at structure of an as english essay great length about the stress homework, history of structure as english essay your organization and its glorious achievements. 8. Don’t bother rehearsing to check how long your talk is running.

9. Sound as if you’re reciting your talk from memory. 10. Never, ever make eye contact with anyone in the audience. Ultimately I learned firsthand what our speakers have been discovering for three decades: Presentations rise or fall on the quality of the idea, the writing cover essay, narrative, and the passion of the speaker. It’s about substance, not speaking style or multimedia pyrotechnics. It’s fairly easy to “coach out” the problems in a talk, but there’s no way to “coach in” the basic story—the presenter has to have the raw material. If you have something to say, you can build a great talk. But if the central theme isn’t there, you’re better off not speaking. Decline the invitation.

Go back to work, and wait until you have a compelling idea that’s really worth sharing. The single most important thing to structure of an, remember is stress homework that there is no one good way to do a talk. The most memorable talks offer something fresh, something no one has seen before. The worst ones are those that feel formulaic. So do not on any account try to emulate every piece of advice I’ve offered here. Take the of an as english essay, bulk of writing page essay it on of an board, sure.

But make the talk your own. You know what’s distinctive about how to the best research, you and your idea. Play to of an essay, your strengths and give a talk that is truly authentic to you.

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resume using Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to provide your potential employer with important information about your background and your qualifications. Of An Essay! The most common method to provide information to potential employers is to project case create a resume. A resume can create a vivid word picture of of an as english essay, yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the newest form of popular media by how to the best paper, many people. In fact, making your resume available on structure of an essay, the World Wide Web is fourth research comparable to broadcasting it on of an, national television during prime time hours. The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an unlimited number of people and have opened new doors to audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before.

Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for studies, potential employees. If you have your resume on paper but not on the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it. Another benefit of creating an electronic resume is cost. Structure As English! Many colleges provide space on their web server for their students' resumes free of charge. Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and grade research, printing costs. Rather than performing mass mailings of structure of an as english, your resume, you can reduce the number of printed copies you will need and reserve these for companies you are particularly interested in. Other benefits you will receive by creating an HTML resume include: the ability to provide electronic links to green studies your reference and previous employers as well as providing links to previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the ability to make updates immediately available ease of structure of an essay, maintainability the ability to show that you can adapt to, and use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and stress homework, making it available on of an essay, the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests.

Writing Your Resume in HTML Format. CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT. When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by many universities. Be sure to have someone proofread and review your resume. Fourth Research - Electromagnets! Many instructors in structure the English department of a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to give it to hall essay him/her enough in advance to provide enough time to structure of an as english essay review it and so that it will not be an inconvenience to him/her. Writing Cover Page Essay! Remember to be courteous and thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor. Of An Essay! It is stress homework much better to have a professor see your mistakes while you have the chance to correct them than for a potential employer to see them. It is important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in the correct format. Your resume is often the first impression an employer will receive. It will be easier to htmlify your resume if you have already created it.

By creating your resume first you can focus on formatting it rather than trying to create it and format it at the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by using the save as option found under the structure as english file utilities of your favorite word processor. If you are unable to locate a save as feature for your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support. Writing Page! After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the available list of formats. By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to add HTML formatting tags more easily. Although you could save your file in other formats, saving in structure of an text format will make it easier to edit because text file format does not save any formatting information.

Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the file. When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is amor unreadable by HTML browsers, thus you will need to delete it before you will be able to proceed. Editors allow you to change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and underscoring into the file. Many editors are available to use. Some of the most common are: edit on DOS machines and structure as english, PCs; emacs and vi on UNIX workstations; and edit on VAX/VMS machines. You can also use your favorite word processor to open a text file. For more information on the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual. Which editor you should use depends upon the type of page, system you are using and your preference between the editors on structure of an as english essay, your system. Make sure you use an editor that you are familiar with.

By using an unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of your time trying to learn to fourth grade research paper - electromagnets use the editor rather than actually creating your resume. Throughout the remainder of this document I will base the as english steps on stuart hall essay, the DOS editor and a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the of an as english essay editor by typing edit at a DOS prompt, or the fourth grade research paper appropriate command for the editor you intend to use. Next, choose the Open File option from the FILE menu. Fill in the filename you choose earlier or use the structure as english browse feature to locate the file. Elements of an HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Tags are also usually paired (e.g. Hall Diaspora Essay! ltP and structure of an as english, lt/P), the first is used to identify the stuart diaspora beginning of the element and the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the element.

Some tags may also contain additional information. This information should be placed inside the structure of an angle brackets. For example, to display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of stress homework, tags. These tags are required by HTML browsers in order to recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is a summary of the required HTML tags: The required HTML tags must be placed in of an as english the appropriate order inside and fourth, HTML file. The following HTML is a simple example of the minimum HTML document. Using indentation can greatly improve the structure as english essay looks of your HTML, make it easier to read, and make it much easier to green studies maintain.

Although indentation is not required, you should always use it to improve your HTML. The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the indentation will not be visible when the structure as english essay document is viewed using a HTML browser. Here is the essay previous example written using indentation to make it easier to read. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY. The use of additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of your resume. HTML contains numerous tags to use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future. I could not possibly cover every tag here. However, I will briefly describe some of the commonly used and most useful tags. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on the world wide web at

The following table contains many of the most common and most useful HTML tags. You can use any of these tags by structure, simply placing the begin tag, the text to format, and the end tag directly in your HTML document. You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes. See step 9 for hall essay, instructions on structure as english, how to view your current HTML document. By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the .html or .htm extension. To do this choose save as from the file menu.

Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to call your file (e.g. Stuart Hall! resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming. There are many tools available to help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint.

For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. Structure! An alternative to creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on how to write the best, the world wide web and copy it. One method of locating useful and structure of an as english essay, free images is to view clipart collections available on writing page essay, the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Another method of structure, locating useful images is to use the how to paper Yahoo search engine and search for the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and click on the search button. This type of searching is very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to of an as english create or locate the stress homework image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to as english essay create the image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly. Stuart Hall! Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in as english essay the number of images you add. Stress Homework! Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size.

Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from your page. Of An As English Essay! In addition, you should keep the stress homework content of of an as english, your images on a professional level unless the writing page image directly relates to your job qualification. For example it is acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and structure essay, creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the location and essay, filename of your image. For example, to display an image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to load your image.

Possible causes of this problem are: you used an structure of an incompatible file format, the image does not exist, you did not specify the belt project case correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to structure 770. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for write the best research paper, help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on structure of an as english essay, its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt. There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on the File menu.

Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the browse feature to locate the file, then click on the ok button. Your resume should be displayed in the browser window. Viewing your resume in stuart hall diaspora an HTML browser is an excellent way to of an ensure the content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the process of creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in any order.

You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the links you've created using your HTML browser. Belt Studies! Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Of An As English Essay! Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume. Broken links are usually the how to research result of a typographical error or a link to structure of an as english a web site that no longer exists. Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the resources for students to install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the hall Webmaster through an structure of an as english email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and all of the images you have used to essay the directory your web provider specifies.

After installing your HTML resume you should always test it. Structure Essay! Visit the URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible. In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Stress Homework! Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment. Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the Web. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to bring the reader a broader range of information.

In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of explaining to the reader how to of an as english create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and the best research, was equivalent in structure as english content to a small course. The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code. Fourth Research! I strongly agree with Mr. Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to of an essay develop a Java application.

An entire section of Java Report is devoted to Product Review. In this section the paper authors review Java related products and provide information to structure as english essay the reader. Stress Homework! This information was the equivalent of structure of an, a Consumer Reports article. Essay! This section is a great source of information about individual products. In general, Java Report is a great source of information relating to the use and development of Java applications for any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the scope of the average reader.

Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the structure Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec. Stress Homework! C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the as english essay advantages and disadvantages of an HTML resume. Amor! The article, which appeared in The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes.

Some of the topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the process. Mr. Rampe also discusses the importance of structure of an as english essay, writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and just ignore the dehumanization of it all. In addition, the article provides the URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the the best paper reader get started. Of An Essay! Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of write the best research paper, information and should be reviewed by anyone who decides to create and HTML resume. Of An As English! Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on stress homework, the World Wide Web to structure essay help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an ample amount of information and resources necessary to create an HTML resume. Natalie Amor! Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an structure as english HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the necessity of an HTML resume.

Sandia National Laboratories. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is currently over a year old, the information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. Next the authors validate the document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Next the fourth paper - electromagnets authors discuss the general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and as english, Internal Icons. Paper! Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and variations. In addition the structure of an document contains an easy to use index which allows the natalie dessay reader to jump directly to structure any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available.

In addition it is well written, well organized and very easy to use. This document is an excellent source of information for writing cover, both the novice and expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.

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20 Examples of structure, Skills to Include In a Resume. There are many elements that come together to how to paper make a resume effective. One of these elements is essay, a listing of your skills. Ideally, your resume should contain as many skills with universal appeal as possible, meaning skills that can apply to just about any position you may be seeking. Consider the following examples of skills when putting together your resume: 1. Communications Skills • Openly expresses ideas • Exceptional oral and verbal skills • Attentive listener • Provides carefully thought-out solutions • Strong ability to resolve conflicts 2. Interpersonal Skills • Ability to efficiently delegate responsibilities • Ability to research project-related data as required 5. Planning Skills • Ability to prepare forecasts and budgets • Able to define needs and plan accordingly • Ability to plan and schedule meetings 6. Critical Thinking Skills • Ability to interpret and understand information • Able to evaluate the credibility of various concepts • Ability to connect and analyze information 7. Stuart Hall Essay! Management Skills • Strong leadership abilities • Ability to train and instruct others • Excellent ability to manage conflicts 8. Computer Skills • Proficient in MS Word • Strong database management skills • Experienced with Excel and related applications • Familiar with cloud storage methods 9. Structure Essay! Problem Solving Skills • Ability to prioritize issues • Excellent ability to write paper assess problems and seek a timely resolution • Adept at structure anticipating possible problems 10. Decision Making Skills • Able to weigh options and make well thought out decisions • Ability to quickly assess a situation and make necessary decisions 11. How To The Best Research Paper! Creativity • Capable of out-of-the-box thinking • Ability to express ideas freely and brainstorm in group settings 12. Customer Service Skills • Dedicated to of an as english resolving customer complaints • Ability to address customer needs efficiently • Committed to remaining patient and pleasant while interacting with customers • Responsive to customer needs 13. Learning Abilities • Ability to quickly learn and apply new concepts • Committed to remaining current with computer skills • Willing to take online courses as necessary 14. Responsibility • Dedicated to remaining confidentiality as required • Excellent work attendance record 15. Hall Essay! Independent Skills • Capable of working well independently • Ability to remain self-motivated 16.

Personality Skills • Ability to maintain a positive attitude • Strong ability to resolve conflicts while remaining calm 17. Setting Goals • Ability to set and structure as english achieve short-term and long-term goals • Proven ability to writing essay adjust priorities to of an as english essay achieve important goals 18. Efficiency Skills • Ability to maintain office efficiency • Able to carry out assigned tasks as efficiently as possible 19. Fiscal Responsibility • Ability to work within a specific budget • Proven ability to observe and report budget issues as necessary • Strong experience preparing budget reports and tracking expenditures 20. Resourcefulness • Willing to perform tasks without being asked • Able to efficiently use available resources Use these examples of skills can be used to put some of writing page, your best skills on structure essay, display. While there#8217;s nothing wrong with including specific skills that can be included for stress homework, each specific job, including transferable skills can give a hiring manager a broader picture of your overall skills, values, interests, and priorities. Keep in mind that these examples of essay, skills can be easily personalized and stuart diaspora essay rephrased to fit in with the focus and tone of structure of an, your resume. Stress Homework! • Sensitive towards the feelings of others • Willing to structure essay share credit with others 3. Organizational Skills • Capable of handling multiple tasks • Ability to plan and belt project arrange activities • Proven ability to meet deadlines 4. Research Skills • Ability to of an as english prepare quarterly and research paper annual reports • Capable of efficiently gathering information • Ability to research project-related data as required 5. Planning Skills • Ability to prepare forecasts and budgets • Able to define needs and plan accordingly • Ability to plan and schedule meetings 6. Critical Thinking Skills • Ability to interpret and of an understand information • Able to evaluate the credibility of various concepts • Ability to connect and green belt analyze information 7. Structure Of An Essay! Management Skills • Strong leadership abilities • Ability to train and instruct others • Excellent ability to essay manage conflicts 8. Computer Skills • Proficient in MS Word • Strong database management skills • Experienced with Excel and related applications • Familiar with cloud storage methods 9. Problem Solving Skills • Ability to prioritize issues • Excellent ability to assess problems and structure of an seek a timely resolution • Adept at anticipating possible problems 10. Stuart Diaspora Essay! Decision Making Skills • Able to weigh options and of an make well thought out decisions • Ability to quickly assess a situation and cover essay make necessary decisions 11. Creativity • Capable of out-of-the-box thinking • Ability to express ideas freely and brainstorm in of an, group settings 12. Customer Service Skills • Dedicated to resolving customer complaints • Ability to address customer needs efficiently • Committed to remaining patient and pleasant while interacting with customers • Responsive to customer needs 13. Learning Abilities • Ability to quickly learn and apply new concepts • Committed to remaining current with computer skills • Willing to write take online courses as necessary 14.

Responsibility • Dedicated to structure as english remaining confidentiality as required • Excellent work attendance record 15. Independent Skills • Capable of working well independently. America's #1 Free Career Test! Know Yourself, Know Your Right Career. 5 Tips to Career Change Success. Find Company Reviews, Resumes Jobs.

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essay of of an as english essay, photography As a digital photographer, if you haven’t been asked this question you eventually will: “Do you manipulate your photographs?” Sometimes it comes under another aspect: “Do you change the colors?” And occasionally it goes straight to the heart of the how to paper matter: “Is this real?” There is a certain percentage of the public who believes that fine art photographs must represent reality. There are people who do not know that there are differences between what they see and what the camera captures. Finally, there are individuals who do not understand that a photograph is a two dimensional representation of reality and not reality itself because reality is structure of an as english essay far more complex, perceived by dessay us through five senses and not just one. Some people are willing to of an as english essay, change their minds when these things are explained to them. Green Case. Others have their minds made up and as english, do not want to be bothered by how to research paper the facts. Those are the ones that I am referring to in this essay. The people in this last category not only believe that photographs must represent reality, they also believe that to achieve this photographs must be unaltered.

They believe that a photograph must be printed exactly the way it comes out of the structure as english essay camera. Stress Homework. While this may be true for certain types of technical photographs, when it comes to art and to my work I believe the exact opposite to be true, namely that photographs must be altered in as english, one way or another in order to have a chance to research, represent the reality that I perceive. My premise for this essay is that a fine art photograph, created by an artist with the goal of expressing himself or herself, is a representation of this artist’s view of structure of an as english essay, reality - a representation of this artist’s vision - and stuart hall diaspora, not a representation of the world as others may see it. Of An As English. This can be a blessing or a crime, depending on your opinion regarding this matter. Eventually, this is a matter of writing cover essay, opinion. Structure. Personally, my opinion is that a photograph cannot capture reality as we experience it physically and I can back it up with facts (I do so in my other essays on this subject including Of Cameras and hall diaspora, Art and The Eye and the Camera ). However, I found that debating this point with people who do not agree with me isn’t necessarily the smartest decision. So, I propose a different approach, one that works well for me. A little bit of history. For a long time I didn’t know what to say when confronted by people asking me if my work was real, if I manipulated the colors, or if I changed something in structure of an as english, the scenes I photographed.

In fact, as a fledging artist unsure of where I stood, I felt threatened by these questions and was more concerned with defending myself than with anything else. At that time I believed that explaining my artistic approach would help. So I answered by saying that this - the color changes, the green belt project case studies manipulations, the modifications I made to the image - were representative of my style and that my goal was to show how I saw the world. I also explained that I preferred to call what I do “enhancements” rather than “manipulations,” because the later was a derogative statement while the as english essay former was positive and green belt, complimentary. Unfortunately, my efforts were to no avail. These fine differences in terminology were lost on these people. As English Essay. Furthermore, their minds were made up and they did not want to be bothered by writing cover page essay the facts. My explanations may have been accurate, thought out and sophisticated, but they were facts nevertheless. Of An As English. While they may have had a chance to belt project case, be heard in an academic setting, they were completely useless in a real world situation. I also thought that doing all this would help in regards to of an as english, selling my work.

I believed that I could change people’s mind and that once this was achieved they would buy my photographs. What I discovered was how many people have their minds made up and fourth research - electromagnets, don’t want to be bothered by essay the facts. I also discovered that people who do not believe what you say, or who do not like what you do, will not buy your work. How To Write. After all, I am selling art. And to buy art, someone has to like the work and often like the artist as well. Of An Essay. When people don’t like one or the how to the best paper other, or worse don’t like either, trying to make a sale is not just futile, it is delusional. What I discovered overall was that my explanations had little effect on these people. Of An. While some believed me, most were unconvinced. What I did not know then, was that the majority of those asking these questions were primarily interested in starting an argument. How To Research. They knew that what I showed in my work was my vision. They asked if it was real not because they wondered about what my answer would be, but because they did not like my vision of reality.

Certainly, a few – a minority — really did not understand how my work was created. But those were satisfied with my answer that this is my style, my vision of the world. Those that I am talking about here are the others, those that wouldn’t accept that answer as valid. I finally saw the light and decided on of an as english essay a different course of action. I decided that in front of obvious suspicion regarding the honesty of belt project case, my answers, I would give the structure essay most direct and least questionable answer possible. Green Project Studies. I decided, in structure essay, a sense, that I would act as if I was in writing page, a court of law, where the party being questioned, the structure as english party whose actions are at stake, is asked to answer with a simple “yes” or “no.” In short, and to get to project case studies, the point, I decided to just say yes . The Art of structure, saying Yes. When you are asked “do you manipulate your colors?” and you answer “yes” you create an entirely different situation than when you start explaining why you do what you do. When you say “yes”, you state the facts and nothing but the facts: “Yes, I do manipulate my colors.” Although the stuart hall diaspora essay person asking the question may not like your answer, it is difficult to question this answer without questioning your personal integrity. When you do explain why you do what you do, you are in effect trying to essay, legitimize your actions. In that case, three things need to be explained. Green Belt Project Case. First, trying to legitimize your actions implies that you know they may not be perceived as legitimate.

Second, you are leaving it up to the person asking the question to decide whether they believe you or not. Third, you are opening the door for a lengthy discussion because the person asking the question now has the option of structure of an essay, taking apart your answer point by point. In other words, although I was speaking the truth when I tried to explain myself, I was giving control to the person asking the question. Once I had given my answer, they were in control because it was up to them to green project case studies, decide whether they believed my explanations or not, and up to them to decide how they were going to respond. Structure. I was also confusing the matter by how to the best research paper explaining in structure as english, a lengthy manner what could have been answered with just one word: yes or no. They could legitimately ask why I was not saying “Yes” or just saying “No”. They had grounds to question my integrity regarding what I was really doing in my work.

Once I decided to just say “yes,” I took control of the situation. Why? Simply because when someone answers a question in the most straightforward manner possible, the two only write paper, options available are to structure of an essay, either believe this person or not. If you don’t believe that the person is saying the write truth, then you must come back with a question as straightforward as their answer, and of an, most likely you will hesitate doing so because you will expect a second answer just as straightforward as the amor first one. You also run the chance of of an as english essay, coming across as insulting. Natalie Dessay Amor. After all, someone you just met answered your question in structure of an as english essay, the most straightforward and to stress homework, the point manner possible. Structure Of An As English Essay. This person can, if pressed further, could legitimately ask what reasons you have to not believe them. Or ask if you are suspicious by nature or if you have a problem with what they do. Finally, they could ask if there is stress homework something wrong with you in the first place. Neither option is bound to structure of an essay, be pleasant for the person asking the writing page questions. And as a general rule, human beings do not purposefully engage in unpleasant actions.

For example, if someone asks me “Do you manipulate your colors?” and I answer “yes” and they then ask “Is that so?” my answer will be another “yes.” I could say “yes sir” to emphasize my answer, or just because I feel that they need a longer answer, but that is all I would say at a show of my work. If they ask “how do you manipulate your colors?” I will answer “in Photoshop.” And if they say, “Oh, I see, you use Photoshop!” my answer will again be “yes” with or without “Sir.” Of course, the exact words being used and the exact questions being asked vary in as english, their grammatical construction according to research, the situation, but in structure of an as english essay, my experience, this is how things go. Let’s back up a little. Diaspora Essay. My Creative Writing teacher at Northern Arizona University, Allen Woodman, defined drama as being: “two dogs, one bone.” As we all know, such a situation can quickly lead to a dogfight because most dogs will want that one bone for themselves. Dogs rarely share with other dogs. With humans, fights often occur for the same reason: two individuals both wanting the same thing for themselves. If we metaphorically apply it to the situation discussed in this essay, photographers or photography enthusiasts often enter into a conflict regarding reality because they both believe they describe reality in their work. However, their work looks radically different, although they both photographed the same subject. In this situation, who is as english essay right?

Who can claim to represent reality? Clearly, it must be one or the stress homework other but not both. This is usually what is at stake when someone looks at structure of an my work and asks: “Do you manipulate your colors?” or “Is this real?” They question whether I claim to represent reality or not. If I say that I do, most likely we are going to have an argument because most likely they see reality differently than I do. Therefore, if they believe there is only one possible reality out there, one of us will be wrong. Two photographers, one reality equals a problem. However, my answer does not point to a conflict. My answer is natalie dessay not “yes, I represent reality.” My answer is “yes” I do manipulate my work.

And “yes” I manipulate reality. Therefore, my reality may be different from of an essay yours. Stuart Diaspora Essay. At conferences, I give a longer answer, explaining, “In fact I clone, change the colors, alter the contrast, even remove houses that look ugly in the middle of a pristine wilderness. Structure. In short, I modify reality. Dessay Amor. What you see is not what I photographed.

What you see is how I felt when I created this image. What you see is the world as see it and as I want to show it.” “Furthermore, I feel great about doing what I do. In fact, I love it and I have never been happier than since I gave myself the freedom of doing so! Not only that, but I write essays describing precisely not only how I do what I do, but teaching others how they can do it too. I even give workshops and seminars and conference presentations about structure as english both the techniques I use and the philosophical and rhetorical views that underline my position.

And if there is anything else you would like to know about this subject that I have not covered yet, don’t hesitate to ask. Page. I may have overlooked something, and if so I will be glad to fix it right away.” What I am saying, to go to the root of structure of an as english, my message and of my artistic position, is stress homework that there isn’t just one reality. Instead, there are multiple realities. And if we limit this discussion to structure of an as english essay, just myself and the person asking the questions mentioned above, then there are at least two different realities: their’s and mine.

We both see the world in green case studies, different ways. I see the world the way it is depicted in my work, and they see the world whichever way they like. Structure Essay. That is the best research OK. They can have their reality, I can have my reality, and I don’t see a problem with that whatsoever. I don’t claim that their reality is of an as english essay wrong or that my reality is right, or that their reality is right and mine is dessay wrong. In fact, I really don’t care which reality is right and wrong. All I know is that I love my reality. It makes me feel great, makes me want to get out of of an essay, bed in the morning to create more of grade paper - electromagnets, it, makes me want to go further in describing in greater details exactly what it consists of, and above all it makes me want to experience it as much as I can. In short, I love my reality and I live in it happily. All I ask is that they don’t impose their reality on me anymore than I impose my reality on them. Essay. It is a free country and green belt case, they can do whatever they please, but their freedom stops where mine begins.

We have the same rights, and we should both remember that. We may both believe that we are right in depicting the world the of an essay way we do in our work, but we could just as easily be wrong, not just them, me or you but all of us. Technique is meant to be seen. There is another aspect to this, and that aspect is technique. Technique, in my view, is meant to be seen and should be visible. If this technique involves manipulating or enhancing the image, depending on research paper - electromagnets which side of the fence you stand on, then this enhancement, or manipulation if this is what you want to structure of an as english, call it, must be visible. Why? Because I want others to see it. Because I want my audience to stuart hall essay, see what I did to the image, see how I made my vision a reality through the use of this technique or that technique.

In fact, I want this to be visible so much that starting April 2006 I am providing the master file to my images with print purchases. I do this so others can learn how to do what I do, but also to show how I did what I did. That is, I am taking advantage of one aspect of digital technology, which is that the digital image file can be duplicated countless times and still be as good as the of an essay original. Such is not the dessay case with a negative or a transparency, whose quality degrades dramatically with each copy made from the structure of an as english original. There is also a matter of quality. The only way to tell if a technique is good, effective or again mastered by the practitioner, by the master, is to see it for ourselves.

Otherwise, we rely on the word of others, on green project case studies the opinion of someone else but us. Mastery is something that must be witnessed, something that must be seen. Structure As English Essay. If one wants to be recognized as a master, one cannot have as a goal to make his technique transparent. One must try as hard as possible to make his technique something that can be seen, something visible to all. Technique, in paper - electromagnets, other words, must be or become part of the work. It must not be just the path that lead to the creation of this artwork, it must be part of the artwork. To return to my main point in structure of an essay, this essay, and to just saying yes when asked if my work is enhanced or manipulated, I must give this answer in order to tell my audience that it is my intention to stress homework, make my technique visible. Indeed, I often emphasize my yes answer, by saying yes!

In writing, there is no other way to show this subtle difference besides placing an exclamation point after the yes, but in reality this slight change conveys my love and my passion for the work that I do and for my desire to share this with my audience. Bringing a conclusion to this essay is of an essay difficult. On the one hand, there is a lot more to say on the subject. On the fourth grade research paper other hand, some may argue that such an as english essay, essay should never be written. The first position is green belt project case studies correct the second one is incorrect. Of An As English Essay. There is a lot more to be said on this subject, and this essay does need to be written because finding the stress homework proper answer to these questions is as english essay very difficult. As I said at the beginning, if you are a photographer and you show your work to dessay, other people, regardless of whether you sell your work or not, you will be asked these questions. If you haven’t yet, you eventually will. It is only a matter of time. Of An As English Essay. As the popular statement goes: it is not a matter of if, it is a matter of when. And when the time comes, you better have an answer.

Otherwise you will join the ranks of the stumped. I don’t know about you, but personally I hate being stumped. So yes, this essay definitely has a reason to exist. Stress Homework. This reason is to help you find out where you stand. My answer is “Yes” because I do believe, and for good reasons, that I manipulate reality. Your answer may be different.

For example, if you believe you do not manipulate reality, then your answer should be “No.” My goal is to create images that represent the world not as it is, but as how I see it, how I feel when I am in a specific location and how I perceive this location as a whole. Not just the part that I see, but the of an part that I don’t see: the melting sap of Pinion pines on a warm summer days; the how to the best research call of a blackbird bouncing off a canyon wall; the heat waves floating in as english, front of stress homework, me over the bare sandstone; the multitude of structure as english, sensory inputs that are, by stuart diaspora nature, non-visual. After all, a photograph is nothing but something we can look at. Yet, the reality of the world is structure essay much more than that. We experience this reality through five senses: smell, touch, hearing, taste and finally sight. A photograph only makes use of the fifth sense. It is a partial perception of the world, representing at the most 1/5th of writing cover page essay, all that we sense. Structure As English Essay. I wish those that argue that unaltered photographs can represent reality would understand that. But, as I explain, it is not in my power to change their mind. Therefore, I limit myself to writing page, just answering “yes” when they ask me questions about whether my work is manipulated or not.

Of course my work is structure as english essay manipulated. How could it be otherwise? Only a fool would believe that it isn’t. Yes. To some extent, my goal is to stress homework, include in my photographs as much of what we perceive with these other four senses as is possible to include in a two dimensional medium. Structure Of An As English Essay. It is also to transform the green case world from what it actually is to what I wish it was. For example, I may photograph a depressing yet otherwise beautiful scene, and of an essay, if all it takes is writing cover page remove the houses that mar this scene, or brighten the colors, for this photograph to bring joy to my heart instead of sadness, then I will unashamedly do so, regardless of as english essay, what others might think. If someone wants a depressing photograph, or a photograph in which all the houses that mar the hills in an otherwise beautiful location are present, I know for a fact that there are countless photographers out there, and that one, if not several of them, will either have exactly what these people want or will be willing to create exactly what they want. So no, don’t write to me saying that you wish I didn’t do what I do, or that you wish I didn’t manipulate reality, change the colors, remove things, or alter the contrast.

Don’t write to natalie dessay amor, me to ask that I do not make the world more beautiful, more joyful, more inviting, or more attractive than it really is in your opinion. Of An Essay. Instead, write to how to, me to tell me that you like what I do and essay, that you wish I would go further. How To Research. Write to me to say that you see my point, that your mind is structure not made up and that you are willing to be bothered by the facts. Write to me to say that you love my work. Why? Simply because if you disagree with what I do, you actually disagree with who I am. You see, what I show in my work is part of me, part of who I am and part of how I perceive the world.

It is that part that I make visually accessible to all. It is dessay that part that I am willing to share with others. And no, I am not willing to change. Structure Of An As English Essay. Definitely not. I am not willing to see the world as a depressing or gloomy place. Call me delusional if you wish, but do keep it to yourself. There is another aspect to grade paper, this, and this aspect is the audience I am addressing. Of An As English Essay. I am addressing an audience who loves what I do. I am addressing an write the best research, audience who has loved what I do since I started, nearly 20 years ago. I am addressing an audience who is of an as english growing daily and cover essay, who wants to see me go further in as english essay, my approach, in my practice and in my style. An audience who knows that I manipulate colors, change things around a little, and who not only does not care one bit that I do so but actually loves that I do what I do.

I am addressing an audience who loves my work for what it is. So no, don’t even give it a try. And if you do, don’t expect me to diaspora essay, care. I don’t and of an essay, I won’t. I have already answered the question, and the answer is belt project studies yes. Yes, I manipulate my work, change the colors and much more; and yes, I feel great about doing so; and yes, I am proud of it and of an as english essay, have no remorse whatsoever; and yes, I have no intention whatsoever of stress homework, changing this approach. Structure Of An As English Essay. In fact, this is my style. This is me. If you are a photographer, I strongly encourage you to follow my approach. If nothing else, it will free you and liberate your creativity.

I know it does for me. Remember that you must be free in order to be an artist. Natalie Dessay. If you do not feel free to structure of an as english essay, create whatever your heart desires, then you might call yourself an artist, but you are not really an artist. Art is personal expression. Green Project Studies. It is the expression of your personality, of your vision, or your view of the world, of your perception of reality. Art is of an essay not doing something because you believe someone else may like it better than what you would otherwise do. Art, in page, short, is freedom. What is structure art is fourth another discussion altogether, one that I will address in a future essay in structure of an, this series.

For now, remember that the most effective answer to a question designed to stump you is the paper shortest, most direct and most honest answer you can possibly think of. In this situation it is a resounding Yes or a resounding No. It all depends whether you believe that your work is manipulated or not. In general, and in closing, it is of an as english best not to act defensively when you find yourself confronted by stress homework someone asking questions such as the ones I mention in of an, this essay. Often, these questions are aimed at making you take a defensive position. Unfortunately, if you do so you find that you have to defend yourself in regards to stuart hall diaspora essay, actions that you are perfectly free to conduct.

Actions that, eventually, are nobody’s business except your own. As English. Actions that, furthermore, are perfectly legal but that your interlocutor may want you to feel are not. Project Case. Unfortunately for essay, them, what is illegal are things such as loan sharking, drug dealing or pistol-whipping a priest. It does not include image manipulation. You can’t be arrested for doing it, you can’t be taken to court and you can’t be placed on probation or otherwise legally punished. The best solution for natalie amor, people who really do not like your work and who do not want to be bothered by the facts is to move on and go look at the work of an artist that they like. Therefore, if they ask you questions, there is no reason for you to feel threatened or act in a defensive manner. Just tell them the truth, and let them believe whatever they want to believe. Remember, if they don’t like you or your work, they will never buy your work.

And if they compliment you about structure of an your work, they are either lying or pulling your leg. Grade Research. So just say yes and let them be. That is what I do. Learn more about Alain and view more of his work on his website at Of An As English. Alain can be contacted at Comments on NPN nature photography articles?

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Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel. Jessica R. MacNeil, Sarah A. Meyer. Neisseria meningitidis is a gram-negative diplococcus. Structure As English! Meningococci are classified into serogroups on the basis of the composition of the capsular polysaccharide. The 6 major meningococcal serogroups associated with disease are A, B, C, W, X, and essay Y. Person-to-person transmission occurs by close contact with respiratory secretions of of an, a person with meningococcal disease or asymptomatic carriage of N. meningitidis . Asymptomatic carriage is transient, affecting an estimated 5%10% of the population at any given time. N. meningitidis is found worldwide, but the highest incidence occurs in the “meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa (Map 3-11). Meningococcal disease is hyperendemic in this region, and periodic epidemics during the dry season (December June) reach up to 1,000 cases per 100,000 population.

By contrast, rates of disease in the United States, Europe, Australia, and South America range from fourth research paper, 0.15 to 3 cases per as english 100,000 population per year. Although meningococcal outbreaks can occur anywhere in the world, they are most common in the African meningitis belt, and large-scale epidemics occur every 512 years. Historically, outbreaks in the meningitis belt were primarily due to serogroup A. However, with the introduction of a monovalent serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine [MenAfriVac] in fourth research, the region starting in 2010, recent meningococcal outbreaks have primarily been due to serogroups C and W, although serogroup X outbreaks are also reported. Outside the meningitis belt, infants and adolescents have the of an highest rates of disease. In meningitis belt countries, high rates of disease are seen in people up to age 30 years but are highest in children and adolescents aged 514 years. Risk for travelers is highest in people visiting meningitis belt countries who have prolonged contact with local populations during an epidemic. The Hajj pilgrimage to how to paper Saudi Arabia has also been associated with outbreaks of meningococcal disease in returning pilgrims and their contacts. Map 3-11. Areas with frequent epidemics of of an as english, meningococcal meningitis 1. Meningococcal disease generally occurs 110 days after exposure and presents as meningitis in ≥50% of cases.

Meningococcal meningitis is characterized by sudden onset of grade research paper - electromagnets, headache, fever, and stiffness of the neck, sometimes accompanied by of an as english essay, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, or altered mental status. Green Belt! Up to essay 20% of people with meningococcal disease present with meningococcal sepsis, known as meningococcemia. Meningococcemia is characterized by an abrupt onset of fever and hall diaspora essay a petechial or purpuric rash. The rash may progress to purpura fulminans. Meningococcemia often involves hypotension, acute adrenal hemorrhage, and multiorgan failure. Among infants and structure as english essay children aged 2 years, meningococcal disease may have nonspecific symptoms. Neck stiffness, usually seen in people with meningitis, may be absent in this age group. The case-fatality ratio of meningococcal disease is 10%15%.

Early diagnosis and treatment are critical. A lumbar puncture should be done to examine the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and perform a Gram stain. If possible, the lumbar puncture should be done before starting antibiotic therapy to ensure that bacteria, if present, can be cultured from CSF. Diagnosis is paper, generally made by isolating N. meningitidis from structure of an, blood or CSF through culture, by detecting meningococcal antigen in stress homework, CSF by essay, latex agglutination, or by evidence of N. Write! meningitidis DNA by PCR. The signs and symptoms of meningococcal meningitis are similar to of an as english those of other causes of bacterial meningitis, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae . The causative organism should be identified so that the correct antibiotics can be used for natalie dessay amor, treatment and of an prophylaxis. Meningococcal disease is stuart hall essay, nationally notifiable. Meningococcal disease is structure of an, potentially fatal and should always be viewed as a medical emergency. Antibiotic treatment must be started early in diaspora, the course of the disease, and structure of an essay empirically prior to the diagnostic test results. Several antibiotic choices are available, including third-generation cephalosporins. Six meningococcal vaccines are licensed in the United States. Refer to paper - electromagnets Table 3-14 for more information about available meningococcal vaccines.

Approximately 710 days are required after vaccination for the development of protective antibody levels. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine administration of a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) for all people aged 1118 years. A single dose of vaccine should be administered at age 11 or 12 years, and a booster dose should be administered at age 16 years. Routine immunization with MenACWY is not recommended for other age groups in of an, the United States, with the stress homework exception of people at structure as english, increased risk for meningococcal disease. Those at increased risk for meningococcal disease include people who have a persistent complement component deficiency (C3, C5-9, properdin, factor D, or factor H or people who are taking eculizumab [Soliris]), people who have functional or anatomic asplenia, or people with HIV. Vaccine, product, number of stress homework, doses, and booster dose recommendations are based on age and risk factor and are described in of an essay, detail for each risk group in the 2013 ACIP Meningococcal Disease Recommendations ( Adolescents and young adults aged 1623 years may also be vaccinated with a serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine to provide short-term protection against most strains of serogroup B meningococcal disease. The preferred age for MenB vaccination is 16 through 18 years. ACIP also recommends routine use of MenB vaccine for people aged ≥10 years who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease, including people who have persistent complement component deficiency and people who have functional or anatomic asplenia.

ACIP recommends that travelers who visit or reside in parts of sub-Saharan Africa known as the “meningitis belt” (see Map 3-11) during the dry season (DecemberJune) receive vaccination with a quadrivalent (serogroup A, C, W, or Y) meningococcal vaccine before travel. The preferred vaccine for people aged 2 months through 55 years and meningococcal vaccine-nonnaïve people aged ≥56 years is MenACWY, and MPSV4 is how to the best research paper, preferred for meningococcal vaccine-naïve people aged ≥56 years. Advisories for structure of an, travelers to dessay amor other countries are issued when outbreaks of meningococcal disease are recognized (see the CDC Travelers’ Health website at For infants aged 9 months, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo) is the only licensed vaccine that protects against serogroups A and W and therefore should be used for travelers in this age group. In children initiating vaccination at 2 months of age, MenACWY-CRM should be administered as a 4-dose series at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of of an as english essay, age.

In children initiating vaccination at 723 months of hall diaspora essay, age, MenACWY-CRM should be administered as a 2-dose series, with the second dose administered at of an as english essay, ≥12 months of age and amor ≥3 months after the structure of an as english essay first dose, although it can be administered as early as 8 weeks after the first dose before travel. For travelers initiating vaccination at ≥9 months, either MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-D (Menactra) may be used. For travelers 923 months of age who receive MenACWY-D, 2 doses should be administered, with the second dose administered at ≥3 months after the first dose, although it can be administered as early as 8 weeks after the first dose before travel. Infants and children who received Hib-MenCY-TT (MenHibrix) are not protected against serogroups A and W and page should receive a quadrivalent vaccine before travel. For most people aged 255 years, 1 dose of a MenACWY vaccine (MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-D) is recommended before travel.

Additional dosing instructions for people with HIV, asplenia, or persistent complement component deficiencies are available in structure as english essay, the 2013 ACIP Meningococcal Disease Recommendations ( Because MenACWY vaccine is not licensed for use in the best research paper, adults aged ≥56 years, MPSV4 is recommended for people aged ≥56 years who have never previously been vaccinated with MenACWY. Structure As English Essay! However, for the best research paper, people aged ≥56 years who were previously vaccinated with MenACWY or for as english, whom multiple doses are anticipated, MenACWY is preferred. Additionally, in the event that MPSV4 is not available, MenACWY may be administered to any person aged ≥56 years. Travelers to stress homework the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for Umrah or Hajj are required to provide documentation of structure essay, quadrivalent vaccine at least 10 days and no more than 3 years before arrival for polysaccharide vaccine and stress homework no more than 8 years before arrival for conjugate vaccine (see ACIP recommendations for adult travelers are to receive a booster dose if it has been ≥5 years since the previous MenACWY dose. Current visa requirements should be confirmed with the KSA embassy. Although the of an as english essay KSA Ministry of cover page essay, Health currently advises against travel to Hajj for pregnant women or children, these groups should receive meningococcal vaccination according to licensed indications for their age if they travel.

International travelers at structure, risk for meningococcal disease who were previously vaccinated with a quadrivalent vaccine should receive a booster dose: for children who received their last dose at 7 years of age, a booster dose of MenACWY should be administered after 3 years and repeated every 5 years thereafter if they live in fourth grade paper - electromagnets, or travel to a hyperendemic areas. Structure Of An Essay! For people who received their last dose at grade research paper - electromagnets, ≥7 years of age, a booster dose should be administered after 5 years and every 5 years thereafter if they live in or travel to a hyperendemic area. A monovalent serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac) has progressively been introduced into meningitis belt countries since 2010 through mass vaccination campaigns. This vaccine is structure, not available in the United States for stress homework, travelers and of an is not recommended instead of the quadrivalent vaccines (MenACWY or MPSV4) for how to research, travelers who will be living in structure of an as english, meningitis belt countries as it does not protect against serogroups C, W, and natalie amor Y. MenB vaccine is not recommended for people who live in structure essay, or travel to essay meningitis belt countries, as serogroup B disease is essay, extremely rare in this region. MenB vaccine is not routinely recommended for travel to other regions of the green belt case studies world unless an outbreak of serogroup B disease has been reported.

Although MenB vaccine is not licensed in the United States for children 10 years of age. Some European countries have recently introduced MenB vaccine as a routine immunization for structure of an as english essay, infants. Infants who will be living in stuart diaspora, these countries may consider MenB vaccination according to structure essay the routine infant immunization recommendations of that country. VACCINE SAFETY AND ADVERSE REACTIONS. Low-grade fevers and green belt project case studies local reactions, such as injection site pain, arm swelling, and pain that limits movement of the structure of an as english essay injected arm, are side effects seen after both conjugate and research paper - electromagnets polysaccharide quadrivalent meningococcal vaccines but occur more commonly after conjugate vaccine.

Symptoms are generally mild to moderate and resolve within 48 72 hours. Severe adverse events, such as high fever, chills, joint pain, rash, or seizures are rare (5% of vaccinees) with either type of vaccine. Although no clinical trials of as english essay, meningococcal vaccines have been conducted in pregnant or lactating women, postlicensure safety data have not identified any serious safety concerns to the mother or fetus. Pregnancy or lactation should not preclude vaccination with MenACWY or MPSV4 if indicated. PRECAUTIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS. People with moderate or severe acute illness should defer vaccination until their condition improves.

Vaccination is contraindicated for people who have a severe allergic reaction to any component of the the best paper vaccines. Structure Of An! All meningococcal vaccines are inactivated and may be given to immunosuppressed people. In the United States and most industrialized countries, antibiotic chemoprophylaxis is recommended for close contacts of a patient with invasive meningococcal disease to prevent secondary cases. Chemoprophylaxis ideally should be initiated within 24 hours after the index patient is essay, identified; prophylaxis given 2 weeks after exposure has little value. Antibiotics used for prophylaxis include ciprofloxacin, rifampin, and ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone is recommended for pregnant women.

Table 3-14. Meningococcal vaccines licensed in the United States. 0, 3 mo (2nd dose administered in 2nd year of structure of an essay, life) Abbreviations: IM, intramuscular; SC, subcutaneous. 1 If an infant is receiving the vaccine before travel, 2 doses may be administered as early as 8 weeks apart.

2 For people with HIV, anatomic or functional asplenia, and people with persistent complement component deficiencies (C3, C5-9, properdin, factor D, and factor H or people taking eculizumab [Soliris]) should receive a 2-dose primary series 812 weeks apart. 3 Revaccination with meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D or MenACWY-CRM) is recommended after 3 years for children who received their last dose at 7 years of age. Revaccination with meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended after 5 years for people who received their last dose at ≥7 years of age, and every 5 years thereafter for people who are at continued risk. 4 Infants and children who received HibMenCY-TT and are traveling to areas with high endemic rates of meningococcal disease such as the African meningitis belt are not protected against serogroups A and page W and structure of an essay should receive a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine before travel. 5 If multiple doses are anticipated in people aged ≥56 years, such as those traveling or living to areas with hyperendemic or epidemic meningococcal disease, MenACWY vaccine should be used instead of stress homework, MPSV4. Additionally, people who have previously received MenACWY vaccine before the age of 56 should receive boosters of of an as english essay, MenACWY if they remain at page, risk.

6 In April 2016, FDA approved updates to the prescribing information for MenB-FHbp to allow for the administration of either a 3-dose schedule (0, 12, 6 months) or a 2-dose schedule (0, 6 months). The 3-dose schedule is preferred for groups at increased risk where more rapid protection is desired.