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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. With the 2016 AP English Language and Composition exam approaching on paper online, Wednesday, May 11, it’s time to make sure that you’re familiar with all aspects of the exam. In this article, I’ll give a brief overview of the test, do a deeper dive on each of the sections, discuss how the exam is scored, offer some strategies for studying, and finally wrap up with some essential exam day tips. The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. Essentially, how do authors construct effective arguments in their writing? What tools do they use? How can you use those tools to craft effective writing yourself?

That is the essence of creative tutor online, rhetorical analysis. The exam has two parts: the first section is an buy origami online, hour-long, 52-55 question multiple-choice section that asks you questions on the rhetorical construction and techniques of a series of nonfiction passages. The second section is free response. It starts with a 15-minute reading period, and contrast, then you’ll have 120 minutes to write three analytical essays: one synthesizing several provided texts to create an paper uk, argument, one analyzing a nonfiction passage for its rhetorical construction, and one creating an original argument in response to a prompt. You will have about 40 minutes to write each essay, but no one will prompt you to move from essay to essay—you can structure the 120 minutes as you wish.

In the next sections I’ll go over each section of the exam more closely—first multiple choice, and then free response. Outline For Dna! The AP English Language and Composition Multiple-Choice. The multiple-choice section is primarily focused on uk, how well you can read and understand nonfiction passages for university texas dissertations, their use of rhetorical devices and tools. You will be presented with 4-5 passages, about which you will receive a small amount of orienting information, e.g. “This passage is excerpted from a collection of essays on boating” or “This passage is excerpted from an essay written in 19th-century Haiti.” You will be asked somewhere from 10-15 questions per passage. There are, in general, eight question types you can expect to encounter on the multiple-choice section of the exam. I’ve taken my examples from the sample questions in paper uk the “Course and Exam Description.” Magic eight-ball says there are eight types of multiple-choice questions! These questions are focused on verifying that you understood what a certain part of the outline for dna research, passage was saying on a concrete, literal level.

You can identify these questions from phrases like “according to” “refers,” etc. The best way to succeed on these questions is to go back and re-read the part of the passage referred to buy origami paper online very carefully. These questions take reading comprehension one step further—they are primarily focused on what the outline research, author is buy origami paper uk, implying without directly coming out and esl writing comparison essay, saying it. These questions will have a correct answer, though, based on evidence from the buy origami paper online, passage. Which interpretation offered in the answers does the esl writing comparison essay, passage most support? You can identify questions like these from words like “best supported,” ‘“implies,” “suggests,” “inferred,” and online uk, so on. Type 3: Overall Passage and Author Questions. These questions ask about overall elements of the passage or the author, such as the writing, author’s attitude on buy origami, the issue discussed, the purpose of the passage, the passage’s overarching style, the audience for the passage, and so on. You can identify these because they won’t refer back to a specific moment in the text. For these questions, you’ll need to think of the passage from a “bird’s-eye view” and consider what all of the small details together are combining to say.

Type 4: Relationships Between Parts of the Text. Some questions will ask you to describe the relationship between two parts of the text, whether they are paragraphs or specific lines. You can identify these because they will usually explicitly ask about the relationship between two identified parts of the text, although sometimes they will instead ask about a relationship implicitly, by saying something like “compared to outline paper the rest of the passage.” Type 5: Interpretation of Imagery/Figurative Language. These questions will ask you about the deeper meaning or implication of buy origami paper online, figurative language or imagery that is used in the text. Essentially, why did the author choose to use this simile or this metaphor? What is s/he trying to accomplish?

You can generally identify questions like this because the creative writing tutor online, question will specifically reference a moment of figurative language in the text. However, it might not be immediately apparent that the phrase being referenced is figurative, so you may need to go back and look at it in the passage to be sure of what kind of buy origami uk, question you are facing. Type 6: Purpose of Part of the Text. Still other questions will ask you to essay on increasing rate identify what purpose a particular part of the paper online, text serves in the author’s larger argument. What is the author trying to accomplish with the particular moment in the text identified in the question? You can identify these questions because they will generally explicitly ask what purpose a certain part of the text serves. You may also see words or phrases like “serves to” or “function.” These questions will ask you to identify a rhetorical strategy used by the author. They will often specifically use the phrase “rhetorical strategy,” although sometimes you will be able to identify them instead through the university dissertations, answer choices, which offer different rhetorical strategies as possibilities. Some questions will ask you about stylistic moments in the text and the effect created by paper, the those stylistic choices.

What is the creative writing, author evoking through their stylistic choices? You can identify these questions because they will generally mention “effect.” Some very important stylish effects going on here. Buy Origami Online! The AP English Language and Composition Free Response. The free response section has a 15-minute reading period. After that time, you will have 120 minutes to write three essays that address three distinct tasks. Because the first essay involves reading sources, it is creative writing tutor, suggested that you use the paper online uk, entire 15-minute reading period to read the essay review, sources and buy origami paper online, plan the dissertations, first essay.

However, you may want to glance at the other questions during the buy origami paper, reading period so that ideas can percolate in the back of your mind as you work on the first essay. Essay One: Synthesis. For this essay, you will be briefly oriented on an issue and then given anywhere from six-eight sources that provide various perspectives and information on the issue. Esl Writing Comparison Contrast Essay! You will then need to write an online uk, argumentative essay with support from the for dna, documents. If this sounds a lot like a DBQ, as on the history AP exams, that’s because it is! However, this essay is much more argumentative in nature—your goal is to persuade, not merely interpret the documents. In the second essay, you’ll be presented with an excerpt from a nonfiction piece that advances an argument and asked to write an essay analyzing the rhetorical strategies used to construct the passage’s argument. You will also be given some orienting information—where the passage was excerpted from, who wrote it, its approximate date, where it was published (if at all), and to paper uk whom it was directed. In the third essay, you will be presented with an forum essay review, issue and asked to buy origami paper write a persuasive essay taking a position on the issue. You will need to support your position with evidence from outline your “reading, experience, and observations.” This doesn't look like a very well-constructed argument.

How The AP Language and Composition Exam Is Scored. The multiple-choice section of the exam is worth 45% of your score, and the free-response section is worth the other 55%. So each of the three free-response essays is worth about 18% of your score. Paper Uk! As on essays, other APs, your raw score will be converted to a scaled score of 1-5. This exam has a relatively low 5 rate. Only 9.9% of test takers received a 5 last year, although 55% of students received a score of 3 or higher. In terms of how the raw score is obtained, the multiple-choice section is similar to buy origami online uk other AP multiple-choice sections: you receive a point for every question you answer correctly, and school essays, there is no penalty for buy origami paper online, guessing. For each free-response question, you will be given a score from 0-9, based on a rubric. The rubrics all assess, in general, 3 major things: How well you responded to the prompt: Did you completely and fully address all of the tasks presented in research the prompt, without misunderstanding any of them? How convincing and well-supported your argument was: Do you take a clear position that is not overly basic, simplistic, or obvious?

Can you comprehensively support your position with evidence? Is your evidence well-chosen and well-explained? Do you tie everything back to your main argument? Have you thought through the implications of your stated position? How strong your writing was: Does your writing clearly communicate your ideas? Are your sentences not just grammatically correct, but sophisticated? Do you have a consistent style and a strong vocabulary? Is your paper well-organized and logically arranged? Each rubric broadly assesses these three factors. However, each task is also different in nature, so the rubrics do have some differences.

I’ll go over each rubric—and what it really means—for you here. Buy Origami Paper! Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for the score of university texas, 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in buy origami their argument, thorough in development, or impressive in their control of language. Essay! You did everything an 8 essay did, but either your argument is particularly compelling or well-supported, or your writing is particularly effective/sophisticated. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by buy origami paper online, effectively synthesizing at least three of the sources. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and convincing. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. You thoroughly responded to the prompt, successfully using (and citing) at university texas, least three of the paper uk, sources to support your argument. You supported your argument in a persuasive way. Your writing is competent, although there may be some minor errors. Essays earning a score of essay crime society, 7 meet the paper uk, criteria for on increasing crime in today society, the score of 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style.

Your essay did everything a 6 essay does but is either better explained, better argued, or better-written; however, it’s not quite up to an 8 level. Essays earning a score of 6 adequately address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by buy origami paper online uk, adequately synthesizing at forum, least three of the buy origami paper, sources. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and sufficient. The language may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is esl writing comparison essay, clear. You responded to the prompt in a reasonable way. You used and cited at least 3 of the sources in creating your argument. You supported your argument in a reasonably persuasive way, although not as compellingly as an 8 essay. Your writing is online, generally understandable. Essays earning a score of 5 address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by creative tutor, synthesizing at least three sources, but how they use and explain sources is somewhat uneven, inconsistent, or limited.

The writer’s argument is generally clear, and the sources generally develop the buy origami, writer’s position, but the links between the sources and the argument may be strained. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You did respond to the prompt. You used and cited at least 3 of the dissertations, sources in creating your argument, but you did not use all of them particularly effectively. The connection between the documents and your argument is underdeveloped. Your writing is mostly understandable but may have errors. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately address the buy origami online uk, task in the prompt. They develop their argument by synthesizing at paper, least two sources, but the evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The sources may dominate the essay’s attempts at development, the link between the argument and the sources may be weak, or the student may misunderstand, misrepresent, or oversimplify the sources.

The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the elements of effective writing. You did not adequately respond to the prompt. You used and cited at least two sources, but you did not effectively link them to your argument. Your essay may summarize sources instead of truly taking a position, or you may have misread the sources. Your writing is not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of buy origami paper online uk, 4 but demonstrate less success in after high school addressing the task. They are less perceptive in their understanding of the sources, or their explanation or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. Buy Origami! The essays may show less maturity in their control of essay rate, writing. Your essay did not adequately respond to the prompt.

Your interpretation of the sources is incorrect or your argument is overly simplistic. Your writing is overly basic or unclear. Online Uk! Essays earning a score of tutor online, demonstrate little success in addressing the task in the prompt. They may merely allude to knowledge gained from reading the sources rather than cite the buy origami paper, sources themselves. These essays may misread the sources, fail to high essays develop a position, or substitute a simpler task by merely summarizing or categorizing the sources or by merely responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. Buy Origami Online Uk! Essays that score 2 often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of control. You barely addressed the prompt.

You may not cite any sources directly, misunderstand the sources, never take a position, or write things that are not relevant to the prompt. Writing is very weak, including grammatical issues. Essays earning a score of after school essays, 1 meet the criteria for the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation, weak in their control of writing, or do not allude to paper or cite even one source. Your writing barely addressed the prompt. Explanations are extremely simple, writing is incredibly weak, or sources are not used or cited at creative tutor online, all. Indicates an online, off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt.

Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! Time to synthesize this dough into creative writing tutor some cookies. Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for the score of buy origami paper uk, 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in their development, or impressive in their control of esl writing contrast, language. You achieved everything an 8 essay did, but the quality of either your argument or your writing is exceptional. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively analyze the buy origami paper uk, rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument. Essay On Increasing Crime! They develop their analysis with evidence and explanations that are appropriate and convincing, referring to the passage explicitly or implicitly. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is buy origami paper uk, not necessarily flawless. You successfully and persuasively analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt in a way that is strongly supported by specific examples in the text. Your writing is versatile and strong. For Dna Paper! Essays earning a score of 7 meet the criteria for buy origami paper online uk, the score of 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style.

You achieved everything a 6 essay did, but your argument was either better explained or supported or your writing was of a higher caliber. Outline Research! Essays earning a score of 6 adequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument. They develop their analysis with evidence and online uk, explanations that are appropriate and sufficient, referring to the passage explicitly or implicitly. The essay may contain lapses in essay diction or syntax, but generally the prose is online, clear. You successfully analyzed the rate in today, rhetoric of the excerpt, using appropriate references to the text. Your writing was generally understandable. Essays earning a score of 5 analyze the rhetorical strategies used to develop the author’s argument. The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited.

The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You analyzed the rhetoric of the buy origami uk, excerpt, although evidence from the passage may have been poorly used or deployed. Your writing is mostly understandable but may have errors. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument. These essays may misunderstand the esl writing contrast essay, passage, misrepresent the strategies the author uses, or may analyze these strategies insufficiently. The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing.

The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the elements of paper online, effective writing. University Texas Dissertations! You did not analyze the rhetoric in buy origami paper online the passage in a reasonable way. You may have misread the passage or misidentified the author’s rhetorical strategies, or you may simply not have supported your argument enough. Textual evidence may not be appropriate to the task at contrast, hand. Your writing is not consistently clear. Online! Essays earning a score of outline, 3 meet the criteria for the score of buy origami paper, 4 but demonstrate less success in analyzing the rhetorical strategies the essay review, author uses to develop his/her argument. They are less perceptive in buy origami online their understanding of the passage or the author’s strategies, or the explanations or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. The essays may show less maturity in control of writing. A 3 essay has similar weaknesses to a 4 essay, but displays less understanding of the esl writing comparison contrast essay, passage or the author’s intent. The writing may also be even more inconsistent or basic.

Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in paper online uk analyzing the rhetorical strategies used by the author to school essays develop his/her argument. These essays may misunderstand the prompt, misread the passage, fail to analyze the strategies used, or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. Buy Origami Paper Online Uk! The essays often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of crime in today society, control. You barely analyzed the passage. You may have misunderstood the assigned task, seriously misread the passage or the author’s intent, or responded to something other than the prompt. Writing is consistently weak. Online Uk! Essays earning a score of 1 meet the comparison essay, criteria for the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation, or weak in buy origami uk their control of language. A 1 essay is has similar weaknesses to a 2 essay, but is even more poorly supported or poorly written.

Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English. Forum Essay Review! You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! Examine your texts closely! Argumentative Essay Rubric. Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for buy origami online, the score of 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in their development, or particularly impressive in their control of language. You meet the essay review, criteria for an 8, plus you have either a particularly strong argument, strong support, or strong writing.

Essays earning a score of paper, 8 effectively develop a position on the issue presented. Essay! The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and buy origami online, convincing, and tutor, the argument is especially coherent and well developed. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to paper online control a wide range of the elements of crime rate in today, effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. You persuasively address the prompt, using strong evidence to support your argument. Your writing is strong but not necessarily perfect. Essays earning a score of 7 meet the criteria for buy origami online uk, the score of 6 but provide a more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. A 7 essay meets the essays, criteria for a 6 essay but is either better-argued, better-supported, or more well-written.

Essays earning a score of 6 adequately develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and sufficient, and the argument is coherent and adequately developed. Paper Online! The writing may contain lapses in comparison diction or syntax, but generally the prose is buy origami online, clear. You reasonably address the outline paper, prompt, using reasonable evidence to support your argument. Your writing is generally good but may have some mistakes.

Essays earning a score of 5 develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You do address the prompt, although the support for your argument may be sparse or not wholly convincing. Online Uk! Your writing is usually clear, but not always. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The argument may have lapses in coherence or be inadequately developed. The prose generally conveys the comparison essay, student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in buy origami controlling the elements of effective writing.

You do not adequately address the prompt or form a strong argument. Your evidence may be sparse or unconvincing, or your argument may be too weak. University Dissertations! Your writing is uk, not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of texas dissertations, 3 meet the criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in developing a position on the issue. The essays may show less maturity in buy origami paper control of writing. 3 essays meet the criteria for a 4 but have either weaker arguments or less clear writing. Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in developing a position on the issue. Review! These essays may misunderstand the prompt, or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation.

The prose often demonstrates consistent weaknesses in writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of coherence and control. You barely addressed the assigned task. Your essay may misunderstand the prompt. Your evidence may be irrelevant or inaccurate. Paper Online Uk! Your writing is weak on multiple levels. Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for the score of esl writing contrast essay, 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation and argument, weak in their control of language, or especially lacking in coherence. A 1 essay meets the criteria for a 2 but the argument is even less developed or coherent. Indicates an buy origami paper, off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English.

You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! As you can see, the synthesis rubric is focused on how you used sources, the analysis rubric is focused on how well you analyzed the text, and the argument rubric is focused on after school, the strength of your argumentative writing without outside sources. Achieving a high score on an AP Lang and buy origami uk, Comp essay is no easy feat. The average scores on university, essays last year were all under 5, with the Synthesis essay at about a 4.7 and online uk, the other two at just over 4. So even getting a 7 out of 9 is very impressive! You may feel that these rubrics are a little bit vague and frustratingly subjective. And, indeed, what separates a 6 from a 7, a 7 from an comparison contrast, 8, an 8 from a 9 may not be entirely clear in every case, no matter the pains taken by the College Board to standardize AP essay grading. That said, the general principles behind the rubrics— respond to the prompt, build a strong argument, and write well —hold up. If you can write strong essays in the time allotted, you’ll be well on your way to a score of 5 even if your essays got 7s instead of 8s. So what can you do to prepare yourself for the frenzy of uk, AP English Lit activity?

The best kind of frenzy is a puppy frenzy! Unlike its cousin, the AP English Literature and Composition exam, the texas dissertations, AP Language and Composition exam (and course) have very little to do with fiction or poetry. So some students used to more traditional English classes may be somewhat at a loss as to what to do to prepare. Luckily for you, I have a whole slate of preparation tips for you! A major thing you can do to prepare for the AP Lang and Comp exam is to uk read nonfiction— particularly nonfiction that argues a position , whether explicitly (like an op-ed) or implicitly (like many memoirs and personal essays). University! Read a variety of non-fiction genres and topics, and pay attention to the following: What is the buy origami paper online, author’s argument? What evidence do they use to support their position?

What rhetorical techniques and high school, strategies do they use to build their argument? Are they persuasive? What counterarguments can you identify? Do they address them? Thinking about these questions with all the reading you do will help you hone your rhetorical analysis skills. Buy Origami Online! Learn Rhetorical Terms and on increasing crime in today society, Strategies. Of course, if you’re going to be analyzing the nonfiction works you read for their rhetorical techniques and strategies, you need to know what those are! You should learn a robust stable of rhetorical terms from buy origami online uk your teacher, but here’s my guide to the most important AP Language and Composition terms (coming soon). If you want to review, there are many resources you could consult: Wikibooks offers a list of “Basic Rhetorical Strategies,” which explains some of the most fundamental rhetoric-related terms.

MiraCosta college has another good list of some of the most important rhetorical strategies and writing online, devices. A heroic individual from Riverside schools in Ohio uploaded this aggressively comprehensive list of rhetorical terms with examples. Buy Origami Paper! It’s 27 pages long, and you definitely shouldn’t expect to for dna know all of these for the exam, but it’s a useful resource for learning some new terms. Buy Origami Paper Online! Another great resource for learning about rhetorical analysis and university texas dissertations, how rhetorical devices are actually used is the YouTube Channel Teach Argument, which has videos rhetorically analyzing everything from buy origami uk Taylor Swift music videos to Super Bowl commercials. It’s a fun way to think about rhetorical devices and get familiar with argumentative structures. Finally, a great book—which you might already use in your class—is “They Say, I Say.” This book provides an on increasing, overview of rhetoric specifically for buy origami paper uk, academic purposes, which will serve you well for AP preparation and high, beyond. You also need to buy origami uk practice argumentative and persuasive writing. Creative Writing Tutor! In particular, you should practice the paper uk, writing styles that will be tested on the exam: synthesizing your own argument based on multiple outside sources, rhetorically analyzing another piece of high essays, writing in-depth, and creating a completely original argument based on your own evidence and experience.

You should be doing lots of writing assignments in your AP class to prepare, but thoughtful, additional writing will help. You don’t necessarily need to buy origami paper online uk turn all of the outline for dna research paper, practice writing you do into polished pieces, either—just writing for yourself, while trying to address some of these tasks, will give you a low-pressure way to try out different rhetorical structures and argumentative moves, as well as practicing things like organization and developing your own writing style. Not the uk, most auspicious start to an argumentative essay. Finally, you’ll need to practice specifically for essay rate in today, the exam format. There are sample multiple-choice questions in the “AP Course and Exam Description,” and old free-response questions on the College Board website.

Unfortunately, the College Board hasn’t officially released any complete exams from previous years for the AP English Language and Composition exam, but you might be able to buy origami uk find some that teachers have uploaded to forum school websites and buy origami uk, so on by Googling “AP Language complete released exams.” I also have a guide to outline for dna paper AP Language and Composition practice tests (coming soon). Once you’re prepped and ready to go, how can you do your best on the test? AP Language and Composition Test Day Tips. Here are four key tips for test-day success. You are one hundred percent success! When you are reading passages, both on the multiple-choice section and for the first two free-response questions, interact with the text! Mark it up for things that seem important, devices you notice, the author’s argument, and anything else that seems important to the rhetorical construction of the buy origami paper, text.

This will help you engage with the text and university texas, make it easier to answer questions or write an paper online, essay about the passage. Think About Every Text’s Overarching Purpose and Argument. Similarly, with every passage you read, consider the author’s overarching purpose and argument. If you can confidently figure out what the author’s primary assertion is, it will be easier to trace how all of the university, other aspects of the text play into the author’s main point. The single most important thing you can do for yourself on the free-response section of the AP English Language exam is to spend a few minutes planning and outlining your essays before you start to buy origami paper online write them. Unlike on essay review, some other exams, where the content is the most important aspect of the essay, on buy origami uk, the AP Language Exam, organization, a well-developed argument, and esl writing comparison essay, strong evidence are all critical to strong essay scores. An outline will help you with all of these things.

You’ll be able to make sure each part of your argument is logical, has sufficient evidence, and that your paragraphs are arranged in buy origami online a way that is clear and flows well. Anticipate and Address Counterarguments. Another thing you can do to give your free responses an extra boost is to identify counterarguments to your position and outline paper, address them within your essay. This not only helps shore up your own position, but it's also a fairly sophisticated move in a timed essay that will win you kudos with AP graders. Online! Address counterarguments properly or they might get returned to sender!

The AP Language and texas dissertations, Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. The exam has two sections. The first section is an hour-long, 52-55 question multiple-choice test based on buy origami, the rhetorical techniques and creative writing tutor online, strategies deployed in nonfiction passages. The second section is buy origami paper uk, a two-hour free-response section (with a 15-minute initial reading period) with three essay questions: one where you must synthesize given sources to make an original argument, one where you must rhetorically analyze a given passage, and one where you must create a wholly original argument about an issue with no outside sources given. You’ll receive one point for every correct answer on the multiple-choice section of the exam, which is worth 45% of your score. The free-response section is essay crime rate society, worth 55% of your score. For each free-response question, you’ll get a score based on a rubric from 1-9. Your total raw score will be converted to buy origami online a scaled score from 1-5. Here are some test prep strategies for AP Lang: Read nonfiction with an eye for rhetoric Learn rhetorical strategies and forum, techniques Practice writing to deploy rhetorical skills Practice for the exam! Here are some test-day success tips: Interact with each passage you encounter! Consider every text’s overarching purpose and argument.

Keep track of time Plan your essays Identify and address counterarguments in your essays. With all of this knowledge, you’re ready to slay the AP English Language and Composition beast! Noble knight, prepare to slay the AP dragon! Want to improve your SAT score by buy origami paper uk, 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University.

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Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Sunni Muslim Nariman Seytzhanov was given five years' jail for inciting religious hatred by talking about schools of buy origami online Islam to Kazakh pilgrims to after school essays, Saudi Arabia. Satymzhan Azatov's trial on similar charges continues in Astana on 21 June. Five years' suspended sentence handed down in Almaty. The third of four Sunni Muslims who had studied their faith together at buy origami online uk Medina Islamic University before returning to Kazakhstan has been sentenced. A court in creative tutor Kokshetau in Akmola Region sentenced Nariman Seytzhanov on buy origami 9 June to five years' imprisonment for allegedly inciting religious hatred in online talks he gave on Islam to online uk, pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. He denied the accusations.A court in Kazakhstan's commercial capital Almaty sentenced another of the former Saudi students, Denis Korzhavin, on 11 May to five years' restricted freedom after he admitted his guilt.

Like the others, he was punished for texas, allegedly inciting religious hatred under Criminal Code Article 174 (see below).The trial of the buy origami paper fourth, Satymzhan Azatov, on charges of inciting religious hatred is university texas dissertations due to buy origami paper online, resume in the capital Astana on the morning of 21 June (see below).The first of the four to school essays, be sentenced was Kuanysh Bashpayev. Paper Uk? He was sentenced under Criminal Code Article 174 to four and a half years' imprisonment on 7 April at forum review the end of a closed trial in Pavlodar (see F18News 11 April 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2272). Bashpayev does not appear to have appealed against his sentence.A court in uk the southern Kyzylorda Region handed Salafi Muslim Kasimkhan Mukhanbetaskar a suspended sentence of after high two years and ten months for posting Islamic material on social media which prosecutors claimed incited religious hatred. The court, prosecutors and investigators have refused to buy origami paper uk, tell Forum 18 what the material was, so it is impossible to determine either whether freedom of religion or belief has been violated, or if the accused advocated the essay review destruction of others' human rights (see below).Jehovah's Witness prisoner of paper online conscience and cancer sufferer Teymur Akhmedov has lodged his appeal to Astana City Court against his five-year prison term (see below).A court in university Oral (Uralsk) has extended the buy origami uk pre-trial detention of former Saudi-based Imam Abdukhalil Abduzhabbarov as he awaits trial on charges of inciting religious hatred under Article 174 (see below).Atheist writer Aleksandr Kharlamov – under investigation in East Kazakhstan Region under Criminal Code Article 174 - has dismissed an expert analysis which claimed to find incitement to religious hatred in his writings. He has appealed to the Prosecutor for a new analysis (see below).Police in Oral have told a Jehovah's Witnesses that charges against on increasing crime rate him of inciting religious hatred under Criminal Code Article 174 have been dropped. He will be prosecuted under the Administrative Code (see below).Seventh-day Adventist prisoner of buy origami uk conscience Yklas Kabduakasov, imprisoned under Criminal Code Article 174, is due for release at the beginning of October. He has been encouraged in prison in Pavlodar by many letters he has received from outline research paper fellow-Christians around the world (see below).More prisoners of buy origami paper uk conscience punished for exercising freedom of religion or belief have had their bank accounts frozen after being added to the financial blacklist (see below).Kokshetau: Seytzhanov's five year prison termAnother Sunni Muslim who studied his faith in Saudi Arabia has been imprisoned, this time in Akmola Region.

On 9 June Judge Ilyas Kakim at Kokshetau City Court found 28-year-old Nariman Seytzhanov guilty under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 (Incitement of social, national, clan, racial, or religious hatred or discord). Esl Writing Essay? The Judge handed him a five-year prison term in an ordinary regime labour camp, the term the prosecutor had been demanding. He denied the charges.Seytzhanov was also ordered to pay a fee of 91,693.58 Tenge, according to the verdict seen by buy origami paper, Forum 18. This is to writing, cover the cost of buy origami paper expert analyses, completed on 13 January and 14 March, of his three recorded lectures.Seytzhanov intends to appeal to Akmola Regional Court, a friend told Forum 18 on on increasing 15 June.Seytzhanov's closed trial began on 25 April. The verdict was handed down at a closed session and online uk, no other parties were allowed into the courtroom to hear it being read, one of essay on increasing in today society Seytzhanov's friends told Radio Free Europe's Kazakh Service the same day.Seytzhanov – who had studied his faith in Saudi Arabia – worked in a travel agency in Astana. He led a group of pilgrims on the umra pilgrimage to Mecca in paper online uk October 2016. University Texas Dissertations? He was arrested by online uk, Kyrgyzstan's National Security Committee (NSC) secret police in January 2017. They handed him over to after, Kazakhstan's National Security Committee (KNB) secret police.Seytzhanov was formally arrested in Kazakhstan on 15 January. He has been held since his arrest in Kokshetau's Interior Ministry Investigation Prison No. 20 (see F18News 18 April 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2273).Prosecutors accused Seytzhanov of inciting religious hatred by uk, speaking negatively of outline for dna paper mashabs [schools of uk Islamic thought] on the basis of talks he gave while leading pilgrims on the umra pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia in October 2016. Three audio-recordings were placed on the internet.

Prosecutors alleged he had recorded them and forum essay review, made them public.However, Seytzhanov's lawyer Bakhyt Suleimenova denied this to Radio Free Europe's Kazakh Service. Online? She said he did not know who had made the recordings or uploaded them to essay crime, the internet. Nothing in paper uk these talks was against the law, Suleimanova told Radio Free Europe.He simply explained to people how to conduct the haj or umra pilgrimage, and explained in general the fundamentals of the high school religion so that all we Muslims and all people would be in unity, his friend told Radio Free Europe, so that there would be no schisms, as in Syria or Ukraine where murders take place, that the people would not be divided. Seytzhanov also called on his listeners to respect the President so that no one would go against the government and obey imams.The Judge ordered the hearings closed allegedly to protect the identity of two witnesses who feared for their safety.Suleimanova questioned why the hearings needed to be closed. Buy Origami Uk? According to the Criminal Procedure Code, this is for when there are sexual crimes, such as rapes.Only Nariman's wife was able to attend the trial, a friend of Seytzhanov told Forum 18 on university texas dissertations 15 June. None of buy origami paper his other friends or relatives were allowed into the court building.Almaty: Korzhavin's five years' restricted freedomAn Almaty-based Sunni Muslim received a suspended sentence after admitting his mistake. Creative Tutor Online? At a one-day trial on 11 May, Judge Nariman Begaliyev of the city's Almaly District Court found Denis Korzhavin guilty under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 (Incitement of social, national, clan, racial, or religious hatred or discord). The Judge handed him a five-year term of paper restricted freedom.Korzhavin was punished for lectures in Russian based on the Arabic-language Muslim book The Three Fundamental Principles. This was banned in Kazakhstan in 2014. Essay? Recordings of the lectures were posted on the internet. Experts appointed by the prosecution claim to have found incitement to paper online, hatred in Korzhavin's lectures.In February 2014, Astana's Saryarka District Court found a book at least partly written by Salafi Muslim Mohammed ibn Abdul-Wahhab extremist.

The book - a Russian translation of the work Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Islam – is writing tutor 543 pages and was published in Cairo in buy origami online 2008. Mohammed ibn Abdul-Wahhab helped found a precursor to the present-day kingdom of Saudi Arabia (see F18News 10 October 2014 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2005).The comparatively mild sentence followed Korzhavin's admission of guilt in court and paper, an agreement before the trial between Police Investigator Aleksei Chapurin and buy origami paper, Dauren Sagindykov of the Prosecutor's Office on writing one side and paper online, Korzhavin and his lawyer Ruslan Dzhaniyev on the other.As part of the review agreement, Korzhavin pledged to call publicly for peace and unity between religions and to ask people not to buy origami paper online, circulate copies of his lectures. University Texas Dissertations? He recorded such a video-message which was posted on paper the internet.Under the sentence, Korzhavin will need permission to leave Almaty or change his place of residence and will have to undergo educational work organised by the probation service, Radio Free Europe's Kazakh Service noted on 11 May.Korzhavin, who is now 34 and married with four children, was freed in the courtroom. He had been held since his 18 February arrest in Almaty's Investigation Prison. Texas Dissertations? Both he and his lawyer told Radio Free Europe that he would not be appealing against the sentence.Korzhavin – an ethnic Russian who converted to Islam - had studied his faith at Medina Islamic University in Saudi Arabia.

He returned to Kazakhstan in online uk 2011 (see F18News 18 April 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2273).Astana: Azatov's trial continuesThe trial in Astana of essay another of the former students from Medina Islamic University, 27-year-old Satymzhan Azatov, is due to continue at 11 am on uk 21 June, according to court records. His trial began under Judge Bolat Pazylov at Astana's Saryarka Court No. Creative Writing Tutor Online? 2 on buy origami online uk 29 May.At the after high essays most recent hearing on buy origami online uk 13 June, Azatov renounced his state-appointed lawyer. For Dna Research Paper? Instead he chose Baurzhan Azanov and Aiman Umirova to buy origami paper online uk, represent him.The trial is open, but it is taking place in a small courtroom that can accommodate only 15 spectators, a friend of Azatov told Forum 18 on 14 June. Officials allow in some of his friends and relatives, then claim that the courtroom is full. Astana KNB opened a case against Azatov in late December 2016 under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 (Incitement of social, national, clan, racial, or religious hatred or discord). Review? He had met with other Muslims in Astana without state permission. He was arrested on 4 January 2017 (see F18News 18 April 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2273).Azatov is accused of inciting religious hatred in his remarks to guests at a meeting in a cafe in Astana in September 2016 (of which the KNB secret police obtained a recording) and at a subsequent meeting in a home in the city.Azatov and Seytzhanov (who was also present at the cafe) were given administrative fines in November 2016 to buy origami paper online, punish them for the meeting (see F18News 6 February 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2253).The prosecution has again turned to Roza Akbarova to provide expert analysis, including during the trial. She claimed that he had spoken negatively of for dna paper Shia Muslims, stating that they had blown up a mosque.Akbarova provided analysis which helped convict Seventh-day Adventist Yklas Kabduakasov (see below) and Jehovah's Witness Teymur Akhmedov (see below).At an 8 June hearing, Azatov called for Judge Pazylov to be removed from the case, Radio Free Europe's Kazakh Service noted the same day.

Azatov described the trial as a theatre show.Kyzylorda: Muslim sentenced – for what?Because of the secrecy surrounding cases of buy origami paper uk alleged incitement to religious hatred and the closure of many of the trials, many cases remain unknown. Even in cases which are known it can be impossible to establish if an individual has been punished for statements that do not call for harm to esl writing comparison essay, the human rights of others.One such is that of Salafi Muslim Kasimkhan Nabiuly Mukhanbetaskar (born 19 April 1992) in buy origami uk the southern Kyzylorda Region. The Police Anti-Extremism Department found in November 2016 that he had distributed audio-recordings on social media that incited religious hatred, according to research paper, a 19 April police statement, issued after he was sentenced. It described him as an buy origami paper adherent of creative writing online a destructive religious tendency.On 15 March 2017 Judge Kumisbai Kusekeyev of Kyzylorda Court No. 2 found Mukhanbetaskar guilty of violating Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 (Incitement of social, national, clan, racial, or religious hatred or discord). Paper? The Judge handed him a suspended sentence of two years and ten months, according to the police statement. He also ordered him to pay fees for expert analyses of 233,282 Tenge.Mukhanbetaskar appealed against his sentence.

Judge Sabit Abdikanov of Kyzylorda Regional Court heard his appeal on 30 May, Court officials told Forum 18 on 2 June. They said the hearing was open, but that in addition to the Judge only Mukhanbetaskar, his lawyer Toktarbek Myrzambetov and the prosecutor were present.However, Court officials refused to say what decision the creative writing tutor online Judge handed down. Forum 18 was unable to buy origami, reach Judge Abdikanov the same day. Forum 18 has also been unable to reach lawyer Myrzambetov.Askhat Mukhtarov of the Police Investigation Department led the case against Mukhanbetaskar. However, colleagues said he had been transferred to Zhalagash District. Officers there told Forum 18 on 2 June that he was ill. Yerkin Sagymbayev, deputy head of the Anti-Extremism Department of the essay crime rate in today society Regional Police refused to answer any of Forum 18's questions on the case, citing the secrecy of the investigation. Yerlan Zhamalbek of the Prosecutor's Office told Forum 18 that it cannot give information by telephone.Astana: Jehovah's Witness Akhmedov appealsOn 2 May Astana's Saryarka Court No. 2 sentenced Jehovah's Witness prisoner of conscience Teymur Akhmedov to five years' imprisonment on charges of inciting religious hatred under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 2.Akhmedov was punished for discussing his faith with seven young men who were KNB secret police informers but claimed to be students. He was also banned from conducting ideological/preaching activity in the area of religion for three years after the end of his sentence (see F18News 3 May 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2277).Akhmedov, who is now 61, has been in prison since his 18 January arrest. Asaf Guliyev, arrested with him on the same charges, was sentenced to five years' restricted freedom on 24 February (see F18News 7 March 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2262).Akhmedov's appeal against his sentence reached Astana City Court on paper online uk 31 May, according to court records.

No date has yet been set for a hearing.Oral: Abduzhabbarov's further month in pre-trial detentionIn early June Oral (Uralsk) City Court extended the pre-trial detention of Sunni Muslim Imam Abdukhalil Abduzhabbarov for a further month, until 18 July, Saule Kaisarova, head of the Court chancellery, told Forum 18 from Oral on 14 June.The KNB secret police arrested 41-year-old Imam Abduzhabbarov, extradited from Saudi Arabia at forum Kazakhstan's request, as he arrived at Almaty Airport on 18 February. He was then transferred to Oral in West Kazakhstan Region (see F18News 21 February 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2259).A KNB secret police Investigator is paper online investigating Abduzhabbarov under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 (Incitement of outline for dna research social, national, clan, racial, or religious hatred or discord) and Criminal Code Article 256, Part 2.Article 256, Part 2 punishes: Propaganda of terrorism or public calls to buy origami, commit terrorism - which includes the esl writing contrast essay production, storage for distribution or distribution of [unspecified in the Article] specified materials - committed by an individual using a state or non-state official position, or with the use of the paper uk mass media or other communication networks, or with foreign support, or in a group. Forum Review? The punishment is uk seven to 12 years' imprisonment with confiscation of property.Ridder: Atheist writer Kharlamov appeals to ProsecutorOn 13 June, atheist writer and blogger Aleksandr Kharlamov wrote to the Prosecutor of forum essay review East Kazakhstan Region where he lives, Bagban Taimbetov, asking for a new expert analysis. He complains that ignorant or unscrupulous experts of the Regional Judicial Expert Analysis Institute had claimed to find incitement of religious hatred in buy origami his writings on religion.However, I live in a secular state and am not obliged to have a positive attitude to forum review, religions and speak positively about religions and religious people, all the more about religious people committing crimes against buy origami paper online humanity and against the truth, he told Prosecutor Taimbetov in his letter seen by Forum 18.Kharlamov complained that the experts had illegally distorted the essence of my publications. He stressed that as a human rights defender he calls on everyone to respect the human rights of esl writing comparison essay religious people of uk any religious confession.Police opened the second case against forum essay Kharlamov in online uk autumn 2016 under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1. He has not been arrested but remains under travel restrictions in essay on increasing his home town of Ridder. The first criminal case against him on similar charges, opened in January 2013, has possibly been suspended but never closed (see F18News 7 March 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2262).Oral: Jehovah's Witness investigated but to be punished administrativelyPolice in paper online Oral told a local Jehovah's Witness on 12 April he was being investigated under Criminal Code Article 174, Jehovah's Witnesses told Forum 18. Writing Tutor? The criminal case was launched after the man gave an interested person a copy of the Jehovah's Witness publication What Does the Bible Really Teach?Police claimed the book is extremist as it has been banned in neighbouring Russia. No Jehovah's Witness publications are known to have been banned as extremist in Kazakhstan, although KNB secret police-appointed experts claim 16 of 90 Jehovah's Witness publications seized from Akhmedov in Astana at the time of his January arrest (see above) contain extremist passages.Police in Oral also questioned four other Jehovah's Witnesses in connection with the criminal case.

They ordered an expert analysis of What Does the Bible Really Teach?Police later dropped the criminal case and the Jehovah's Witness is now being investigated under the Administrative Code.Criminal investigations under Article 174 are known to have been launched against buy origami Muslims, Council of Churches Baptists and commercial booksellers which were subsequently dropped. In all the known cases, individuals are then punished under the on increasing rate society Administrative Code (see F18News 7 March 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2262).Pavlodar: Kabduakasov in prison encouraged by lettersSeventh-day Adventist prisoner of conscience Yklas Kabduakasov – who failed in his attempts to buy origami uk, seek early release – is due to complete his labour-camp sentence in early October, his pastor Andrei Teteryuk said. Attempts were made to provoke incidents to use against him, but thank God they came to nothing, he told Forum 18 from Astana on 15 June.Kabduakasov was in December 2015 sentenced to two years in university dissertations a labour camp under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1. He was punished for discussing his faith with students recruited by paper online, the KNB secret police in a KNB-rented flat (see F18News 29 December 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2136).Kabduakasov is essay review serving his two-year prison sentence in a labour camp in buy origami paper the northern city of Pavlodar. University Texas Dissertations? Yklas gains strong moral encouragement from letters from online around the contrast essay world which Christians are sending him every day! Pastor Teteryuk added. Paper Uk? It is forum essay also a powerful testimony for paper online, the labour-camp administration.More prisoners of conscience on financial blacklistSeven Sunni Muslim men sentenced in Sairam in South Kazakhstan Region have been added to outline for dna, the Finance Ministry Financial Monitoring Committee List of individuals connected with the financing of terrorism or extremism.All known prisoners of paper online conscience convicted under Criminal Code Article 174 and Article 405 (involvement in the activity of a banned organisation) have been added to this List, thus freezing any bank accounts they may have, without any additional due legal process. As individuals are not told when they are added to the List, they normally only find out they have been added when they or relatives attempt to withdraw money from their bank (see F18News 10 June 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2187).The seven Muslims added to the financial blacklist on 19 May were Bakhytzhan Baimusayev, Abduvakhab Shakirov, Furkhat Abatayev, Abdivasit Abdirazakov, Murodzhon Abdullayev, Zhenisbek Manbetov and Meirambek Sarymsak.All seven were convicted for alleged membership of the Muslim missionary movement Tabligh Jamaat, which the Kazakh authorities banned in 2013. They were sentenced on 4 April under Criminal Code Article 405. On Increasing Rate? All were given prison terms of between one and four years, plus a ban on unspecified activity once the online prison terms are over (see F18News 3 May 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2277).Five Sunni Muslim former prisoners of conscience, all imprisoned under Criminal Code Article 405 to outline for dna research paper, punish them for alleged membership of the Muslim missionary movement Tabligh Jamaat, have been removed from the financial blacklist: Rashid Erimbetov on 18 April; Ruslan Abirov on 28 April; Erbol Sharipov on 15 May; and Serik Seitzhaparov and Adi Bakyt on 2 June.Erimbetov, Abirov and Sharipov were among four Muslim men each sentenced in the southern Zhambyl Region in December 2015 to one year's restricted freedom. Buy Origami? Seitzhaparov was sentenced in after high Akmola Region in February 2016 to two years' restricted freedom.

Bakyt was sentenced in April 2015 in buy origami paper uk Aktobe Region to dissertations, two years' restricted freedom (see F18News http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2223). (END) An anti-extremism raid on a Kokshetau shop captured a Koran and buy origami online uk, other Muslim books. The seller was fined for selling religious materials without state permission. She will have to appeal if she wants to regain the books. Icon and book sellers are often fined.

In an texas Anti-Extremism Police raid on a shop in Kokshetau in online Kazakhstan's northern Akmola Region, officials seized an Arabic-language Koran and Muslim books in Kazakh and esl writing comparison essay, Russian on how to pray the namaz. The woman who had the buy origami books on sale was fined in early May, not for extremism-related activity but for university, selling Muslim literature without the state licence required to sell any religious literature and online uk, materials. She has to appeal if she wants the books returned, officials told Forum 18.A case against a Baptist in the nearby town of Stepnogorsk for offering Christian literature to others without state permission was dismissed because it had been lodged too late. After High School Essays? Another Baptist is buy origami paper online uk challenging the Judge due to hear his case (see below).In other cases in North Kazakhstan, West Kazakhstan and after school, Kyzylorda Regions, individuals have been fined for offering or selling religious literature on the streets. In Karaganda Region two Jehovah's Witnesses were punished for missionary activity for talking to others about their faith with the use of literature. Two young Muslims were punished in uk Karaganda Region for sending Muslim texts on the Telegram messaging app. In Atyrau a court fined a woman for offering for sale nine Christian icons, while the same court fined a Muslim for teaching his faith with Muslim texts (see below).Officials often claim that those distributing or selling religious literature which has not undergone compulsory state religious censorship or in a place not approved to sell religious literature are guilty of spreading extremism. Those who distribute non-approved Islamic texts are also often accused of distributing literature of forum non-traditional Islam.The government allows only one Muslim organisation to buy origami online uk, function, the state-backed Muslim Board, which is Hanafi Sunni. It bans all other forms of Islam, although this ban is not prescribed in for dna any law (see Forum 18's Kazakhstan religious freedom survey http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=1939).Restrictions on who can sell religious literature and where has stopped online retailers from offering religious books, though confusion abounds as to paper online uk, what constitutes religious literature (see below).Reached on 22 May, acting head of the writing tutor online Religious Affairs Committee Bakhytzhan Kulekeyev declined to discuss the buy origami paper uk state-imposed religious censorship – or anything else – with Forum 18.In addition to seizing religious books, icons and other items being sold or distributed without state permission, officials often seek the banning of religious books and webpages as extremist. State-appointed experts ruled that statements by German Lutheran Pastor and Nazi-era political prisoner Martin Niemoller – published 70 years ago – are extremist.

Prosecutors may lodge a banning suit to court (see forthcoming F18News article).Tight state censorshipAll religious literature is under tight state censorship. Only books and other items approved by university texas, the Religious Affairs Committee, which is part of the Religion and Civil Society Ministry in the capital Astana, are allowed to be sold, distributed, printed or imported. In addition, only registered religious organisations (on their own premises) and buy origami paper uk, book sellers with a state licence are allowed to sell or distribute religious literature (see Forum 18's Kazakhstan religious freedom survey http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=1939).Anti-extremism legal changes which came into force in research paper January restricted imports of religious literature for personal use to one copy of buy origami paper any one book (see F18News 5 January 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2243).Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 of the Administrative Code punishes: Violating the requirements of the Religion Law for .. import, manufacturing, production, publication and/or distribution of religious literature and other religious materials, and items for religious use. The punishment for individuals is a fine of 50 Monthly Financial Indicators (MFIs).Administrative Code Article 490, Part 3 punishes: Carrying out missionary activity without state registration (or re-registration), as well as the use by missionaries of religious literature, information materials with religious content or religious items without a positive assessment from a religious studies expert analysis, and spreading the teachings of a religious group which is not registered in Kazakhstan. The punishment is for dna research paper a fine of 100 MFIs, with deportation if the buy origami paper uk individual is essay review a foreign citizen.A fine of 50 MFIs represents about a month's average wage for those in work.No religious books at paper online uk online retailersThe requirement to have a state licence before a commercial book-seller can sell any religious literature means that online book retailers cannot sell religious literature. Unfortunately we don't currently sell literature with religious themes, one Kazakhstan-based online retailer told Forum 18 from Almaty in late March. Since the 2011 Religion Law came in, such literature can only be sold in specialised shops or through religious organisations.However, confusion surrounds what constitutes a religious book. Some online retailers still sell Leo Tolstoy's Confession, in research paper which the online Russian novelist grappled with the essay on increasing rate in today meaning of human existence, or his The Thoughts of Wise Men, a collection of sayings, including from the Christian Gospels, the Talmud and paper online, Buddhist wisdom.Kokshetau: Selling banned religious literatureAnti-extremism police officer Y. Yergaliyev and Regional Religious Affairs Department Chief Specialist Galina Bessmertnaya raided a shop in a shopping centre in Kokshetau in Akmola Region on the afternoon of 7 February. University? The two had seen that religious literature was on sale.The officials seized all the uk religious books they could find: 57 copies of 14 different publications, according to the subsequent court decision. These included an essay on increasing crime society Arabic-language Koran and Muslim books in Kazakh and Russian, among them several on how to pray the paper online uk namaz.Officials sent the university dissertations books to buy origami paper, the Religion and Civil Society Ministry's Religious Affairs Committee in the capital Astana for expert analysis. The Committee told Akmola Regional Religious Affairs Department that the dissertations books were religious.On 31 March Bessmertnaya drew up a record of an buy origami offence against essay on increasing in today the seller of the paper online books, Vera Yafyasova, under Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1 for selling religious materials without the compulsory state approval.A 20 April Police statement on the case claimed that the Muslim literature Yafyasova had on university texas dissertations sale was banned in Kazakhstan.A case was sent to Kokshetau Specialised Administrative Court.

The hearing was repeatedly delayed because religious affairs official Bessmertnaya failed to buy origami paper online uk, come to court. On 5 May, Judge Serik Tuleyev found Yafyasova guilty and fined her 10 MFIs, 79,415 Tenge, according to the decision seen by Forum 18. It said the forum fine had been reduced because she had admitted her guilt and online uk, expressed remorse in court and because of her financial position. The court decision did not say whether or not the on increasing crime in today seized books were to be returned to her or not. Uk? Bessmertnaya defended the essay review seizure of the Muslim books. All was done in accordance with the law, she told Forum 18 from Kokshetau on 22 May. Yafyasova can apply to get the books back – there must be an official document before they can be returned. She then put the phone down.The head of the Regional Religious Affairs Department, Bolat Kasenov, insisted to Forum 18 the buy origami paper uk same day that Yafyasova and others need state permission before they can sell any religious book or item. We're not violating anyone's rights – just read the law.Kasenov said the tutor online books are currently at the court as they constituted evidence in the case.Stepnogorsk: Offering literature on streetsPolice stopped two Baptists, Valery Zhigalov and Ruslan Sadvakasov, on 28 January as they were offering Christian literature to passers-by on the street outside the Siberia shopping centre in the town of Stepnogorsk in Akmola Region.

Officers seized all their literature, 136 copies of paper online uk various books, claiming that religious literature can be distributed only in state-approved locations, Baptists complained to on increasing, Forum 18. Buy Origami Uk? The Christian library has run continuously for university texas, 27 years, Baptists explained to Forum 18 on paper online 14 April.Police took the esl writing two men to the police station. They told them that they would send the books for expert analysis.On 5 April, Bessmertnaya of buy origami online uk Akmola Regional Religious Affairs Department drew up records of an offence for each of the two Baptists under Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1, Point 3. The cases were then handed to Stepnogorsk Town Court on 10 April.Zhigalov's case was handed initially to creative writing, Judge Gulmira Toleubayeva. However, he submitted a motion to have her replaced by another judge.On 17 May, Judge Aisulu Mamilyanova dismissed the case against Sadvakasov, according to the decision seen by Forum 18. Although she found that his unapproved distribution of online uk religious literature had been illegal, she dismissed the contrast case became the online uk case had been submitted to court beyond the legal two-month deadline. The Judge did not say in her decision what should happen to comparison contrast, the confiscated books.Bessmertnaya – who was present at Sadvakasov's hearing – would not discuss the cases with Forum 18.Ualikhanov: Offering literature on streetsOn 2 March, Ualikhanov District Court in North Kazakhstan Region punished a local Baptist, Roman Pugachev, for offering religious literature to others without state permission. Judge Serik Temirbekov found him guilty of violating Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 and fined him 50 MFIs, 113,450 Tenge, according to the decision seen by Forum 18. The Judge also banned him from conducting unspecified activity for three monthsAt lunchtime on 18 January, police had stopped him in the village of Novotroitse as he was offering religious literature to passers-by. Police drew up a record of an buy origami paper offence on on increasing crime rate 27 January. Pugachev told the court that he had indeed been offering Christian literature which had been provided on the basis of donations by church members.Oral: Offering literature on streetsA Baptist from Oral (Uralsk) in West Kazakhstan Region was again punished for exercising freedom of religion or belief, this time for offering religious literature to buy origami uk, others.

On 6 February Judge Roza Sariyeva of Oral Specialised Administrative Court found Serkali Kumargaliyev of violating Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, according to the decision seen by essay review, Forum 18. She fined him 50 MFIs, 106,050 Tenge.Kumargaliyev did not attend the hearing, but in a statement denied that he had been on online uk the streets of the town near the university on outline for dna research the afternoon of 7 December 2016 when police claim he was distributing religious literature without state permission.A student told the court that an unknown man had given him a Christian leaflet which his sister had then handed to the police. At the police station the paper student identified Kumargaliyev from creative photos of a number of men officers showed him. On 30 December 2016, police then drew up a record of an offence against Kumargaliyev.In his statement Kumargaliyev freely declared that he often does often Christian literature to others in public places, insisting that praising God is the breath of buy origami paper his life, according to the court decision.However, Baptists insisted to Forum 18 on 11 March that Kumargaliyev made no written statement and had not been informed about the after high court hearing. They say he learnt of paper it only on 23 February, when the written court decision reached him.On 31 January Terekti District Court sentenced Kumargaliyev to three days' imprisonment under Administrative Code Article 669, according to the decision seen by Forum 18.

He was punished for refusing to pay fines handed down in 2013 and 2014 for exercising freedom of religion or belief.On 5 February Kumargaliyev was again fined – this time by the police - for participating in an unregistered meeting for worship. Six fellow-Baptists were fined with him (see F18News 25 April 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2275).Kyzylorda: Selling literature on streetsKyzylorda Regional Anti-Extremism Police detained a 49-year-old local resident selling religious literature on writing the streets of Kyzylorda in a location not approved by the local authorities. Buy Origami? Police claimed in a 28 April statement that the texas individual was of a destructive religious movement, which they did not identify.A record of an offence was prepared and sent to Kyzylorda Specialised Administrative Court. The book-seller was fined 50 MFIs, according to the police statement. Neither the Court nor the Regional Religious Affairs Department would identify the individual.Police pointed out that the city of Kyzylorda has only three designated bookshops where religious literature and other items can legally be sold.Satpayev: Talking to others about faith, offering newspaperTwo Jehovah's Witnesses were punished in Satpayev in Karaganda Region for talking to a woman about their faith on 12 February without personal state registration as missionaries and buy origami online, distributing religious literature (a book and a magazine) which had not undergone the compulsory state religious censorship. The woman had called the police.On 17 February, police drew up a record of an offence against review Karlygash Zholomanova and Fariza Iskakova under Administrative Code Article 490, Part 3. The cases were then handed to Satpayev Town Court.On 27 February, Judge Zhaksybek Skakov found Zholomanova guilty and fined her 100 MFIs, 226,900 Tenge, according to the decision seen by Forum 18. He ordered that the buy origami online uk book and magazine be held in the case files.On 9 March, Judge Kanat Shaikamalov found Iskakova guilty and similarly fined her 100 MFIs, 226,900 Tenge, according to essays, the decision seen by Forum 18. He ordered that a DVD confiscated from her be held in the case files but that a book confiscated from online her be returned once the decision entered into on increasing crime rate society force.Judge Nadezhda Kuznetsova of Karaganda Regional Court rejected Zholomanova's appeal on 28 March and buy origami online uk, Iskakova's appeal on forum review 6 April, according to the decisions seen by Forum 18.The same Judge Skakov had fined a local Pentecostal, Natalya Konopleva, on 2 November 2016. She had offered ten copies of a Christian newspaper From the Source (published by her congregation, Agape) on buy origami paper online uk 1 October 2016 in the shop where she worked. The Judge found her guilty of outline for dna research violating Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1 and fined her 50 MFIs, 106,050 Tenge. He also ordered that the eight remaining copies of the paper newspaper be held in the case file, according to the decision seen by Forum 18.Judge Yerlan Yermekov of Karaganda Regional Court rejected Konopleva's appeal against after her fine on paper uk 5 December 2016, according to the decision seen by comparison, Forum 18.Karaganda: Online Muslim materialsTwo young Muslims in Karaganda, Eldar Zhakayev and Nurlan Dukenbayev, were fined for posting Muslim materials on paper the Telegram messaging app.

On 12 April, Serik Tlekbayev, head of the department of the Regional Religious Affairs Department that liaises with the police, drew up records of an offence against review the two for distributing such materials without state permission. He also accused them of distributing materials which had not undergone the state censorship and which were not related to traditional Islam.On 5 May, Judge Almagul Aikenova of Karaganda Inter-District Specialised Administrative Court found Zhakayev guilty of buy origami online uk violating Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1, Point 3. She fined him 50 MFIs, 113,450 Tenge, according to the decision seen by Forum 18. Forum? The decision does not identify the material he distributed, but states that it belonged to non-traditional Islam.On 12 May the paper online uk same Judge at the same Court found Dukenbayev guilty under Administrative Code Article 490, Part 3. She fined him 70 MFIs, 158,830 Tenge, according to court records.A 16 May statement from the Internal Policy Department of Karaganda Regional Akimat (administration) accused the two men, who profess non-traditional Islam, of distributing extremist ideology and conducting illegal missionary activity.The telephone of Tlekbayev of the after school Regional Religious Affairs Department went unanswered or was switched off each time Forum 18 called on buy origami paper online uk 22 May. His colleague Kaisar Akbarov told Forum 18 he was unable to explain by phone what constitutes traditional Islam or what law bans Islamic material which the state does not consider to high essays, be in buy origami line with traditional Islam.Atyrau: Icons, Arabic-language materialsOn 1 February Judge Zhanat Khabarov of Atyrau's Specialised Administrative Court found Svetlana Tashieva guilty of violating Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 for selling icons without state permission. He fined her 79,415 Tenge, according to esl writing essay, the decision seen by Forum 18. She was also banned from commercial activity for three months. The Judge ordered that the icons be returned to her.Meiram Kikimbayev, Chief Specialist of the Regional Religious Affairs Department, discovered Tashieva offering nine Christian icons for sale without state permission at her kiosk in an Atyrau shopping centre on 15 November 2016. He drew up a record of an offence against her on 23 January 2017.Icons were seized from online a bookseller in Oral in October 2013 and he was fined for research, selling them and religious literature without a state licence. Buy Origami Uk? An official of the government's then Agency for Religious Affairs in Astana told Forum 18: We have experts to check icons (see F18News 8 January 2014 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=1913).Meanwhile, on 23 February at the same court, Judge Saniya Kenzhaliyeva punished Shirazidin Temirkululy under Administrative Code Article 490, Part 3 for university dissertations, teaching Islam to children at a charitable centre in buy origami paper Atyrau on 27 December 2016. Crime Rate In Today Society? She fined him 100 MFIs, 226,900 Tenge.

She also ordered that Arabic language Muslim books seized from him be returned, according to the decision seen by Forum 18.On 13 March, the Regional Court announced that Atyrau's Specialised Administrative Court fined an individual identified only as T. 79,415 Tenge under Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 for selling Arabic-language Muslim materials in digital format at a stall in the city's Dina market. The Court also banned the individual from commercial activity for three months. Forum 18 has been unable to buy origami online, establish the identity of the forum essay individual punished.People must have state permission to sell icons and online uk, religious materials, including DVDs, in kiosks, Kikimbayev of the Regional Religious Affairs Department told Forum 18 from Atyrau on 24 March. (END) 60-year-old Teimur Akhmedov, a Jehovah's Witness, was found guilty of inciting ethnic, social, religious, family and racial hatred in collusion with a group of other persons. Akhmedov was arrested in January and comparison contrast essay, went on trial on April 6th. On 2 May a Judge in Kazakhstan's capital Astana sentenced Jehovah's Witness prisoner of conscience Teymur Akhmedov to five years' imprisonment for discussing his faith with seven young men who were National Security Committee (KNB) secret police informers but claimed to be students.

He was also banned from conducting ideological/preaching activity in the area of religion for three years after the end of his sentence, a court statement declared.

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Alice attempts to continue with the game, but eventually returns to the Cheshire Cat. There’s a large crowd around it now, and the executioner, the university, King, and the Queen are having a dispute whether the Cat can be beheaded as they can only buy origami paper online uk, see it’s head but no body. Alice tells them that they should ask the Duchess about it, so the Queen orders the executioner to get her out of prison. On Increasing In Today! The Cheshire Cat starts fading and when the Duchess arrives he has disappeared. Alice walks off with the Duchess, who is in a very good mood now.

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When they arrive he is sitting sadly on a rock, sighing loudly. Alice asks what his sorrow is, and the Gryphon answers that he has none. The Mock Turtle starts telling his history which is interrupted by sobbings and long pauses. He tells how he once was a real turtle and went to buy origami online school at the bottom of the sea where his master was an old turtle called Tortoise and essay crime, he took courses like Reeling and Writhing. The Gryphon and the Mock Turtle explain to Alice what sort of dance a Lobster Quadrille is and buy origami paper online, start dancing around her while the Mock Turtle sings the words. Outline For Dna Research! When they’re finished they ask Alice to tell her story. She tells them about her curious day and when she gets to the part about her repeating `You are old, Father William#8217; to the Caterpillar they interrupt her and make her repeat ‘Tis the voice of the Sluggard’, which comes out paper online all wrong too. Then they ask the Mock Turtle to outline sing ‘Turtle Soup’ for them. He is buy origami interrupted with a cry in the distance: #8216;The trial#8217;s beginning!’ Alice and the Gryphon run away and leave the Mock Turtle alone, still singing.

Upon arrival Alice sees the for dna research paper, King and paper, Queen of Hearts sitting on university their throne, with a great crowd assembled about them. Uk! The Knave is standing before them in chains and the White Rabbit has a trumpet in one hand and a scroll of parchment in the other. In the middle of the court is a table with a large dish of tarts upon it. While waiting for the trial to comparison contrast begin, Alice looks around and notices that the King is the judge and that the jurors are not very smart. The White Rabbit starts reading the accusation; he claims that the paper uk, Knave of Hearts stole the tarts. The King wants the jury to consider their verdict, but the Rabbit tells him that they should have the witnesses first. The first witness is the Mad Hatter, accompanied by the March Hare and creative writing tutor, the Dormouse. Alice feels that she is starting to grow again. The Hatter gives no evidence so they move on paper online to the forum essay review, next witness. The next witness is the Duchess’ cook and she is being cross-examined.

She testifies that tarts are made mostly of pepper. To her great surprise Alice herself is being called as the third witness. In the meantime Alice has grown so much that she upsets the jury box when she gets up. She hastily tries to put them back into their places. Buy Origami Paper Online Uk! She tells the King that she knows nothing about the stolen tarts, which he considers very important.

The White Rabbit has to correct him again. Then the King reads from essay crime, his notebook, stating that all persons more than a mile high must leave the court. Alice refuses to leave because she suspects that he made up the rule, and the King tells the jury to buy origami online consider their verdict. Then the White Rabbit brings in a letter, which serves as evidence. The letter contains a verse, written in someone else’s handwriting, which clears up nothing at all. However, the King thinks that it is important but Alice corrects him and explains why the high, verse proves nothing. Eventually the King asks the jury for the third time to consider a verdict, and buy origami online uk, now the Queen contradicts him and says that there should be a sentence first and a verdict afterwards. Alice isn’t afraid to forum essay review contradict her anymore, as she has grown to her full size now, and tells them that they’re nothing but a pack of cards. At this point the whole pack rises up into the air and comes flying down upon her. She tries to beat them off but finds herself lying on the bank, with her head in buy origami uk the lap of her sister, who is brushing away some dead leaves that fell down from the trees upon university, her face. Buy Origami Uk! Alice realises that everything was a dream and tells her adventures to her sister.

As Alice runs off for the tea, her sister thinks about the dream and falls asleep herself, and dreams the same dream as Alice. She continues to dream about how her little sister will eventually become herself a grown woman and how she will always keep the simple and loving heart of her childhood.

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40 mm OQF Marks I, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, NI and NI/I. Probably the best heavy MG AA weapon of World War II, Bofors guns of this type remained in service long after the war ended. This weapon was used on almost every major USA and uk, UK warship of creative tutor online, World War II and was a very potent AA gun. The Germans used Norwegian-produced Bofors guns which they designated as the 4 cm/56 Flak 28 and the Japanese copied a British Army air-cooled Bofors captured at Singapore to produce their 4 cm/60 Type 5. This weapon traces its roots back to a 1918 Krupp design - the Bofors Company was partly owned by German interests until 1930 - but the paper finished product was entirely a Bofors design owing little or nothing to Krupp influence. The first Bofors prototype was finished late in the summer of 1930 and the first automatic shots were fired on essay crime society, 17 October 1930. These initial trials were unsuccessful and it was not until 10 November 1931 that automatic salvos were fired. Buy Origami Paper. Official trials for creative online the Swedish Navy took place on online, 21 March 1932.

The weapon was further refined and the Model 1936 was adopted for production. The British Army first showed interest in these guns in 1933 and placed an order for creative tutor 100 of them in 1937. First Royal Navy shipboard use of air-cooled guns was in late 1941 aboard the battleships Prince of Wales and Nelson and on the cruisers Manchester and online, Erebus, although some ships had earlier been temporarily armed with Army air-cooled guns that had been rescued during the evacuation of the Norway invasion forces in 1940. The British water-cooled version was developed by copying the research Dutch Hazemeyer mounting which had arrived in Britain in 1940 aboard the Dutch minelayer Willem van der Zaan . The first issue of buy origami paper uk, locally produced water-cooled Bofors guns was to the Black Swan class sloop HMS Whimbrel in November 1942. The total number of for dna paper, air-cooled guns built by Australia, Britain and buy origami paper online, Canada is not accurately known but was somewhere between 2,100 and 2,800 plus about 200 to 400 guns supplied from the United States. Water-cooled guns are better documented with 442 Mark IV and 342 Mark XI in service at the end of the war plus 786 water-cooled guns supplied by the USA. High School. These USA weapons had been sent to Britain as a part of buy origami, Lend-Lease or else were installed on ships refitted in outline USA shipyards. The US Army was also interested in this weapon and tested a single air-cooled model in 1937. In 1940 the buy origami paper uk Chrysler Corporation agreed to begin manufacturing air-cooled guns utilizing British blueprints. The USN acquired many of these during the esl writing comparison war, although the buy origami paper quantity used was far less than that of the water-cooled guns. The US Navy had a good deal of pre-war interest in forum essay review this weapon and BuOrd purchased a sample of an buy origami online uk, air-cooled twin version from Bofors in early 1940.

This arrived in New York from crime rate in today, Sweden on 28 August 1940. During the same month, the Dutch escort vessel van Kinsbergen demonstrated these weapons to USN observers in a test off Trinidad. BuOrd formally obtained Swedish licenses in June 1941, although some manufacturing actually started prior to that time. Terms of the license included $500,000 for the manufacturing rights plus $100,000 for two Bofors engineers to help set up production. The two engineers were never sent, so as a result this $100,000 was not paid. Bofors delivered a complete set of metric drawings as part of paper online, their end of contrast essay, this contract. It should be noted that the USN considered the online uk original Bofors Model 1936 design to be completely unsuitable for the mass production techniques required for on increasing rate in today the vast number of guns needed to equip the ships of the US Navy. First, the Swedish guns were designed using metric measurement units, a system all but unknown in the USA at paper uk that time. Worse still, the dimensioning on the Swedish drawings often did not match the essays actual measurements taken of the weapons.

Secondly, the Swedish guns required a great deal of hand work in order to make the finished weapon. For example, Swedish blueprints had many notes on them such as file to fit at paper assembly and drill to fit at writing online assembly, all of buy origami online, which took much production time in creative tutor order to paper implement - there is a story that one production engineer supposedly remarked that the Bofors gun had been designed so as to eliminate the unemployment problems of the Great Depression. Forum Review. Third, the online Swedish mountings were manually worked, while the USN required power-worked mountings in order to university texas attain the fast elevation and training speeds necessary to engage modern aircraft. Fourth, the online uk Swedish twin gun mounting supplied to the USA for evaluation was air-cooled, limiting its ability to outline research paper fire long bursts, a necessity for most naval AA engagements. Finally, the buy origami paper USN rejected the Swedish ammunition design, as it was not boresafe, the essay review fuze was found to be too sensitive for buy origami paper online uk normal shipboard use and its overall design was determined to be unsuitable for texas dissertations mass production. US manufacturers made radical changes to the Swedish design in order to minimize these problems and as a result the guns and mountings produced in the USA bore little resemblance their Swedish ancestors.

For example, all but the buy origami paper uk earliest US guns were built to English measurement units rather than to metric units. To give one additional example of the crime rate in today society design differences made for USA produced weapons; the Chrysler Corporation redesigned ten components to suit mass production techniques and paper online uk, this was claimed to have saved some 7,500,000 pounds (3,402,000 kg) of material and 1,896,750 man hours during a year's production, as well as freeing up 30 machine tools for the production of other components. For ammunition, the fuze designed and produced in Britain was adopted as an interim measure by the USA, but this was considered to be of an unsafe design and on increasing in today, unsuitable for mass production techniques. Fortunately, this fuze was almost immediately replaced by one designed by online uk R.L. Graumann of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory.

This fuze was simple in design and ideally suited to mass production. The new fuze, designated as the Mark 27, was found to rate in today society be 99.9 percent efficient in ballistic acceptance tests, a record not equaled by any other fuze of the time. Both the US Army and the British adopted this fuze for their own production lines. The USN estimated that the adoption of the Mark 27 saved some $250,000,000 during the war. One firm rule adopted early in the redesign process was that any new Allied munition for these weapons needed to be completely interchangeable with existing designs. This allowed ammunition produced by any American or British ordnance manufacturer to be used with any weapon produced by either country, thus greatly simplifying the logistics problems of buy origami paper uk, a world-wide war. The first USN pilot twin was completed in January 1942 and the first quad in April 1942. The first shipboard quad installation was on university texas dissertations, the gunnery-training ship (ex-battleship) USS Wyoming (AG-17) on 22 June 1942, and the first twin installation was on the destroyer USS Coghlan (DD-606) on 1 July 1942. Buy Origami Uk. The USA started a massive production program for these weapons and by December 1942 a monthly production rate of 1,600 Army guns and 135 Navy twin-barrel guns was achieved. A total of about 42,895 guns were built by the end of the war, distributed as 23,897 for the Army, 10,019 for the Navy and Coast Guard, and 8,979 for creative tutor export to other nations.

Even so, the demand was not fully met until well into 1944. By that time, the pre-war 1.1 gun had been almost totally replaced by Bofors guns. To illustrate how many of these weapons were produced by the USA, note that out buy origami online of the more than 400 destroyers built for the USN between 1934 and university dissertations, 1946, only the four destroyers of the pre-war Gridley class (DD-380) and those destroyers sunk early in the war did not receive at least some Bofors guns. Late in World War II, the buy origami paper uk USN started replacing 20 mm Oerlikon guns with the Bofors 40 mm guns, as the smaller weapon was found to be ineffective against tutor, Japanese Kamikazes. However, even the Bofors was determined to paper uk be inadequate against suicide attacks by early 1945, and as a result Bofors guns were in turn replaced during the outline for dna research late 1940s and 1950s with the new rapid fire 3/50 (7.62 cm) designs. Buy Origami Paper Online. It should be noted that although the Bofors gun was probably the best anti-aircraft heavy machine gun of World War II, the USN considered it to be a front-line weapon for only six years.

It did remain in high school essays service in paper online the USN until the 1970s on auxiliary and non-modernized ships, primarily because the 3/50 RF (7.62 cm) replacement program was never fully funded. Early versions of the twin mounting used friction-coupled drives, which quickly wore out on naval ships due to outline for dna research salt contamination. Buy Origami Paper Online Uk. Later versions used hydraulic-coupled drives which eliminated the problem. The development of the Mark 51 director system gave the USA weapons greatly improved accuracy. For example, half of all Japanese aircraft shot down between 1 October 1944 and esl writing essay, 1 February 1945 were credited to the Bofors/Mark 51 combination. See the article on the Mark 51 director on online, the Technical Board for texas dissertations additional information. The USN Mark 1 and Mark 2 Bofors guns were both water-cooled and were used for all twin and quad mountings. The Mark 1 was a left-hand weapon while the Mark 2 was a right-hand weapon. Except for the barrel assemblies, the components were not interchangeable.

These weapons could be fired in single-shot or automatic mode via a selector switch on paper online uk, the side of the slide. The M1 was an air-cooled version originally produced for the US Army. The barrel assemblies for the M1 were interchangeable with those of British and Canadian produced air-cooled weapons. All USN single mountings used a modified version of the Army M1. These guns are recoil operated and essay, use a monobloc barrel with a detachable breech ring, breech casing and automatic loader. Breech block is a vertical sliding type. Although often listed as being 60 calibers long, all of these guns except for the Japanese version were actually 56.25 calibers in length. Additional information on guns produced by buy origami paper uk all nations may be found in the Mount / Turret Data section at the bottom of this page. Germany: 4 cm/56 (1.57) Flak 28.

Japan: 4 cm/60 (1.57) Type 5 (Model 1945) Official Designation: 60 caliber Type 5 4 cm Gun. UK: 40 mm/56.3 (1.57) QF Marks I, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, NI and NI/I. USA: 40 mm/56 (1.57) Mark 1, Mark 2 and M1. UK - Almost all major UK warships of World War II. Germany - Cruisers and S-Boats. Japan - Not in service. Japan: Not in service.

Japan: 1,018 lbs. Texas. (462 kg) [air-cooled] UK: 1,120 to 1,163 lbs. (508 to 528 kg) [depending upon Mark] [water-cooled] USA Mark 1 and Mark 2: about buy origami paper 1,150 lbs. (522 kg) [water-cooled] USA M1: 1,036.5 lbs. (470 kg) [air-cooled] UK: 145.3 to university 145.5 in (3.691 to 3.696 m) [depending upon Mark] USA: 148.8 in (3.780 m) Japan: 94.5 in (2.400 m)

UK: 88.578 in (2.250 m) USA: 88.6 in (2.250 m) Japan: 78.8 in (2.000 m) UK: 75.85 in (1.927 m) USA: 75.85 in (1.927 m) Japan: (16) 0.0098 in paper deep (0.25 mm)

UK: (16) 0.0236 in contrast essay deep x 0.220 (0.60 x 5.59 mm) USA Mark 1 and buy origami paper, Mark 2: (16) 0.0236 in deep x 0.220 (0.60 x 5.59 mm) [water-cooled] USA M1: (16) 0.0225 in deep x 0.220 (0.057 x 5.59 mm) [air-cooled] UK: 0.0892 in (2.66 mm) USA: 0.0892 in (2.66 mm) Japan: Uniform RH 1 in 30. UK: Increasing RH 1 in 45 to 1 in 30. USA: Increasing RH 1 in 45 to 1 in 30. USA: 28.3 in 3 (0.464 dm 3 ) (see Notes 2 and forum essay, 7) 140 to paper online 160 rounds per minute when firing horizontal (gravity assist) The official designation for British guns was Ordnance, Quick Firing (usually abbreviated as OQF) 40 mm Mark (whatever).

For example, OQF 40 mm Mark IX was the after high school essays designation of the gun used in the Mark V mounting. A modification kit was produced around 1970 which increased the rate of fire to 180 rounds per minute and the magazine capacity to 20 rounds by buy origami online uk using a banana feeder fed by standard four-round clips. USN Mark 1 guns fed from the school left while the paper uk Mark 2 guns fed from the right. Manually loaded M1 guns fed from the left. The standard automatic loader holds two four-round clips. When the first four-round clip is inserted into the feeder, the clip itself is on increasing crime in today society stripped off and falls out onto the deck (the clip chute is a cut out just below the loader; left side for a left gun and buy origami paper uk, right side for a right gun). The second clip is then dropped into university dissertations, the loader and pushed down so that it forces a round through the loader star wheels and onto buy origami uk, the rammer tray. This first round only had to be manually pushed through when the gun was initially loaded, the loader will automatically feed rounds from new clips.

The second clip does not drop out until the first two rounds (of eight) are fired. The gun loader feed guides normally held eight rounds (two clips), although ten rounds could be loaded with two loose rounds between clips. To get the gun ready to fire the essay crime rate in today society first round, a cocking lever is used to manually move the rammer to buy origami paper uk the cocked position, rotate the star wheels a quarter turn and lower the university breech block. Buy Origami Paper Online Uk. If no rounds are in the autoloader, then two clips must be inserted as described above to push the for dna research bottom round onto the rammer tray. Unlike most weapons, triggering the Bofors gun by buy origami uk depressing the firing foot pedal does not actually fire the weapon. Instead, it starts the loading cycle which once in progress made the entire firing and loading operations completely automatic. At the start of writing tutor online, this cycle, the spring-powered rammer is released, pushing the round on the rammer tray into the breech which automatically closes when the cartridge case rim strikes the paper actuator. The breech closing actuates the firing sequence which ends when the firing pin strikes the primer cap in the base of the cartridge case and fires the weapon. Texas. Recoil then opens the breech block, pushes the rammer back into the cocked position and the extractor arms pull the buy origami cartridge case out and back over university texas the rammer tray and down a semi-circular chute that guides the spent case out under the gun barrel. As the breech block moves forward during counter-recoil, it causes the buy origami star wheels in the autoloader to make a quarter turn which drops the essay next round onto paper uk, the rammer tray. In automatic mode, this cycle will repeat as long as the firing pedal is university texas depressed and at least two rounds of ammunition remain in the autoloader.

Most Bofors guns, including the USN Mark 1 and Mark 2 guns, had a loader interlock which automatically halted firing when there were only two rounds remaining in the weapon, one on the rammer tray and one in the autoloader. This allowed firing to buy origami online be quickly resumed when a new clip was dropped into creative writing, the loader. USN M1 guns differed by online uk having a selector switch on the back of the loader at the center, bottom rear. This switch could be set to forum review disable the interlock such that the M1 could fire all eight rounds in the autoloader or it could be set to buy origami paper stop the comparison essay gun when only two rounds were remaining, similar to other Bofors guns. If all rounds were fired, then the first loader would have to start from the beginning to drop in two clips and push on the top so that the bottom round would rotate through the loader star wheels and drop onto the rammer tray. The gun would then resume firing when the pointer pushed his foot pedal. As noted above, most Bofors guns stopped firing when there were two rounds remaining in the weapon or when the online foot pedal was released. Unloading these two or more rounds at in today cease fire involved pointing the weapon up at uk a 30 degree angle, working the cocking lever to eject the round on the loader tray and then using special tools to remove the remaining rounds from the autoloader. Texas Dissertations. It was up to buy origami paper online the second loader to properly orientate each clip when he handed it to university texas the first loader so that all the first loader had to do was drop it into the feed lips of the buy origami paper online autoloader. Since the Bofors gun cycled between 120 to 160 rounds per esl writing contrast minute (one clip every 1.5 to 2 seconds), the paper online first loader had to do a quick pick up, turn, and drop action in order to keep up with it. If the clip was not orientated properly during the hand-over, then the essay on increasing crime first loader would have to juggle it in order to position it properly before it could be dropped into the autoloader, thus slowing down the loading cycle.

Being too slow would interrupt the firing cycle - hence the reason for the loader interlock. The British considered that skillful loaders could keep a gun firing for about 24 rounds (six clips) without a pause. Buy Origami Uk. Perhaps unusually for US guns, the essay bores of these weapons were not chromium plated. Buy Origami Paper Online Uk. Ammunition was percussion fired in all models. In US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2 it is stated that the Japanese in copying a captured British air-cooled gun 'increase[d the] barrel length from 2160 mm (85.1) to 2400 mm (94.57)'. Writing Online. This dimension is usually taken as being the paper online uk overall barrel length in after most references (see for example Naval Weapons of World War Two). However, this dimension cannot be the overall barrel length, as British-built Bofors guns had a bore length of 88.578 in (2.250 m) - 56.3 calibers, while their overall length was about 145.3 in (3.691m).

As the rifling length given in O-47(N)-2 for the Type 5 is significantly longer than that for the British Bofors, I believe that the dimensions given in O-47(N)-2 for barrel lengths must actually be for the bore lengths and buy origami paper, use this assumption in constructing this data page. German Naval Guns: 1939 - 1945 by Miroslaw Skwiot says that the rifling in university dissertations German Bofors guns consisted of sixteen grooves, each 41.2 mm wide. These figures are mathematically impossible. It is possible that the author (or the online translators) made an order of magnitude error and essay review, that the buy origami online uk actual width was 4.12 mm wide, but this dimension would still be significantly narrower than the writing online grooves in paper UK and US guns which were identical to the original Bofors design. (see Notes 2 and 3) AB 40 mm L/60 HE-T - 2.05 lbs. (0.93 kg)

HE Mark 1 Mods 1 to 24 - 1.985 lbs. Dissertations. (0.900 kg) HE Mark 2 Mods 1 to online 35 - 1.985 lbs. Creative Tutor. (0.900 kg) AP M81A1 and M81A2 - 1.960 lbs. (0.889 kg) HE - 1.970 lbs. Uk. (0.894 kg) SAP - 1.970 lbs. (0.894 kg) AP - 1.970 lbs. Outline Paper. (0.894 kg) HE - 2.105 lbs. (0.955 kg) HE - 2.21 lbs. (1.002 kg)

UK - 4.88 lbs. (2.21 kg) USA - 4.75 lbs. (2.15 kg) Germany - 4.6 lbs. (2.1 kg) HE-T - about buy origami online uk 0.150 lbs. (0.068 kg) TNT. Bofors (modern day) HE-T - 0.20 lbs. (0.092 kg) Hexotonal. USA (World War II) HE Mark 1 - 0.148 lbs. After High School Essays. (0.067 kg) Cast TNT. HE Mark 2 - 0.150 lbs. Paper Online. (0.068 kg) Cast TNT. AP - None (Solid Bullet) Britain (World War II)

HE - 0.150 lbs. Esl Writing Comparison Contrast. (0.068 kg) Cast TNT or BRX/BWX (BWX = Beeswax) USA AP M81A1 - 6.19 in (15.7 cm) Germany - 7.2 in (18.4 cm) USA HE - 17.62 in (44.75 cm) Britain HE - 17.65 in paper (44.83 cm) Britain AP and SAP - 17.58 in (44.65 cm) Germany - 17.8 in (44.7 cm) Mark 2 - Brass, 40 x 311R, 1.89 lbs. After School. (0.86 kg) Mark 3 - Steel, 40 x 311R, 1.53 lbs. (0.69 kg)

USA - 0.694 lbs. (0.314 kg) NC 025. USA - 0.661 lbs. (0.300 kg) SPDN. UK - 0.547 lbs. (0.248 kg) Cordite W. UK - 0.719 lbs. (0.326 kg) FNH/PO22. Germany - 0.668 lbs. (0.303 kg) Str PC/38N. Japan - 0.617 to 0.661 lbs. (0.280 to 0.300 kg) USA HE w/NC 025: 2,890 fps (881 mps)

UK HE: 2,800 fps (853 mps) with Cordite W. UK HE: 2,890 fps (881 mps) with FNH/PO22. Germany Flak 28: 2,801 fps (854 mps) Japan Type 5: 2,953 fps (900 mps) UK - 19.68 tons/in 2 (3,100 kg/cm 2 ) USA - 19.5 tons/in 2 (3,070 kg/cm 2 ) UK - 10,000 Rounds. Germany - 10,000 Rounds. Admiral Hipper and Prinz Eugen: 2,000 rounds. S-Boats: 500 rounds. HMS Vanguard: 1,269 rounds (including 34 practice) Standard outfit for most ships was 1,564 rounds per gun. Most ships: 2,000 rounds.

Ammunition for most guns is held in buy origami paper online uk four-round aluminum clips. The feed guides atop each gun can hold two clips at a time. Two loose rounds can be inserted between clips. A four-round clip weighs about creative writing online 19.0 lbs. (8.6 kg). Paper Online Uk. The many Mods of USN ammunition were primarily bookkeeping designations used to indicate the manufacturer.

USN AP had a windscreen. USN HE ammunition was issued in HE-T/SD, HE/SD, HE-I-T/SD and dissertations, HE-I/SD forms. Plugged forms for buy origami online training purposes were also manufactured. There was also a Mark 3 HE round that did not contain a tracer, but this was used only for a brief time during World War II and was replaced in 1945 by after school Dark (non-luminous tracer) and Dark Ignition (delayed ignition tracer) ammunition. Dark Tracer was issued only in HE/SD and HE-I-T/SD forms. Dark Ignition ammunition was issued only in HE-I-T-SD form. By 1941 Britain was producing forty-one marks of HE and buy origami online, HE-T, nine marks of SAP, five marks of AP, twenty-four marks of TP and TP-T, six marks of proof ammunition, four marks of barrel-cleaning rounds, five marks of creative writing, break-up ammunition for training and gun checking, and a single mark of paper shot ammunition. This plethora of types threatened to buy origami paper online overwhelm the university logistical system and a rationalization program reduced the paper online numbers down to three HE and HE-T marks by 1945. Gilding metal for driving bands was substituted for copper as a cost-savings measure and these rounds had a T after the mark number, such as HE Mark 6T.

HE and esl writing essay, HE-T rounds were painted a buff color while SAP rounds were painted black with a white tip. AP rounds were painted black with a white tip and a white body ring. Buy Origami Online Uk. Tracer rounds added a red body ring. USN tracer burned out at 5,000 yards (4,570 m) horizontal, 15,000 feet (2,740 m) vertical. USN bourrelet diameter was 1.570 inches (39.88 mm). Rate. German rounds were HE with tracer and buy origami uk, self-destruct. Tracer ignited about paper 330 yards (300 m) from the muzzle and the self-destruct was set for 10.5 seconds. Modern ammunition: Bofors introduced a 40 mm PFHE proximity round during the 1980s similar to those developed for their larger guns. Bofors claims a maximum effective bursting radius of 18 feet (5.5 m) against aircraft size targets with automatic sensitivity control to reduce the burst range to six feet (2 m) against missiles flying at low altitudes. Muzzle velocity is 2,820 fps (860 mps) and the total shell weight is 2.16 lbs. (0.98 kg) including 3.2 oz (90 gms) of octol explosive. Bofors currently produces HET, PT and APHC-T (armor piercing high capacity - tracer) rounds for these weapons.

The APHC-T round is unusual in that it carries an paper online, armor-piercing slug within an aluminum body. Bofors claims that this round penetrates some 30% deeper than the earlier APC-T round and that the after aluminum body has an online uk, incendiary effect on the target. Outline Research. In US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2 it is buy origami paper online stated that the on increasing crime in today society muzzle velocity of the Japanese weapon was 2,822 fps (860 mps) before the buy origami online uk barrel was lengthened and the propellant charge increased. However, I must question if the working pressure given in university texas this document - 16.50 tons/in 2 (2,600 kg/cm 2 ) - is correct, as it seems to be much lower than that found for other nation's weapons. The Mark and Mod, manufacturer's initials or symbol, and lot number are stamped around the body of the projectile. Color photographs of some of these projectiles may be seen below.

USA produced HE-SD ammunition was set to detonate at 4,000 - 5,000 yards (3,700 - 4,570 m) so as to buy origami paper minimize problems due to friendly fire. HE and AP rounds that did not self-destruct were also manufactured. Time of online, flight for 1.985 lbs. (0.900 kg) HE shell with MV = 2,890 fps (881 mps) 4,200 yards (3,840 m): 8.5 seconds. 4,500 yards (4,110 m): 10.5 seconds.

British rounds normally self-destructed at paper online 3,000 - 3,500 yards (2,700 - 3,200 m), but this was increased to 7,000 yards (6,400 m) in some ammunition types. German rounds self-destructed after 10.5 seconds. The USN attributed this low effective range to essay on increasing rate in today poor fuze design. It is unclear as to how the fuze design affected the buy origami paper uk effective range, but I would assume that this meant that the fuze was of poor aerodynamic shape. Self-destructing ammunition was not used. Armor Penetration with AA Common Shell. Estimated for Class B Homogeneous Armor. Note: This data is from Battleships: United States Battleships 1935-1992 and is based upon high school essays the USN Empirical Armor Penetration formula. Although not stated as such, I believe that the penetration values would be for buy origami 90 degree impacts. Mount/Turret Data - Sweden/Bofors-built Weapons and Mountings. Prior to the start of World War II Bofors had produced 182 Land-Service guns for the Swedish Army and 295 for export.

Bofors also produced 11 Naval guns for forum the Swedish Royal Navy and 61 for export. Buy Origami Paper. During World War II Bofors produced at least 320 guns for the Swedish Royal Navy. Thirty-eight additional guns were built post-war until 1954 when production of the L/60 was halted. Guns were of both air-cooled and water-cooled types and at least fifteen different single, twin and submarine mounting types were in texas service. Some of the twin water-cooled mounting types had integral 1.25 m or 2.0 m Hazemeyer rangefinders. (10,524 - 10,796 kg) (10,340 - 11,137 kg)

Mark 3 single mounts used air-cooled guns, which were modified versions of the US Army M1 Bofors gun. Uk. Three versions of the Mark 3 were used on surface ships, the Mod 0, Mod 4 and Mod 9, while submarines used the outline for dna wet mount Mod 5 and Mod 6. Mod 0 was the basic Army mount and weighed 2,440 lbs. (1,107 kg) including gun and sighting mechanisms. Buy Origami Paper Online. The Mod 0 lacked power drives and creative writing tutor online, so was manually trained and elevated. Crew for the Mod 0 was usually five to paper online uk six men. Mod 4 added 1 hp power drives for training and school, elevation and had the uk same crew size as the Mod 0. Submarine Mods 5 and for dna, 6 were manually worked mountings. Paper Online Uk. Most single mount shipboard installations had safety rails around them to keep the gun crews from accidentally firing into the ship. The Mark 3 Mod 9 was a much later design using rebuilt M1 guns. The Mod 9 was designed for creative writing online use on river and coastal patrol craft and for one man operation - crew was actually a pointer-trainer and a mount captain.

This mount used integral train and elevation power drives and online uk, was stabilized. Weight increased to research paper 4,200 lbs. (1,905 kg). This Mod was installed aboard 17 PB Mark III Sea Spectre patrol boats during the mid-1980s. Originally, Mod 9 used a large 48-round drum magazine, but this was not often used as it interfered with vision from the pilot house. Buy Origami Paper. This drum looked something like the ones used on 20 mm Oerlikons but, of course, much larger. During the 1980s Tanker War in creative writing online the Persian Gulf, it was also reported that the drum did not feed reliably, so it was removed and the crews went back to manual loading. All USN twin and quad mountings used water-cooled Mark 1 and buy origami online uk, Mark 2 Bofors guns. Any mod of the Mark 1 or Mark 2 Bofors guns could be used in any mod of USN twin or quad mountings; these USN guns were designed to be completely interchangeable in that regards. Twin mounts consisted of a left-hand gun (Mark 1) and school essays, a right-hand gun (Mark 2) joined together. The gun axes were 9.568 in (24.3 cm) apart. Elevation and training motors were 3 or 5 hp.

In twin mounts, when the firing pedal is buy origami paper uk pushed down, one gun in the pair fires as described above. When this gun recoils, it trips a lever which allows the other gun to fire, thus ensuring that the guns do not fire together. For twin and quad mounts, the crew consisted of a Mount Captain, Pointer, Trainer, a 1st Loader for high essays each gun and then however many ammunition passers it took to get back to the ammunition supply point. In addition to the guncrew, there was normally a Mark 51 (or later) Director crew consisting of a Pointer and a Range Setter. Quad mounts were basically two twin mounts joined together, with each pair having a left-hand gun (Mark 1) and paper uk, a right-hand gun (Mark 2). The gun pairs axes were 60.0 in (1.524 m) apart. Forum Review. Elevation motors were 5 hp and training motors were 5 or 7.5 hp. As noted above, hydraulic drive gear was used on most units. Although both pairs of buy origami online uk, guns elevated together, in some Mods the outline for dna research pairs could be uncoupled in case of damage. There were many Mod numbers assigned to buy origami paper uk the twin and quad mountings, with most having to do with details of the essay on increasing crime in today society power drives. An asterisk (*) indicated that the buy origami paper online mount included a radar antenna and writing tutor, was used with the Mark 63 director.

The Mark 4 quad mount was a low-weight version that used a lighter amplidyne generator mounted below deck and a GE RPC system. This mounting had much faster training and elevation speeds than earlier mounts, but only 100 had been delivered by the end of the war. Paper. US ships carried large quantities of this weapon with USS Saratoga CV-3 probably having the most with 23 quad mounts and two twin mounts for university dissertations a total of 96 guns. Essex class carriers carried between 10 and buy origami online uk, 18 quad mounts and most Iowa class battleships carried 20 quad mounts. The USN built more than 2,300 quad mounts, just under 10,000 twin mounts and more than 10,000 single mounts during the contrast essay war.

This mass production gradually reduced the costs during the war, with quad mounts dropping from $86,000 down to $67,250 and twin mounts dropping from $62,300 down to $43,640. Paper Online. As noted above, the USA supplied 8,979 guns to other nations as part of Lend-Lease. This is on increasing crime in today society broken down as follows: United Kingdom and uk, Commonwealth: 2,834. Free French Forces: 448. American Republics: 4. Serious British interest in this weapon was first shown by the Army in 1933 and was followed by an order for 100 guns in 1937. Later, a manufacturing license was purchased from Bofors. The British version is officially listed as 56.3 calibers long.

In spite of the writing many different Mark numbers, all Bofors guns used by the Royal Navy were basically similar. They were recoil operated with a monobloc barrel and buy origami, detachable breech ring, breech casing and automatic loader with a vertical sliding breech block. The air-cooled Marks I, I* and III differed in on increasing crime rate in today society details of the automatic loader and were primarily derivatives of Land Service (LS - Army) guns. The Canadian-built models were given a C suffix as in the Mark IC and Mark I*C. The Austrailian-built Mark I* was identical to the British-built gun of buy origami paper uk, that designation. The water-cooled Marks IV, VIII, IX, X, XI and for dna research paper, post-war NI and NI/I all had water jackets with circulating pumps and differed only in buy origami paper uk regards to the mounting they were to be used on. Single shots could be fired in all but the Mark VIII, IX, X and research, probably the NI and buy origami online uk, NI/I guns. Unlike USN practice, the left and esl writing comparison contrast essay, right versions of these weapons were not given separate Mark numbers but had Type letters added (see below).

This large number of variations of British Bofors guns compared to buy origami online the three produced for the USN would seem to show once again the lack of interest by the Royal Navy in forum review weapon standardization during the World War II period. The British considered the Bofors to be at least twice as effective as their own 2-pdr against torpedo bombers, but not much better than that weapon against kamikazes. Uk. Details on esl writing contrast, the guns: Marks I, II and III: Air-cooled, LS guns, some of which were converted to naval use. See Note 3 below.

Mark IV and IV/I: Water-cooled. Designed for use on the twin-gun Mark IV Hazemeyer mountings. Produced in left and right versions, with Type D being the left gun and Type E the right gun. Many of these guns were later converted to the Mark XI standard for use on the Mark V mountings. A total of 484 guns were produced with 442 in service by online 1945.

See Note 4 below. Mark V: Project abandoned. Mark VI: Army gun issued to Crusader AA tanks. Mark VII: Air-cooled, no-trunnion guns intended for use on an early version of the STAAG Mark 1 mounting. 400 guns were ordered from Vickers-Armstrong, but the project was canceled and the Mark X took its place. Mark VIII: Water-cooled, this weapon was produced for the Buster mounting and eight guns were finished before the project was canceled. Left and right guns were produced and these guns did not have a single-shot provision. See Note 12. Mark IX: Air-cooled guns for the for the Mark VI six-gun mounting.

Left and right guns were produced and these guns did not have a single-shot provision. Outline For Dna Paper. See Note 6. Mark X: Water-cooled guns for the STAAG Mark 2 mounting. Buy Origami Paper Online Uk. These guns had trunnions and were produced in left and right versions with no provision for single-shot operation. Esl Writing. See Note 11. Mark XI: Water-cooled guns for paper online the Mark V mounting. Many of these were converted from the Mark IV and Mark IV/I. Essay On Increasing Rate In Today Society. Total of buy origami online, 342 in service by 1945.

The USA provided 393 each of their Mark 1 (left-hand) and Mark 2 (right-hand) guns to crime rate in today society the Royal Navy. These were used in British RP Mark I (Twin) and RP Mark II (Quad) mountings. Buy Origami Paper Online. The twin mount was first used on the Lend-Lease Attacker class escort carriers in January 1943. The quad mount was first installed on HMS Phoebe in June 1943. Forum Essay Review. The USA also supplied air-cooled guns which were used mainly on LSTs. The Mark III series of hand-operated single mountings were the Army design adapted for Naval use and were widely used, with some 500 in service by the end of World War II. Usually designated as LS Mark III (Land Service).

The following mountings do not appear to have entered naval service, although they do appear on naval gun lists: Mark III* (hand operated with gyro sights for layer and trainer), RPLS Mark III (Remote Power Land Service) and Toadstool (joystick controlled power operation using Army components). Elevation limits for buy origami paper online the Mark III were -5 to +90 degrees. As of June 1942, 314 Mark III mountings were in essay on increasing crime service, of which 301 were on DEMS. By May 1945, there were about 1,392 in paper online service with 568 on DEMS. Writing. Those Army mountings modified at least somewhat for naval service were designated as Mark III CN and there were 500 of these in service at the end of the war, with 291 on DEMS. Mounting weight for the LS Mark III including the gun was 1.2 tons (1.22 mt). The Mark IV twin mounting was derived from the Hazemeyer triaxial mounting which had its origins in the 1940 arrival in Britain of the buy origami paper uk Dutch minelayer Willem van der Zaan . The Mark IV was a self-contained twin mounting that had its own rangefinder, radar and analog computer on the mount. This mounting used Mark IV water-cooled guns and utilized a track and pinion system for after high elevating and training which was powered via a Ward-Leonard system for buy origami automatic target tracking.

The Mark IV was probably too advanced for its day and proved to forum be somewhat delicate for use on destroyers and sloops. The later STAAG and Buster designs were more robust, but very much heavier. According to service notes, the Mark IV was apparently used more often in manual mode than in power mode. Elevation was -10 to +90 degrees with cross-level of +/- 14 degrees with control cutting out at buy origami paper uk +/- 12 degrees. Maximum elevating speed was 25 degrees per second with the manually controlled joystick, but training and elevation via automatic control was limited to little more than 10 degrees per second. Weight was 7.05 tons (7.16 mt). The later Mark IV* mounting had a more robust radar attachment and differed in outline for dna research details of the controls and gyros. Buy Origami Paper Online. The following description taken from Destroyer Weapons of World War 2 is of interest: 'The 7-ton Haslemere, as it was generally known, was a brilliant concept, but unfortunately it needed more advanced technology than then existed.

It cannot claim to have been the most popular of weapons but at after least it provided a little light relief on occasions. When stationary in the power-off mode during maintenance, a combination of training, depression and cross-roll made it look for all the world as though it was about to fall off its gundeck. Observations like I see the Haslemere is ill again were common.' The design of the Mark V twin was based upon the USN Mark 1 twin mounting adapted to use British components including some components of uk, 2-pdr mountings and comparison contrast essay, RPC gear from the 4.5 (11.4 cm) Mark V. Buy Origami Paper Online. Also known as Utility, this mount used the Mark XI gun and university texas dissertations, was first introduced on the Hunt class destroyer HMS Meynell on 3 February 1945. The Mark V was power operated with elevation limits of buy origami paper online, -15 to +90 degrees and weighed 6.4 tons (6.5 mt) with 12 four-round clips carried on mount. The Mark V proved quite popular in tutor online service and was retained long after the more sophisticated STAAG was retired. Its largest drawback was the lack of a blind fire capability.

The RP50 Mark V had a maximum training speed of 35 degrees per second and elevating speed of paper online, 28 degrees per second. The RP50 Mark VC (Canadian) had a maximum elevation speed of texas dissertations, 35 degrees per second. The Mark VI was a sextuple mount using the online uk air-cooled Mark IX gun and used a 36-round ammunition tray for each gun rather than the usual four-round clips. High School. Trays had an automatic feed mechanism which was operated by the recoil of the guns. Trays needed to be reloaded manually with the uk mount elevated to +25 degrees. Left and crime rate in today, right versions of the guns were produced and the guns did not have a single-shot capability. Training and elevating speeds of the RP50 Mark VI mounting were both 30 degrees per second. This mount did not enter service until after the war.

Weight was 21.24 tons (21.58 mt). Buy Origami Online Uk. This was a large weapons platform intended to be fitted primarily to essay society battleships and fleet carriers with three hundred-twenty four being completed. The first battleship fitted was HMS Vanguard and buy origami paper online uk, she eventually carried a total of after high school, ten mountings although this number was rapidly reduced during her career. Aircraft carriers HMS Eagle and HMS Ark Royal carried eight. On some ships and some mountings, the lack of working space meant that the guns could only be reloaded at certain fixed bearings while on other ships the reloading could occur with the buy origami uk guns traversing at after essays an automatically slowed rate.

The Mark VII was an buy origami uk, adapted Army single mount with a weight of 1.40 tons (1.42 mt). Production orders for these were not placed until 29 May 1945 although one prototype was ordered on 17 March 1945. Similar in design to the Boffin mounting, described below, but able to elevate to +90 degrees and could train continuously as it used a slip ring for electrical power. The Mark VIII was an university texas dissertations, unsuccessful variation of the Mark VII using battery power and did not enter service. The Mark IX was an upgraded Mark VII mount with electric drive. The Mark IX mount used the Mark NI gun and buy origami paper online, had six ready-use clips on mount. Mark IX was used successfully during the Falklands War, with guns on dissertations, HMS Fearless and HMS Intrepid shooting down an Argentine A-4B Skyhawk on 27 May 1982, probably the last aerial victory scored by the 40 mm/56.

This success stimulated renewed interest in buy origami online automatic weapons in the Royal Navy, eventually leading to the purchase of newer 20 mm and 30 mm weapons. The Boffin mounting was a twin 20 mm Oerlikon Mark V or Mark VC mounting modified to take a single Bofors 40 mm gun. Elevation was -10 to esl writing comparison contrast about +70 degrees. Online Uk. These used an oil hydraulic system and were fitted with a gyro gunsight. Creative Writing Tutor. Elevation was restricted compared to other Bofors mountings as the position of the elevating trunnion axis was lower, due to the smaller nature of the Oerlikon guns. Some of these were still being used by the Canadian Navy in 1990 during the Persian Gulf war. The post-war STAAG Mark II twin mounting (later designated as Mark 2) using the type 262 radar was very accurate, but also very unreliable.

Part of this unreliability appears to have been a result of the decision to mount the radar equipment directly to the gun mount, thus exposing it to a high level of vibration. Buy Origami Paper Online Uk. At 17.5 tons (17.8 mt), it was also quite heavy for only a twin weapon. Used the Mark X gun. The hydraulically powered Mark II was called a pseudo-triaxial mounting and was unusual in crime in today society that the third axis was a lateral deflection movement instead of being cross-roll. Training and elevating speeds were both 35 degrees per second.

STAAG was found to be overly complicated and difficult to maintain and paper online uk, did not enjoy a long service life as a result. As noted, the type 262 radar was very accurate and there are stories of guns in action against outline for dna research, towed targets where after shredding the sleeve the radar would track up the tow wire and the tow plane would escape only by buy origami paper online cutting the wire. Nylon rope was eventually substituted for the wire as a remedy. The Mark I was the prototype single mounting. The twin barrel Mark 2 was the prototype for the Mark 2* which used DC electrical drives. The Mark 3 used AC drives. The Mark 2** had no radar in the mounting and was used for training. The Buster (Bofors Universal Stabilized Tachymetric Electric Radar) twin was another World War II attempt at a self-contained mounting, but at approximately 20 tons (20.3 mt) this weighed far too much for only a twin arrangement and the project was canceled.

Used the writing tutor online Mark VIII gun. Toadstool was a post-war attempt to online uk convert a Land-Service gun to naval operation with joystick control. Extensively tested but did not enter service. Australia uses the British Mark VII mounting fitted with a locally designed upgrade package on Fremantle patrol boats. Elevation was -5 / +90 degrees and train was 360 degrees. Powered by a low-pressure, oil/hydraulic system and entered service in 1980. Training speed of essay on increasing society, 20 degrees per second and elevation speed of 40 degrees per buy origami online second. Designated as 40/60 AN. A small number of these mountings were sold to Thailand. Mount/Turret Data - Republic of Korea. The Republic of Korea has developed a modification kit for the USA Mark 1 twin mount which adds a stabilization system both to forum the gun mount and to the Mark 51 FCS.

This kit improves their effectiveness against paper uk, surface targets. These modified mountings are used on FRAM destroyers and locally built corvettes. Mount/Turret Data - Netherlands Hazemeyer Weapons and Mountings. Hazemeyer was a Dutch subsidiary of Siemens Halske. Prior to World War II, this firm developed a very advanced triaxial mounting together with a tachymetric control system. As noted above, upon the Dutch defeat in 1940, this mounting was brought to review Britain where it was immediately copied and introduced into production. Guns intended for buy origami online naval use were manufactured at the Norwegian Kongsberg Arsenal.

The Arsenal started license production of this weapon for the Royal Norwegian Navy in the 1930s and was kept in limited production throughout the war. Introduced into German naval service about late 1943 and was used to comparison contrast arm the cruisers Admiral Hipper and paper online uk, Prinz Eugen as well as some Schnellbootes. As far as is known, only single mountings were ever used on warships and only HE tracer was issued. The Kriegsmarine received 578 guns for use on ships with an additional 247 guns delivered as coast-defense weapons. Naval Flak 28 mountings were set on a rotating ring attached to a round base plate that was fixed to the deck.

Elevation was -6 / +90 degrees and training was 360 degrees. The Type 5 (Model 1945) originated from the capture at Singapore in creative writing online 1942 of 24 British Bofors single air-cooled guns in working condition and another 56 made serviceable after repairs. One of these was used to produce a Japanese copy and this underwent prototype firing trials in 1943 at the Torigasaki range of the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal. Limited production began in that year, but the gun was never perfected and it did not go into general service use. However, some 5 to 7 weapons a month were being produced in late 1944, apparently for service evaluation purposes. The main alteration from the buy origami online uk British Bofors design was to increase the bore length to outline for dna 94.49 in (2.400 m) - 60 calibers - and to buy origami add Rhienmetall-style flash suppressors, which proved unsatisfactory. Production was at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal and at the Hitachi Manufacturing Company.

Used only in manually-worked single mountings, which had an elevation range of -10 / +95 degrees and review, a weight of buy origami paper online, 1,870 lbs. University Texas Dissertations. (850 kg). Recoil was 8.5 (21.6 cm). Major problems found by the USN after the online uk surrender were that poor manufacturing practices and lack of quality control caused improper seating of rounds and jamming of crime society, parts and that the star wheels and extractors were frequently mismated. Nomenclature Note: Although the Japanese designation is buy origami paper uk normally described as the Type 5 (Model 1945), US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2 at one point (page 16) describes the Mechanism designation as Type 5 (1943), which cannot be correct as the numbers do not match. This error may imply that the designation would actually be Type 3 (Model 1943) which would seem to be more in keeping with the actual Japanese design date of 1943. However, it should be noted that the Japanese Model number system, normally based upon the year the breech design was started, became very chaotic towards the end of World War II, with new weapons having Type years that had no relationship to the actual year that the breech design was started.

So, this weapon may indeed have been designated as Type 5. 1. Outline. Type 262 Radar (3 cm) 2. Paper. Radar Operator's Panel. 3. Control Officer's remote radar display 40 mm STAAG mounting being shown to Australian Naval Officers and munitions workmen. Texas. State Library of Victoria Image H98.105/3203. British Bofors Mark VI Sextuple Mounting under construction at the Scotswood Works in 1946.

Photograph copyrighted by Tyne Wear Archives Museums. German 4 cm/56 Flak 28. This picture was taken on the Prinz Eugen in buy origami paper online uk Philadelphia, PA, USA. Note the school essays 10.5 cm/65 SK C/33 in the background. USN Photograph.

Twin 40 mm Bofors on Brazilian Barroso (ex-USS Philadelphia CL-41) in March 1951. USS Tuscaloosa CA-37 in background. U.S. Historical Center Photograph # 80-G-708174. USN PB Mk III fitted with 40-mm automatic cannon with 48-round drum magazine.

Photograph copyrighted by Giorgio Arra and used here courtesy of Robert Stoner of buy origami paper uk, Warboats.org. USN 40 mm projectiles of World War II. Note that the AP M81 does not have a boattail and that the windshield apparently forms the bourrelet. Diagonal Stripes represents the outline for dna research body and online uk, body walls, small dots represent the tracer elements, dense dots represent the crime rate society incendiary elements, other dots represent explosive (HE) burster elements. Paper Online Uk. Explosive, incendiary and tracer elements were loaded in increments, as shown in the above sketches. Cutaway view of USN M81A1 AP Round. British 40 mm HE Projectile Image courtesy of Steve Johnson of Cyberheritage. High School. Cutaway sketches of buy origami, 40 mm ammunition. The Design and Construction of British Warships 1939-1945: Volume I edited by D.K. Brown.

Naval Weapons of World War Two by John Campbell. Joining the War at Sea by Franklyn E. Dailey Jr., Capt. USNR (Ret.) The Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and after school essays, Warfare by Bernard Fitzsimmons. US Battleships: An Illustrated Design History, US Naval Weapons and The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems 1991/92 all by buy origami paper Norman Friedman. German Warships 1815-1945 Volume I and Volume II by Erich Gröner. The Bofors Gun and Small Arms, Artillery Special Weapons of the Third Reich both by Terry J. Gander. Jane's Ammunition Handbook: Ninth Edition 2000-2001 edited by Terry J. Gander and Charles Q. High. Cutshaw. Destroyer Weapons of World War 2 by Peter Hodges and Norman Friedman.

Radar at Sea by Derek Howse. Weapon Direction in the Royal Navy article by H.W. Pout in The Development of Radar Equipments for the Royal Navy, 1935-45 edited by F.A. Kingsley. U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance in World War II by Lt. Cmdr. Buford Rowland, USNR, and Lt. Buy Origami Uk. William B. Boyd, USNR. Champions of the Pacific articles in Warship Volume II by Lawrence Sowinski.

Iowa Class Battleships by essay review Robert F. Sumrall. German Naval Guns: 1939 - 1945 by Miroslaw Skwiot. German Cruisers of World War Two and German Coastal Forces of World War Two both by M.J. Whitley. Naval Ordnance and Gunnery - 1952: Navpers 16116-B by buy origami online Department of the Navy. Ordnance Maintenance 40-MM Automatic Gun M1 TM 9-1252 by Department of the creative writing Army. Ammunition: Instructions for buy origami paper online the Naval Service: Ordnance Pamphlet 4 - May 1943 by Department of the Navy. 40 MM Antiaircraft Gun, OP 820, 1943 by comparison contrast Department of the buy origami paper uk Navy. U.S.

Explosive Ordnance: Ordnance Pamphlet 1664 - May 1947 by Department of the Navy. US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2: Japanese Naval Guns and Mounts - Article 2, AA Machine Guns and Mounts. Handbook for 40mm Bofors Twin R.P 50 Mark 5 Mounting - 1950: BR1919 by Naval Ordnance Department, Admiralty. Special help from Mark Fitzpatrick, Robert Hurst, Cliff McMullen, Robert Stoner and Vladimir Yakubov. 31 August 2008 - Benchmark. 23 September 2009 - Corrected typographical error, added comment about front-line service life. 11 June 2010 - Added cutaway photograph of complete M81A1 AP round. 01 November 2010 - Corrected range table for USN M81A1. 11 January 2011 - Added data reference.

14 January 2011 - Added cutaway sketch. 06 April 2011 - Added data reference and creative writing tutor online, added photographs of British Mark V twin mounting. 07 June 2011 - Additional information about usage by paper uk Kriegsmarine. 14 July 2011 - Added crew information for USN Twin and Quad Mounts. 28 January 2012 - Added photograph of Polish twin mounting.

16 June 2012 - Added photograph of STAAG in essay Australia. 28 December 2013 - Minor additions and added photograph of HMS Sheffield. 15 July 2014 - Added photograph of Sea Spectre Patrol Boat. 09 October 2015 - Added photograph of Mark VI Sextuple mounting. 24 December 2015 - Changed Vickers Photographic Archive links to point at buy origami online uk Wayback Archive.

06 February 2016 - Additional details on how the gun fired, Lend-Lease distribution, added Bofors ammunition details and gun production, added information on British ammunition, mountings and weapons.