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Compare and contrast 1984 vs Brave new world - David Jaramillo e

Compare and contrast essay brave new world and 1984

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Comparing 1984 and Brave New World: Compare Contrast

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Vs Brave New World: Comparison | Study com

orwell burnham essay James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution and The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom - selections by Peter Myers, December 15, 2001; update November May 16, 2009. My comments are shown . You are at http://mailstar.net/burnham.html. James Burnham was a Trotskyist who became a leading anti-Communist and Conservative (that is, unlike the Neocons, he opposed Liberalism). His book The Managerial Revolution (1941, 1942) was one of the influences on George Orwell (also a Trotskyist) in writing 1984 . The Managerial Revolution depicted a convergence between Communism, National Socialism and New-Deal policies (in the West) towards what he called Managerial society, where the public services manage the state and the economy. Disparagingly, he branded the bureauracy the ruling class in such managerial economies; a theme taken up by Djilas, in his book about the New Class. Decades later, Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have got rid of the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in compare brave and 1984 The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to phd dissertation bialik, the public in any way. In 1947 Burnham proclaimed that the Cold War was the Third World War; he went on write a number of books about the threat of the USSR and the need for compare and contrast new world and 1984, the US to mount a worldwide operation to contain it. Included here are extracts from Burnham's writings about Gaetano Mosca. 3rd Person Of View. I feel that he has misused Mosca, making of brave new world and 1984, him a prop for US-style Democracy. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution (2) George Orwell, 1984 (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism.

James Burnham, a leading Troyskyist, came to realize that the USSR was never a Workers' State but the first of a new type of state run by managers, the Managerial State . Thesis Dissertation. Nazi Germany, New Deal America, 50s Australia, Japan in the 1970s, and China in the 1990s are other examples. A Managerial State is socialist, i.e. Brave New World And 1984. power is dissertation taken out of the hands of the wealthy, and vested in public managers aiming at relative equality and full employment. Nazi Germany, like the USSR, seems to have issued money without having to borrow it from and contrast brave and 1984, private banks. That gets around the club, conspiracy at the heart of Capitalism, by which Governments pay interest on the money they spend. And Contrast Brave New World And 1984. However, centralization of the money-issuing power also gives Government great power, which can lead to Totalitarianism.

In Australia of the 50s, like postwar Japan, Governments borrowed money from private banks, but the real interest rate was very low. Many people mistakenly think that Free Trade (= Capitalism) benefits Small Business. Wrong. Free trade allows Big Business to destroy Small Business. It also allows Big Business to base itself offshore (in tax havens etc) to avoid taxes accountability. An innovate feature of Capitalism, over earlier kinds of economy, is that it allows Anonymous ownership, e.g. hiding behind company names, business names etc. Personal Response. Australia owes over essay brave $200 billion foreign debt - but to who? Thatcherism was an attempt to revert to Capitalism; but it may now be on its last legs.

What now? A return to Managerialism? George Orwell's book 1984 (which he wrote in 1948) envisaged a division of the dissertation lsu, world into three warring blocks, following James Burnham's book The Managerial Revolution . Burnham in that book ( written in 1940 ) predicted that the USSR would split in compare essay two. The more westerly parts would be added to a Europe dominated by one Germany, forming Eurasia; Siberia would be taken from the USSR added to Eastsia. With the fall of the USSR in 1991, that process seems underway. Compare And Contrast Brave New World. The end of the lsu, Cold War makes Burnham's thesis credible and interesting once again. The Orwellian state in Britain, as part of Oceania (the Anglo-American block), depicted in 1984 , would be based not on Stalin's system - after all the tripartite world assumed the fall of the USSR - but on INGSOC (the Newspeak acronym for English Socialism). Orwell, like Burnham, was a Trotskyist; H. G. Wells probably so. Trotsky certainly had some powerful intellect in compare and contrast essay brave new world his camp. After breaking with Trotsky, Burnham became an anti-Communist and anti-Liberal; many Trotskyists became Neo-Conservative, pioneers of the of trees essay, Marxist anti-Communist ideology : kostel.html.

Some co-operated with the CIA: cia-infiltrating-left.html. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution , Indiana University Press, Bloomingham 1966. Apart from and contrast brave and 1984, a new Preface (written in 1959 ), the club it essay part, text is the text of the 1942 British edition published by Putnam and Company ; an American edition was published in and contrast brave and 1984 1941. I come now to the last branch of my charge: that I teach princes villainy, and how to enslave. Help. If any man will read over my book . . Compare Brave New World And 1984. . with impartiality and ordinary charity, he will easily perceive that it is not my intention to recommend that government or those men there described to the world, much less to essay personal response, teach men how to and contrast essay new world and 1984, trample upon good men, and all that is sacred and 3rd person point venerable upon earth, laws, religion, honesty, and what not. Essay New World And 1984. If I have been a little too punctual in 3rd person essays describing these monsters in all their lineaments and colours, I hope mankind will know them, the better to avoid them, my treatise being both a satire against them, and a true character of them. And Contrast Brave. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, from a Letter to lsu, a Friend . PREFACE TO MIDLAND BOOKS EDITION. FROM 1934 until the winter of 1939-40 I was a member of the compare new world, Trotskyite organization - the Fourth International, as it called itself. In 1937 I began a factional dispute with Trotsky and essay his orthodox adherents, which centered around the problem of the and contrast brave and 1984, nature of the Soviet state. Although Trotsky was Stalin's most articulate opponent, was exiled from Soviet territory, and had declared for a new Party and of view a new International, he continued to regard himself as a pure Communist and compare essay new world as the champion of the 3rd person point of view essays, victories of the Revolution. According to Trotskyite doctrine, the Soviet state, though degenerated under Stalin's bureaucratic misrule, was still a revolutiorary workers' state or proletarian dictatorship As such, the Soviet state was historically progressive in compare essay brave new world and 1984 relation to reactionary capitalism.

Hence it was the club part, duty of compare brave new world and 1984, revolutionists in all nations, even if they were opponents of Stalin and his regime, to defend the Soviet Union against phd dissertation bialik any imperialist state, including their own fatherland. For some years I had accepted this empty ideological mumbo jumbo. Then, one day, I tried to compare and contrast essay new world and 1984, relate the phd dissertation help bialik, formulas to reality. On such a scrutiny it did not take long for the formulas to evaporate. Economically, the actual workers in this mythical workers' state were, the facts showed, a subject class far more heavily exploited than the workers under capitalism. Politically, the workers had no power at all. Millions of them were in forced labor camps; all of compare and contrast essay new world, them were herded and regimented by a pervasive, monolithic police and Party appartus. Essay. I therefore argued, in 1937, that the compare brave new world and 1984, Trotskyite organization should abandon its characterization of the Soviet Union as workers' state, and drop the practical political conclusion that revolutionists had a duty to defend it. . I was on compare essay Poland's side against the Hitler-Stalin partnership, and for Finland against the Soviet invaders. Trotsky, however, clung desperately to his established doctrine and to its practical consequences. . I wrote The Managerial Revolution in 1940 ; the compare new world, American edition was published in 1941. . I had concluded , on the evidence, that the Soviet Union was not a workers' regime, and at the same time had not reverted to capitalism.

It must therefore, be (in embryo at least) a new form of society not allowed for in Marxism . This new form I christened managerial society. . The analogies were especially convincing in the case of essay, Nazi Germany and New Deal America. I thus arrived at a general hypothesis that world society is in the midst of compare and contrast brave and 1984, a major social transformation that may be called the managerial revolution. . The prediction that with the 3rd person point, second World War the old system of many autonomous nations would be replaced by compare and contrast brave a small number of great political aggregates, or super-states, contending among themselves for the less developed regions of the world, has been confirmed . It Essay Part. But for compare essay brave new world and 1984, this period - which, however, is quite possibly not the last phase, and which may even now be nearing its end - there have turned out to be two rather than three primary superstates. Writing today, I would allow for a greater range of variation within the general form of planting, managerial society. As in all possible forms of human society, past and future, there will be class differentiation within managerial society, coercion, exploitation, struggle. The primacy of corporate property relations will probably make for a greater regimentation (as in ancient Egypt or the Inca Empire) than where individual private property has a livelier role. The idea of a perfectly free and equal utopia is an illusion that deceives and compare and contrast essay brave defrauds the club it essay part one, masses, and serves the interests only of demagogues and tyrants. But though perfect freedom and equality are illusory, human beings can achieve a partial, relative freedom, equality and justice ; and within the developing managerial soci- eties of the present and future, as within capitalist, feudal and even slave societies of the past, many degrees of relative freedom and justice, ranging from unrestricted tyranny to and contrast brave and 1984, a measure of constitutional liberty under the rule of law, will be possible. 3rd Person. In the conduct of their social and political affairs, there will always be a better and a worse for human beings to choose; or at least a lesser evil . . Compare And Contrast Essay. The managers who control the great power aggregates - big industry, the governmental apparatus, the point essays, labor organizations, the military forces - can become, and compare and contrast essay brave new world indeed have already become in most great nations, the dominant class . . Milovan Djilas' book, T he New Class , which (so far as it goes) is a fairly direct application of the theory of the managerial revolution to club it essay, Soviet developments, undoubtedly gives expression to ideas widely spread not only in compare new world Yugoslavia but elsewhere in the Communist sphere. The Managerial Revoluton has itself been extensively circulated and discussed in eastern Europe, particularly in East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia, and of trees has had the honor of being frequently attacked by the official press and radio. Continuous mass unemployment is not new in history. Brave New World And 1984. It is, in fact, a symptorn that a given type of social organization is just about finished.

It was found among the poorer citizens during the last years of Athens, among the urban proletariat (as they were called) in the Roman Empire, and 3rd person point of view very notably at the end of the compare and contrast essay new world and 1984, Middle Ages, among the dispossessed serfs and villeins who had been thrown off the land in hamlet essay personal order to make way for capitalist use of the land. . The volume of public and and contrast brave new world and 1984 private debt has reached a point where it cannot be managed much longer. The debt, like the unemployed, sucks away the diminishing blood stream of capitalism. And it cannot be shaken off. Bankruptcies, which formerly readjusted the debt position of capitalism, hardly make a dent in essay it. Only the hopelessly naive can imagine that France fell so swiftly because of the mere mechanical strength of the Nazi war machine - that might have been sufficient in a longer run but not to destroy a great nation with a colossal military establishment in a few weeks. France collapsed so swiftly because its people had no heart for the war - as every observer had remarked, even through the censorship, from the compare and contrast essay and 1984, beginning of the war. And they had no heart for the war because the bourgeois ideologies by which they were appealed to no longer had power to move their hearts. The managers will exercise their control over the instruments of production and gain preference in the distribution of the products, not directly , through property rights vested in them as individuals, but indirectly , through their control of the state which in turn will own and hamlet personal response control the instruments of production.

The state - that is, the institutions which comprise the state - will, if we wish to put it that way, be the property of the managers. And Contrast. And that will be quite enough to place them in the position of ruling class. In capitalist society, the essay, role of government in the economy is essay always secondary . The government acts in phd dissertation bialik the economy chiefly to compare and contrast brave new world and 1984, preserve the integrity of the market and hamlet essay of capitalist property relations, and to give aid and comfort, as in war or international competition or internal disturbances, when these are needed. . The Congress of Soviets, in and 1984 1917, was made up of compare and contrast essay brave new world and 1984, representatives of local soviets which, in turn, were elected primarily by workers and peasants in the various local districts. In the Congress of Soviets which met at the beginning of November, 1917, the Bolshevik party had a majority. Compare Essay Brave. This Congress then declared itself to be the government : that is to say, it claimed sovereignty and declared that sovereignty was no longer possessed by the Kerensky government which was based upon the remnants of the old Duma. The Soviet Congress then proceeded to enact the chief initial measures of the new regime and to planting of trees essay, elect an executive - the essay new world, Council of Commissars . It would seem, then, that sovereignty was still localized in a parliament; and, for a short time, this was more or less the 3rd person point essays, case. Compare And Contrast Essay Brave New World And 1984. But this state of affairs did not last. Parliamentary sovereignty proved inappropriate for a nation that rapidly developed in the direction of managerial society. Within a few years, well before the death of Lenin and the subsequent exile of Trotsky, the Soviet Congress had lost, one by help bialik one, all the attributes of sovereignty . Its nominal rehabilitation in the Stalinist Constitution of 1937 changed nothing and left the Soviet Congress the mere minor propaganda instrument which it continues to be. The development was indicated at least as early as the so-called Kronstadt revolt, which took place in 1921 . The opposition platform of the sailors and populace of the Kronstadt area had as its key plank, new elections to the soviets.

This demand was in reality an effort to return sovereignty to the soviets and the Soviet Congress and an implicit recognition that these institutions no longer possessed sovereignty. The demand was rejected by the true sovereign institutions of the soviet state, and the dissidents answered by armed suppression. In the new form of society, sovereignty is localized in administrative bureaus. They proclaim the rules, make the laws, issue the decrees. The shift from parliament to the bureaus occurs on a world scale. Compare And Contrast Essay Brave New World And 1984. Viewed on club it essay part a world scale, the battle is already over. Brave And 1984. The localization of planting of trees, sovereignty in compare and contrast essay brave and 1984 parliament is ended save for a lingering remnant in England (where it may not last the next few months), in the United States, and certain of the phd dissertation help bialik, lesser nations. There is no mystery in this shift. It can be correlated easily enough with the change in the character of the state's activities. Compare And Contrast Brave. Parliament was the hamlet essay personal response, sovereign body of the limited state of capitalism.

The bureaus are the sovereign bodies of the unlimited state of managerial society . Sovereignty for a nation implies that the nation makes laws for itself and new world and 1984 recognizes no superior lawmaker . It means that the nation sets up tariffs and thesis other import and export controls, regulates its own foreign policies and its own currency, and maintains civil, diplomatic, and military establishments. The simultaneous existence of many sovereign nations in compare and contrast brave the modern world necessarily means an anarchic situation in world politics . This must be because, since each sovereign nation recognizes no lawmaker superior to itself, there is in the end no way except by force to mediate the deep conflicts that are bound to arise among the various nations. Experience has shown that the existence of a large number of sovereign nations, especially in phd dissertation Europe (and with somewhat less acuteness in Latin America), is incompatible with contemporary economic and social needs. The system simply does not work. In spite of the fact that the post-Versailles European arrangements were set up and guaranteed by compare and contrast brave and 1984 the most powerful coalition in history, which had achieved victory in the greatest war of point, history, they could not last. The complex division of and contrast brave new world and 1984, labour, the flow of trade and planting raw materials made possible and demanded by modern technology, were strangled in the network of diverse tariffs, laws, currencies, passports, boundary restrictions, bureaucracies, and independent armies . Essay Brave And 1984. It has been clear for 3rd person of view essays, some while that these were going to be smashed ; the only problem was who was going to do it and how and when. Now it is being done under the prime initial impulse of Germany.

Even if , by compare and contrast and 1984 a lucky chance, some one power might win what would look like a world victory , it could only prove temporary. The disintegrative forces would be sufficient to pull it rapidly to pieces. . A world state. would presuppose a large measure of general social unity anong men: in interests, in culture, in education, in material standards of life. No such unity exists . The comparatively large number of sovereign nations under capitalism is being replaced by a comparatively small number of great nations, or super-states, which will divide the world among them . Thesis. Some of the many nations which are eliminated in and contrast brave new world fact may be preserved in help form ; they may be kept as administrative sub-divisions, but they will be stripped of sovereignty . Sovereignty will be restricted to the few super-states. . Advanced industy is concentrated in three , and only three, comparatively small areas: the essay brave new world, United States, especially its north-eastern and north-central regions; Europe, especially north-central Europe (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, England) ; and the Japanese islands together with parts of eastern China . It Essay Part. It is compare advanced industry, needless to say, which makes the hamlet essay personal, goods with which modern wars are fought and won, as well as the other key goods upon which modern culture depends. The economic map suggests dramatically what is probable on and contrast brave new world and 1984 many other grounds: that the world political system will coalesce into thesis dissertation lsu, three primary super-states , each based upon brave new world and 1984 one of these three areas of advanced industry . This does not necessarily mean that these three super-states will be the United States, Germany, and and contrast brave and 1984 Japan as we know them to-day . This may well be the case, but it need not be so. And Contrast Essay Brave New World And 1984. In these nations there may be internal convulsions which, together with foreign military struggles, will seem to break their continity with the past. New names may be used . And Contrast And 1984. This would, however, be of secondary importance in the long run. It should go without saying that the mechanism whereby this new political system will be built is and will be war. From the compare and 1984, war of 1939 are coming more major political leaps. But this is only the first, not the last, war of dissertation lsu, managerial society . There will be much still to compare and contrast, be decided after the present struggle is over - though, since war and peace are no longer declared, it may be hard to know when this struggle is over and the next one begins.

The immediate war will not even complete the of trees, consolidation of the managerial structure of society; and after it is completed there will still be wars, for there will remain plenty to fight about. The fundamental theme of the wars of the essay brave, future - into one of which the second world war was already evolving by the latter part of 1940 - will be the planting of trees, clash among. the three areas which constitute the three main strategic bases. Compare Essay Brave New World And 1984. Ostensibly these wars will be directed from each base for conquest of the of trees essay, other bases. But it does not seem possible for any of these to conquer the others; and even two of them in coalition could not win a decisive and lasting victory . New World And 1984. What will be actually accomplished by these wars will not be a decision as to who is to phd dissertation help bialik, rule the bases - for Americans are going to rule here, Europeans in and contrast essay new world Europe, and Asiatics in Japan and East China - but decisions as to what parts and how much of the rest of the world are going to essay new world, be ruled by and contrast brave new world and 1984 each of the three strategic centres. . This struggle among the three strategic centres for world control will be the thesis dissertation, fundamental theme of the coming wars of managerial society. Compare And Contrast Essay Brave And 1984. . And the consolidation of the three super-states, even within their immediate strategic areas, is thesis dissertation lsu not by any means finished. In. Europe, for example, even if Germany were fully victorious in the present war, there would still remain Russia and Italy; and compare and contrast essay brave and 1984 Russia is also in Asia along with Japan. Everyone knows, however, that Italy is a subordinate, incapable of essay response, a really independent sovereign policy. There is every reason to believe (as we shall discuss in Chapter XIV) that Russia will split apart, with the western half gravitating toward the European base and the eastern toward the compare and contrast essay brave new world, Asiatic . But even if a coalition of the future , combined with internal disturbances, should overthrow the thesis, Germany of the present, this would be secondary to the main scheme. The result of such a development would not alter the political system toward which managerial society tends. It would merely change the name and essay brave new world some of the leading personnel of one of the super-states . The coming years will also include wars of club part one, another type - indeed, these began several years ago: wars of the metropolitan centres against backward areas and peoples.

The backward areas, which include a majority of the territory and compare and contrast new world and 1984 people of the world, are not going to line up automatically behind one or another of the three centres or merely stand aside while the three fight over them. Compare Essay And 1984. . the backward peoples will attempt to break free altogether from compare and 1984, domination and to take their destiny into their own hands. Often such uprisings will occur in 3rd person point of view essays connection with wars among the chief managerial powers. Compare Essay Brave New World And 1984. However, it is doubtful that any of the backward peoples will be able to win independence (except , perhaps, in form and title) . Club Part One. They do not have the technological resources to conduct modern war successfully or to compete more or less evenly from an economic point of view - which is also necessary for compare and contrast essay brave, independence to-day. They will have to gravitate toward one or another of the great camps , even if they have some temporary success in a struggle for independence. The United States is consolidating its strategic base in dissertation the northern two-thirds of this hemisphere and preparing to and contrast essay brave new world and 1984, do battle against either or both of the two great rivals - the European centre and the Asiatic centre - for its share in the new world. We already have examples, Fascism-Nazism and Leninism-Stalinism (communism or Bolshevism) are types of early managerial ideologies which have been given organized expression and have already had great success. Planting Of Trees. In this country, Technocracy and the much more important New Dealism are embyronic and less-developed types of primitive, native-American managerial ideologies . I have listed Leninism-Stalinism, but not Marxism as an example of a managerial ideology . This raises the brave new world and 1984, question of the relation of Marxism to Leninism and of Leninism to Stalinism.

Historically, the social movement, which both in organization and ideas traced its source to the activities and writing of Marx, separated, through a division which started during the last years of the nineteenth century and culminated in compare essay brave and 1984 1914, into two main streams: a reformist, social-democratic wing; and a revolutionary wing in which for the first decade after 1914 Lenin was the most conspicuous figure. I do not any longer consider it fruitful to dispute over which of these is genuine Marxism. Historically, they both spring from Marx. What happened seems to be the following: The views of Marx , in their implications and consequences, were historically ambiguous. In addition, he proposed a social goal - a free, classless international society - which cannot be reached in the present period of history . Real historical movements in practice modify goals to bring them closer to real possibilities. Compare Brave. The Marxist movement separated along the lines of the great division of our time, capitalist society and managerial society. Both wings of Marxism retained, as often happens, the language of Marx, though more and more modifying it under new pressures. In practice, the essay personal, reformist wing lined up with the capitalists and capitalist society, and demonstrated this in all social crises. The Leninist wing became one of the organized movements toward , and expressed one of the ideologies of, managerial society . The reformist wing is a somewhat inconsistent defender of capitalism, it is true, because by its retention of much of the ambiguous language of Marx it also contributes to popularizing managerial concepts. But this is the main line of the division. Lenin died, and compare and contrast essay brave Stalin headed the managerial wing.

The ideology and practices were further modified. There has been much dispute over whether Stalin is the of trees, legitimate heir of Lenin; and I, for and 1984, some years active in the Trotskyist. political organization, long took part in hamlet that dispute. I have come to the conclusion, however, that the dispute has been conducted on a pointless basis. The historical problem is not whether Stalin or Trotsky (or someone else, for there are many other claimants) comes closer to the verbally explicit principles enunciated by Lenin. A dispute on compare brave and 1984 such a level has never been and will never be settled, since Lenin said many things and did many things. Compare Brave. It is compare essay brave new world like arguing over hamlet the legitimate interpretation of the Bible or the Koran. So far as historical development goes, there really cannot be much question; Stalinism is what Leninism developed into - and, moreover, without any sharp break in essay brave the process of development. We must not make the mistake of essay personal, supposing that the Russian changes were dependent merely on the presence of one or another individual, on the personal wickedness or nobility (depending on our point of view) of, for example, Stalin.

If Lenin himself had lived, there is no reason to think that the process would have differed greatly . After all, there is more than passing significance in the fact that, for many years, probably the most intimate colleague of Lenin's, the man with whom he exercised hidden control over the Bolshevik party underneath the party's formal apparatus, was the brilliant and successful engineer - the manager - Krassin. But the death of new world, all the early leaders was an important ritual act in establishing the mass attitudes of managerial society and in planting essay strengthening the foundations of the managerial institutions. The pattern of the Russian way to the managerial revolution is illuminated by the history of the revolutionary concept of workers' control. Workers' control of industry has from the beginning been a slogan of the Leninist wing of Marxism . The reason why is essay brave and 1984 easy to understand. According to the formal ideology of socialism, private ownership (control) in point essays industry is to compare essay new world, be eliminated - that is, as socialism understands it, control is to be wrested by the masses as a whole. The crucial revolutionary act, therefore, would presumably be the hamlet personal, actual taking over compare and contrast essay and 1984 of control in industry by the workers themselves. Hence the slogan. Now, in the course of the Russian revolution (as in the. many other attempts at mass revolution which followed it during the past twenty-three years), the workers acted quite literally in accordance with the slogan of workers' control. In the it essay part one, factories, shops, mines, and so on, the workers, through committees elected from their own ranks, simply did take over control. Compare And Contrast Essay Brave And 1984. They ousted not only the owners (who were seldom there to be ousted, since owners are not usually connected directly with production nowadays) but all the directing staff and supervisors: that is , they ousted also the managers . The workers thought, in their own way, that the revolution was designed to of view essays, rid them of all rulers and exploiters.

They recognized that the managers as well as the owners were among the rulers and exploiters both of the past and, above all, of the future. And 1984. The workers set about help bialik running the factories themselves. This state of affairs did not , however, last long . Two issues were at stake. In the first place, the compare brave new world and 1984, separate factories and other instruments of club part, production were not run very well under workers' control exercised at the source; and there were even greater difficulties in the co-ordination of the efforts of various factories . It is needless to speculate on exactly why this was so. Elected committees of the workers themselves, the compare and contrast brave, members of which are subject to momentary recall and who have, besides, no technical training for, or background in, the managerial tasks, do not seem to make a good job of running modern factories or mines or railroads. It is even harder for them to collaborate effectively in directing entire branches of industry or industry as a whole.

Perhaps new democratic mechanisms and sufficient time to gain experience would overcome the troubles. As things actually work out, time is not granted, and the mechanisms are not available. Second, the perspective of workers' control of production at phd dissertation help bialik, the source, if it should be proved in the end successful, would mean the elimination of all privilege, all differentials of and contrast essay new world and 1984, power in society, would mean, in 3rd person point short, a classless organization of essay brave new world and 1984, society. Thus the drive for class power in society needs to get rid of workers' control, and finds rational motivation in the evidences of the inefficiency of workers' control - above all, because the movement toward workers control occurs in periods of intense social crisis, or war and civil war; when efficient industrial organization seems an imperious need. If the planting of trees essay, temporary workers' control is replaced by the old control of compare essay new world and 1984, capitalist owners (as happened in the two revolutionary crises in Germany at planting essay, the end of, and a few years after, the first world war), then society, after a crisis, has simply returned to its previous capitalist structure. If workers' control is replaced by the de facto control of the managers backed by a new kind of state, then capitalism , after a transitional crisis, has changed into managerial society . The latter, through a series of intermediary steps, is what happened in Russia. For a while after the revolution in Russia , in brave and 1984 many factories and other enterprises - for a very short while - the factories were run by the workers through their elected committees called Factory Committees. Then the technical direction of operations was turned over to specialists (that is, managers) , with the Factory Committees remaining in existence and still exercising substantial control through a veto power over the managers and jurisdiction over labour conditions. Club One. Meanwhile, bureaus and commissions and individuals appointed from and contrast new world and 1984, above by the new (soviet) government were beginning to take over the job of co-ordinating the compare and contrast essay brave new world, efforts of various factories and branches of industry . And 1984. Gradually the powers of the managers and managerial co-ordinator, increased, necessarily at the expense of workers' control and the Factory Committees. The Factory Committee lost their veto powers . Their prerogative, labour conditions, became more and more narrowly interpreted. The Committee composition was changed to include one state representative, one managerial representative, and one man nominally representing the workers . Finally, even these Committees lost all their real power and remained as mere formalities, to be dropped altogether in 1938 . Workers' control had been transformed into managerial control . This development did not take place without incident, including violent incident.

The workers, or some of them , sensed its meaning: that the freedom and end of club part one, privilege, which they had thought the revolution was to brave, bring, were giving way to a new form of class rule. They tried to prevent power from getting out of the hands of their Committees. Hamlet Essay. They refused to compare and contrast brave, accept the managers, sometimes drove them out or even killed them. But at each decisive step, the state (the workers' socialist state), whether under Lenin or Stalin, backed not the workers but the managers . A wide campaign of education was undertaken to brave and 1984, show the people why workers' rule meant, in practice, managers' rule. Where necessary, the education by the word was supplemented with education by firing squad or concentration camp or forced labour battalion. Lenin and Trotsky, both, in the early years of the revolution, wrote pamphlets and speeches arguing the case of the and contrast essay and 1984, specialists, the thesis dissertation, technicians, the managers . Compare And Contrast Brave New World And 1984. Lenin, in his forceful way, used to declare that the manager had to be a dictator in the factory. Workers' democracy in the state, Lenin said in effect, was to be founded upon a managerial dictatorship in the factory . Perhaps Lenin did not realize the full irony of his position. He, as a Marxist, believed - correctly - that the roots of social power lie in 3rd person of view essays the control over the instruments of production . And he, as the compare essay brave, head of the new state, helped to smash workers', popular, control over those instruments and to compare and contrast essay new world, substitute for it control by the managers . And, of course, the managers of individual plants became subordinate to the big managers, to the boards and bureaus directing entire sectors of industry and governing industry as a whole . Interestingly enough, these managers under the new state included many of those who had been managers under the old capitalist rule. Lenin and Trotsky poured scorn on infantile leftists who were against making use of the services of the bourgeois specialists (as they called them).

The workers needed them - to compare and contrast essay brave and 1984, run the plants. Lenin regretted that there were so few left and that in Russia there had never been an adequate. staff of trained specialists. Most favourable terms were given to foreign bourgeois specialists who were willing to come to work under the essay personal, new regime. Compare And Contrast Essay Brave. The class of managers that steadily rose was not altogether a new creation; it was the development and extension of the class which, as we have seen, already exists, and is already extending its power and influence, under capitalism, especially during the latter days of capitalism. We shall deservedly place the greatest stress upon what happened to workers' control. Moreover, the Russian experience is plainly typical. Thesis Lsu. There have not yet been any other revolutions just like Russia's; but there have been a dozen revolutionary situations of the compare and contrast essay, same general nature. In them all, the thesis dissertation, same tendencies are displayed.

In them all - Germany, the compare essay, Balkans, China, Italy, Spain - the workers , in the crisis, start to take over control of the and contrast essay, instruments of production , to take it over directly, into and contrast brave, their own hands on the spot. Always a formula is found to explain to compare and contrast and 1984, them why this cannot continue ; and, if the essay brave and 1984, formula is not enough, the guns come later. The question for us is not whether it is a good idea for the workers to it essay, take control. And Contrast Essay New World And 1984. We are concerned merely with noticing, first, that they try to take control; and compare essay , second, that they do not succeed in maintaining control . And Contrast Essay New World And 1984. Their inability to maintain control is one more demonstration that socialism - a free, classless society - is not now scheduled. The control , and the social rule which goes with it, when it leaves the hands of the capitalists, goes not to the workers, the people, but to the managers, the new ruling class . A parallel of the Russian process can be observed with particular clarity in connection with the events in Loyalist territories during the recent Spanish Civil War, above all in Catalonia. There, just as in Russia, the workers and lsu peasants began taking over direct control of the factories and railroads and firms. There too, not at once, but during the course of the first two years of the Civil War, the de facto power slipped from the compare and contrast essay brave new world, workers' hands, sometimes voluntarily given up at the persuasion of a political party, sometimes smashed by. arms and prison. It was not the troops of Franco who took control away from the people of Catalonia; they had lost control well before Franco's army conquered. These experiences have , as a matter of essay, fact, received recognition in Leninist doctrine (both the Stalinist and Trotskyist variants) , not so much in public writings as in the theories elaborated primarily for party members. Workers' control, the compare and contrast essay and 1984, doctrine now reads, is a transition slogan, but loses its relevance once the revolution is successful and the new state established.

By calling it a transition slogan it is meant that the thesis dissertation lsu, slogan, and the act, of establishing workers' control are useful in compare and contrast brave new world and 1984 arousing mass sentiment against the existing capitalist regime and in bringing about the downfall of the capitalist order - both undoubtedly the case; but that, when the new regime is essay functioning, workers' control must, naturally, step aside. The ideological explanation offered by Leninism for this turn-about is compare and contrast essay brave new world and 1984 that, while workers must rightly defend themselves with the help of workers' control against the enemy capitalist state, they will have no need to defend themselves against the new regime which be their own state, a workers' state busily constructing a true socialist society. This explanation is to be interpreted in the same manner we interpret all aspects of planting, all ideologies. What is really involved is a very important consequence of the brave new world and 1984, pattern of the Russian way to managerial society, which we are here studying. Thesis Dissertation. This pattern, we saw, calls for first reducing the brave and 1984, capitalists to impotence and then curbing the masses. Planting Of Trees. The masses are of course used in accomplishing the first step and workers' control is a major manoeuvre in and 1984 breaking the planting, power of the and contrast brave new world and 1984, capitalists. But workers' control is not only point of view intolerable for compare essay brave new world and 1984, the capitalist state: it is, if long continued and established, intolerable for any state and any class rule in society. Bialik. Consequently, the consolidation of and contrast new world and 1984, managerial power in the new state requires the breaking down of one, workers' control, which was so important an influence in finishing up the old society. The Russian Revolution was not a socialist revolution - which, from all the evidence, cannot take place in our time - but a managerial revolution . Who are the compare brave new world and 1984, rulers of Russia? They are, of course, the men who are running its factories and mines and railroads, the directing members of the dissertation, commissariats and new world and 1984 subcommissariats of heavy and light industry and compare essay brave transportation and communication, the heads of the large collective farms, the expert manipulators of the propaganda mediums, the chiefs of the dozens of mass organizations, the managers in short: these and their bureaucratic and military and police associates. The power and privilege are under their control.

For them the capitalists at home have been got rid of or reduced to impotence; and for compare new world, them the capitalists abroad were fought off and forced to an uneasy truce. It is they who have curbed the and contrast brave new world and 1984, masses and have instituted a social. structure in which they are on top, not by virtue of private property rights in the instruments of and contrast and 1984, production, but through their monopoly control of a state power which has fused with the economy. 3rd Person Point Of View. It is they who now await the essay and 1984, contests of the future with the other sectors of the world managers. It is lsu these managers , with their political and military associates, who have been extending their regime beyond Soviet boundaries during the course of the second world war. The events in the little border nations have reproduced on a laboratory, and compare and contrast brave new world and 1984 somewhat grotesque, scale the pattern of the Russian Revolution ; and, also like a laboratory experiment, the events have done so under the firm guidance of the experimenter, not at their own sweet will.

The local workers and peasants (in the Baltic nations, eastern Poland, Bessarabia), as the Red Army marches, begin to planting of trees, take control of the local industries and farms and to oust the capitalists who have not already fled. For a very short while they are encouraged in these activities by the Russian representatives. A semblance of workers' control appears . The first part of the triple managerial problem is solved - the capitalists are reduced to impotence - which is not so major a task in the tiny states concerned. Then, with hardly a breathing space, the solution for the second part of the managerial problem takes place under much simpler conditions than in Russia in her own time. The masses are curbed - to-day the army and the GPU that supervise the curbing are large and and contrast essay brave experienced in solving this part of the problem. Phd Dissertation Bialik. The new rulers - not new capitalists, naturally, but Russian managers and their representatives - walk in to run their newly acouired factories and new world mines and banks.

Workers' control is transformed into a name , and the soldiers and hamlet personal police back the dictates of the managers. And Contrast New World And 1984. The whole process , which took in Russia itself so many strenuous years, is completed in a couple of essay brave new world and 1984, months. The advantages which the compare essay and 1984, managerial structure gave Russia against capitalist nations disappear when Russia is confronted with other managerial or near-managerial states which are not burdened by Russia's weaknesses . There seems good reason to planting of trees essay, believe, as I stated in new world and 1984 Chapter XII, that during the course of the next years Russia will split apart into an eastern and phd dissertation western section, each section gravitating toward one of the new world, key areas which constitute the strategic bases of the super-states of the future . Indeed, this process has already started. Siberia is so far away from Moscow and so badly connected with European Russia that it naturally swings toward the East as it has for thesis dissertation lsu, some years been conspicuously doing. Its future brings it into always-closer integration with the East Asian central area of advanced industry . Compare And Contrast Essay Brave And 1984. And similarly , at an increased rate since the Nazi-Soviet pact, European Russia swings toward the essay, central European area. Essay New World. Feelers move out from one, both sides of the border.

The Russian boundaries advance toward the west. At the same time, economic and social relations with Germany increase. German technicians, managers, move into the Russian industrial enterprises. How great the latter influx has so far been the public figures do not tell us but it is certainly much further advanced than any publicist has yet imagined. Compare And Contrast Brave New World. This infiltration of German managers is a large step in the road toward fusion of European Russia with the European centre . And Contrast Essay Brave. We may be sure that the completion of the fusion, under whatever nominal auspices it comes, will find Russia subordinated to European centre, not, as the spinners of Bolshevik nightmares tell us, the other way around. The development of the fusion begins in a dozen ways, beneath the surface. Its accomplishment will, presumably, include war, one or more. of the managerial wars of to-morrow, the preparations for compare and contrast brave and 1984, which are so plainly around us. Note. - In spite of the Russo-German war, it has seemed to me advisable to 3rd person point, leave the text as it was written in 1940, and first published in the Spring of and contrast essay and 1984, 1941 . Phd Dissertation Help Bialik. The intent of compare and contrast new world and 1984, this book is compare and contrast essay brave and 1984 not journalistic but scientific. From a scientific standpoint, the theory of the managerial revolution is much better tested by its ability to make events intelligible before they happen, rather than by the ease with which it can doctor up references to what has already occurred.

The outbreak of the Russo-German war, and its course, seem to me a confirmation of the fundamental analysis precented in this chapter, and in essay brave particular of the political analysis summarized in Chapter XII. This war, to use the language of the theory, is part of the means whereby the western half of Russia is being integrated into the European super-state. However, the impression that the text gives is of a later beginning of war between Russia and 3rd person Germany than actually turned out to be the case - and, so far as I can recall, this impression corresponds with the compare and contrast new world, opinion I held in 1940. I believe that this error in time schedule resulted from a too schematic application of the sociological and economic analysis to the problem, with insufficient attention to strictly military considerations. Club One. That a large part of Russia should be drawn within the west-European orbit, and that war would be part of the process of fusion, followed from the whole course of contemporary history. Brave New World And 1984. Just when the war would start, however, was decided primarily by the requirements of military strategy. her colonies, her merchant marine, and her navy; and her army was reduced to hamlet essay personal response, a minimum figure. Her people had been exhausted by the war and by the famine which occurred during its last year. She was saddled with reparations not merely in and contrast essay brave new world money - which she could and did pay largely through borrowings - but in kind, which latter meant the loss of material goods. Her opponents had carved up all the dissertation, juiciest slices of the world in what they took to be their own interests.

It is against brave this background that we must place contemporary Germany . Nazi Germany eliminated unemployment within a couple of years from Hitler's ascension to power. The means whereby this was done are irrelevant to our inquiry; the fact that it was done is club it essay part crucial. Mass unemployment is the primary indication of the collapse of and contrast essay brave, a given form of society. The great capitalist powers have proved that they cannot get rid of 3rd person essays, mass unemployment under capitalist institutions. Even after a year and a half of war, after more than half a year of the Battle of compare essay brave new world and 1984, Britain, there were still, according to official figures - which probably understate the facts and besides do not include so-called unemployables - nearly a million unemployed in England . Nazi Germany's elimination of unemployment is, in and by essay itself, a sufficient proof that Germany has left the basis of and contrast brave, capitalism and entered the road of a new form of society. Everyone knows and many have stated that it is not by virtue of the capitalist elements remaining in German culture that unemployment has been got rid of, but through the phd dissertation, introduction of non-capitalist methods.

Similarly, Germany has broken through the restrictions of capitalist finance. According to all the laws of capitalism, Germany should have been bankrupt five years ago; its currency should have gone into a wild inflation; it should have been impossible tor the state to compare essay and 1984, finance its vast undertakings. But, under the state control of finance, none of the laws held. Again, through state control of imports and exports, Germany has been able to carry on foreign trade without the essays, means, according to capitalist standards, of doing so . And huge outlets - primarily in state enterplises - have been found for and contrast essay and 1984, the investment funds that sit idly in the banks of the great capitalist powers. We find in Germany to an ever-increasing degree those structural changes which we have discovered to be characteristic of the shift from compare and contrast essay and 1984, capitalism to managerial society . In. the economic sphere, there is a steady reduction, in all senses, of the area of private enterprise, and a correlative increase of state intervention. There was a brief period, immediately following the Nazi accession to state power, when the trend seemed to be in the opposite direction, when even a few enterprises which had been under state operation in new world the Weimar Republic were handed back to private capitalists. But this quickly reversed.

The state intervention in planting of trees essay the economy occurs in numerous directions. Outright state ownership and operation , advancing in all fields, are particularly ascendant in the extensive areas of new enterprise opened up during the compare new world, Nazi rule. However, to confine attention to 3rd person point of view essays, outright ownership and operation with all legal formalities would be deceptive. Essay Brave New World. Virtually all economic enterprise is phd dissertation help subject to rigid state control ; and it is control which we have seen to be decisive in compare brave relation to the instruments of 3rd person point essays, production. Compare Essay And 1984. Legal forms, even income privileges, are in planting of trees the end subordinate to de facto control. Even where private owners stlll exist in Germany, the decisions about their property are not in their hands. Compare Essay Brave New World. They do not decide what to help, make or not to make. They do not establish prices or bargain about wages.

They are not at liberty to buy the compare essay brave, raw materials they might choose nor to seek the most profitable markets. Club Part One. They cannot, as a rule, decide how to invest or not invest their surplus funds. In short, they are no longer owners, no longer effective capitalists, whatever certificates they may have in their deposit boxes. The regulation of production in compare and 1984 Germany is no longer left to the market . What is to be produced, and how much, is decided, deliberately, by groups of men, by the state boards and bureaus and commissions . It is they that decide whether a new plant shall be built or an old plant retired, how raw materials shall be allotted and orders distributed, what quotas must be fulfilled by various branches of industry, what goods shall be put aside for point of view essays, export, how prices shall be fixed and credit and exchange extended . There is no requirement that these decisions of the bureaus must be based on any profit aim in the capitalist sense. If it is thought expedient, for whatever reason, to produce, for ezample, an ersatz rubber or wool or food, this will be done even if the production entails, from a capitalist point of view, a heavy loss. Similarly, in order to accumulate foreign exchange or to and 1984, stimulate some political effect in a foreign nation, goods will be exported regardless of loss . A factory may be compelled to shut down, even though it could operate at a high profit. Essay Brave New World. Banks and individuals are forced to invest their funds with no reference to the private and voluntary opinions about risks from a profit standpoint. It is essay new world and 1984 literally true to thesis dissertation lsu, say that the Nazi economy, already, is not a profit economy.

The workers, on their side, are no longer the free proletarians of and contrast new world, capitalism. Under Nazism the workers are indeed, free from unemployment. At the bialik, same time they cannot, as individuals or through their own independent organizations, bargain for wages or change jobs at will. They are assigned to their tasks, and their labour conditions are fixed, by the decisions of the and contrast essay, state bureaus and compare and contrast essay brave new world and 1984 commissions . Millions of them are allotted to compare essay new world, the vast state enterprises. The minimum estimate I have seen (for 1939) gives the percentage of national income representing direct state activities as 50%. With the reduction in the area of phd dissertation bialik, private enterprise and the increase of state enterprise, goes also a corresponding reduction in the social position of the private capitalists. So far as control over the instruments of production goes, the capitalists are already near the bottom.

As to income privilege: a recent estimate by a New York statistician gives as a mere 5% the compare and contrast brave, share of the German national income going to profits and interest . This is a substantial reduction from the 1933 figures, in spite of a huge increase in the total national income, which, under capitalism, would normally be accompanied by a percentage increase in profits. Planting Of Trees. In the brave and 1984, United States, profits and interest are 20% of the national income , even excluding all so-called entrepreneurial profits. Moreover, of the German capitalists' 5%, the greater part is appropriated by the state as taxes and contributions. Bialik. The statistics, however - which are, in any case, not reliable - fail to indicate the compare essay new world, full meaning. How strange that it has not yet been remarked how seldom we find a manager among the voluntary or forced exiles from Nazi Gerrnany! There are artists and writers among the exiles, ideologists and phd dissertation politicians, unassimilable foes of the new regime, storekeepers and professionals and teachers, and brave not a few capitalists, both Jews and Christians. But almost never a manager.

It is club part one strange that this has not been remarked but not strange that it is the case. For the managers realize that the society which is developing is their society. In short! Germany is to-day a managerial state in an early stage . Structurally, it is less advanced along managerial lines than Russia; it retains as yet more capitalist elements. But, though structurally less advanced, Germany is without most of those major weaknesses which we noted in the case of Russia. Compare And Contrast Brave New World. Its industrial and technological foundation is far stronger; the rising managerial class is much larger, better trained, more able . The first part of the second world war, up to the fall of France in essay brave new world and 1984 June, 1940, was in compare and contrast brave new world and 1984 reality the continuation of the personal, strategic extension begun in 1935. This phase, the consolidation of the European base, was completed with France's surrender. It is completed irreversibly and can no longer be undone whatever the outcome of the compare essay new world, succeeding phases of the of trees, war, which are really other wars. This consolidation fundamental to the world politics of managerial society, is not going to be dissolved, not even if the present German regime is utterly defeated. The day of a Europe carved into a score of sovereign states is over ; if the states remain, they will be little more than administrative units in a larger collectivity.

. a deal between Germany and England would be much more advantageous to the European super-state of the future than to have England conquered by Germany. With a deal in compare essay new world which England would necessarily be subordinate, the club it essay one, tendency would be for the British Empire to keep attached to the European central area. In the course of the military conquest of England, most of the Empire tends to drop off to the spheres of the United States and the Asiatic central area. But the compare brave and 1984, English capitalists weighed the costs and decided to keep on thesis dissertation fighting . Thus the second phase of the compare and contrast essay new world and 1984, war, really a second war, goes on 3rd person of view as I write. By the end of 1940 it was clear that the new world, focus of the essay, war was shifting, that the result of the European struggle was in fundamentals decided, and that a new, third, phase was beginning wherein the mighty opponents of the future - the three political structures based on the three central areas - were undertaking their first trials of brave new world and 1984, strength.

These wars of the developing super-states will not end with the end of this war. Their results, we have noted, is sure to essay response, be inconclusive, since none of the three central areas can firmly conquer any of the others. From her continental base, the compare brave new world, United States is called on to make bid for maximum world power as against the super-states to be based on the other two central areas . . First, there is the consolidation of the main strategic base. In Europe this consolidation meant smashing the Continental political system. In the Americas, most of the base is already included within the planting, boundaries of the United States. . Next comes the protective extension of the base with the aim of making it invulnerable for defence and convenient for attack. This, in current terms, is the policy of modified hemisphere defence, to draw a ring around all of North America and northern South America. And Contrast Essay New World And 1984. The second stage is already well advanced.

It was prepared for by the series of compare and contrast essay brave new world, Pan-American conferences and agreements and by what is propagandlsttcally referred to as tbe Good Neighbour Policy. It has gone forward through such measures as the establishment of air lanes throughout Latin America, the visits of warships and war planes, the projection of the Pan-American Highway, the strengthening of the Panama Canal, reciprocal military agreements with Latin-American nations, the essay new world, defence alliance with Canada which in effect subordinates Canada's sovereignty to the United States, and the deal with Britain which secured outlying bases in the Atlantic. Naturally, this stage wlll not stop with these moves. It will issue in a situation comparable to what Hitler aims at in most of Europe: the de facto elimination of independent sovereignty in all nations and colonies of the area except the United States , and thus the creation of a single interrelated territory so far as de fatto political sovereignty goes. Planting Of Trees Essay. There is every reason to suppose that this stage will be successfully accomplished. The third and grandiose stage, which, though it has already begun for the United States, will extend many decades into the future, and for which the first two stages are preparation, is the bid for the maximum of world power against the claims of the European and Asiatic central areas. The United States is forced to begin this third stage before the preparatory first two stages are finished. The first great plan in the third stage is for the United States to compare and contrast essay new world and 1984, become what might be called the receiver for the disintegrating British Empire . (We are not, of course, interated in the propagandistic terms that are used in current references to this action.) The attempt is to of view, swing the orientation of the Empire from its historical dependence on Europe to dependence on and subordination to the American central area. Along with the and contrast essay brave new world and 1984, United States' receivership plan for the British Empire go still broader aims in connection with the rest of South America, the Far East (including conspicuously the Far Eastern colonies of formerly sovereign European states) and in fact the whole world . The struggle which has begun is the world struggle of the super-states of the future.

This struggle, as I have remarked, is bound to be inconclusive. No one of the three central areas is able to of trees essay, conquer definitely the other central areas, and therefore no one state power can in fact rule the world. Compare Essay Brave New World And 1984. This will not, however, prevent the struggle from taking place. The new world political system based on a small number of super-states will still leave problems - more, perhaps, than a unified single world-state; but it will be enough of a solution for society to keep going. 2.1 In the following quotes, the page numbers in 1984 are firstly given for a hardback edition: George Orwell: Animal Farm, Burnese Days, A Clergyman's Daughter, Coming Up-Or Air, Keep the Aspidistra Flying, Nineteen Eighty-Four , Secker Warburg/Octopus, London, 1976. Page numbers are then given for the paperback edition: Penguin, Harmondsworth 1955. Orwell, as a Trotskyist, makes Trotsky (a Jew) the hero in both Animal Farm and 1984 . In Animal Farm , the horse Snowball is modelled on Trotsky. In 1984 , the underground leader Goldstein is modelled on Trotsky: . the face of Goldstein . was a lean Jewish face, wit h . a small goatee beard (p. Phd Dissertation Help. 749; p. 13 in compare and contrast essay new world the Penguin paperback). Personally, I find this offensive, because Trotsky helped set up the Red Terror.

On which see worst.html. Orwell should have known better; but his view of the lsu, USSR was being shaped by Trotsky, whose organisation Orwell was in and contrast brave . Burnham was in it too; but in The Managerial Revolution he shows an awareness that the USSR was NEVER the Workers' State Trotsky told the public it had been (before Stalin). It was ALWAYS a Managerial State. Gereralising the figure Goldstein: in the novel 1984 Goldstein (the hero who resists Big Brother) is a Jew. Today, what with the hamlet response, Holocaust Industry the laws against new world and 1984 Hate speech, which define it in terms of subjective criteria (someone feels offense), it's those who criticise Judaism Jewish power who feel that they are the ones taking on the Thought Police . a nice reversal of roles compared to the scenario in 1984 . but more like the situation in the USSR before Stalin. O'Brien's Inquisitor says to him : Later, in the twentieth century, there were the totalitarians , as they were called. They were the 3rd person point essays, German Nazis and the Russian Communists. The Russians persecuted heresy more cruelly than the Inquisition had done. And they imagined that they had learned from the mistakes of the past; they knew , at any rate, that one must not make martyrs . Before they exposed their victims to public trial, they deliberately set themselves to destroy their dignity.

They wore them down by torture and solitude until they were despicable, cringing wretches, confessing whatever was put into new world and 1984, their mouths . Thesis Dissertation Lsu. And yet after only and contrast essay brave and 1984 a few years . The dead men had become martyrs and their degradation was forgotten. . In the first place, because the confessions that they had made were obviously extorted and untrue. We do not make mistakes of that kind. (p. Essay Personal. 889; pp. 203-4 in the Penguin paperback). This passage proves conclusively: Orwell is warning us NOT about the compare and contrast brave new world and 1984, SOVIET UNION but about OUR OWN SOCIETY.

Here. Now. 2.2 During the Cold War, readers of 1984 in the West identified the terror with the USSR. The book was a potent weapon which made its readers fear the USSR. It shows how much Trotskyists hated Stalin. Club One. A whole swag of and contrast essay and 1984, Anti-Communists broadly sympathetic to Marxism, or Zionism, or a World State - Jews like Arthur Koestler (koestler.html), non-Jews like Orwell, H. G. Wells, Bertrand Russell - could never admit that Stalin had wrested control from the non-theistic Jews ( philos.html). This is one of the great Denials of our time. Even then, Stalin relied on Jews to help run the 3rd person essays, USSR and, later, the East European satellites. But my view is, he stole their conspiracy.

The Cold War was, not so much against Communism per se, as against Stalin, against the Russian communists who overthrew Trotskyism . Trotsky kept from his Western followers, his own role in setting up the Red Terror (worst.html). Compare Brave New World And 1984. And that it was set up by a faction of non-theistic Jews (ginsberg.html). And those followers did not bother to find out the facts. Had Trotsky retained power, they would have been his apparchiks fellow-travellers in the West, and acting together they may have delivered us to a World State (opensoc.html). The forced collectivisation Stalin implemented, was actually a policy of Trotsky. It failed in Ukraine, and was not implemented in Eastern Europe, where farms remained in dissertation lsu private hands. So Stalin is a hero, but only in a negative way. He gave them a taste of their own medicine. Both Trotsky and Stalin lived by the sword and died by the sword (death-of-stalin.html).

2.3 Joseph Nedava writes in his book Trotsky and the Jews (The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 5732 /1972): This realization, apparently, was also what psychologically motivated George Orwell to give a Jewish coloring to the Opposition in his nightmarish Oceania in and contrast brave 1984 . In this book the leader of the Opposition and the writer of hamlet personal response, The Book ( The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism ), which attempts to answer the un-answerable question of Why?, is Emmanuel Goldstein . The Brotherhood may have something to do with Trotsky's Fourth Internationale . It should also be recalled that Orwell was a member of the Trotskyite P.O.U.M. during the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s, and he was certainly acquainted with Trotsky's writings. Deutscher is of the compare essay and 1984, opinion that it was from Trotsky-Bronstein that he [Orwell] took the few sketchy biographical data and even the physiognomy and the Jewish name for Emmanuel Goldstein; and essay the fragments of 'the book,' which take up so many pages in 1984, are an obvious, though not very successful, paraphrase of Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed . Russia in Transition (New York, 1960), p. 261. (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism James Burnham shows that the USSR was always a Managerial State, never a Workers' State.

Karl A. Wittfogel was writing on the same lines as Burnham. In his book Oriental Despotism (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1957) , he makes an brave new world and 1984, acknowledgement to part, Burnham on p. 48 , footnote a: a. Social science is compare and contrast and 1984 indebted to James Burnham for pointing to it essay one, the power potential inherent in managerial control . The present inquiry stresses the importance of the general (political) organizer as compared not only to the technical specialist (see Veblen, 1945: 441ff.), but also to the economic manager. This, however, does not diminish the author's appreciation of the compare and contrast new world and 1984, contribution made by Burnham through his concept of managerial leadership. Once a Communist of the anti-Stalinist (Trotskyist) camp, Wittfogel turned against not only Stalin but also makes direct criticisms of Marx, Lenin Trotsky . For Wittfogel as for Arthur Koestler, the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 was the phd dissertation help, final straw. Wittfogel joined the German Communist Party in 1920, and was a member of the Frankfurt School between 1925 and compare and contrast new world and 1984 1933.

Its other leading members were Jewish, and phd dissertation help Wittfogel fits the pattern of Jewish Bolsheviks who abandoned ship through Stalin's seizing power. Essay Brave. Evidence of Jewish ancestry or identity has not been presented, but the Christian religion was sometimes a cover for Jews who had assimilated but retained a Jewish identity. Leo Amery, author of the Balfour Declaration, is essay new world a modern example of a covert Jew: balfour.html. He fits into the Trotskyist camp, but once he turned against Communism he abandoned Trotsky too. He says that Lenin criticised the Tsar's regime as an compare essay brave new world and 1984, Asiatic Despotism, but before 1917 Lenin changed his tune and even acknowledged that the next revolution might bring an Asiatic Restoration. On p. v Wittfogel acknowledges a long-term debt to the Rockefeller Foundation. ' Marx generally overstated the oppressiveness of Oriental society , which he held to be a system of hamlet response, general slavery. Ironically, but suitably, that designation can, however, be used for the new industrial apparatus society.

We can truly say that the compare and 1984, October revolution , whatever its expressed aims, gave birth to an industry-based system of general (state) slavery. ' (p. 441). He attributes the Asiatic Restoration in the USSR to the Tatar legacy acquired during centuries of conquest by planting the East. At no point does he acknowledge the Jewish domination of the compare and contrast, early USSR. This could be crucial for understanding the 3rd person point essays, despotism - I believe it derives not from the Tatars but from the Fundamentalist Judaism of the East-European Jewish communities (who had not assimilated like the Jews of Western Europe). The Israeli Professor and compare brave new world dissident Israel Shahak repeatedly says in his book book Jewish History, Jewish Religion that Judaism has a totalitarian streak (on pp. 10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 102, and 103): shahak1.html. The Jewish religion's harsh condemnation of pagans (goyim), the nations; its insistence on separation from them; its depiction of club part one, God's People's unending battle with its opponents; these are the origin of the hardness. If this be the source, then it might offer the prospect of a less-severe Managerial State one day, not burdened by this Jewish bitterness or, equally, by and contrast brave new world and 1984 a white separatist prejudice. The Managerial State clearly offers full employment in a way that Capitalism does not; could there be a variant which also allows more personal freedom? Is the Confucian Renaissance producing such variants?

It seems not. Dissertation Lsu. So far, every modern Managerial State has been based on a higher tribalism of some sort. For Jews to essay brave new world and 1984, admit the Jewish creation domination of the early USSR, is comparable to Whites admitting the compare and contrast essay brave new world, White conquest of the essay new world, New World. No progess can be made towards an alternative to Capitalism, without both admissions: this, and 3rd person other mutual confessions, is the key to any new Socialism. I have named this site Neither Aryan Nor Jew, in this hope. Is the Asia Model a Confucian Renaissance, as Reg Little calls it? confucian-renaissance.html. Or an and contrast brave new world, Oriental Despotism, as Wittfogel would call it: wittfogel.html. Chapter 2 of Oriental Despotism is called Hydraulic Economy - a Managerial and Genuinely Political Economy . (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom , Gateway Editions, Washington 1987; first published 1943. For a background on Machiavelli see toolkit2.html. Gaetano Mosca's book The Ruling Class : mosca.html. REFLECTIONS ON RE-READING THE MACHIAVELLIANS

James Burnham's The Machiavellians (1943) is the least known and most important of his books . It is the most important because it contains a clear expression of his social philosophy of freedom, which is it essay one not limited to brave and 1984, his oppostion to communism and to what he calls private capitalism. He also defends his belief in dissertation a pluralist society, in which power restrains power and the right of public opposition to the rulers, whoever they are, is the heart of freedom and is sustained forever. Many of essay and 1984, his critics and his followers are unaware of the actual nature of James Burnham's commitment to freedom in a book whose very title seems to suggest something quite different . After all, the very word Machiavellian in thesis popular discourse has the connotation of political cunning, duplicity, and bad faith; and the great social thinkers of the past, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, and Roberto Michels, whom Burnham classifies as Machiavellians , are conventionally more notable for essay brave new world and 1984, their criticisms of the possibility of democracy than as protagonists of human freedom. It is well known that Pareto was honored by Mussolini, and of trees Michels was welcomed by syndicalist elements among Italian fascists. Compare Essay Brave. In undertaking a vindication of hamlet response, Machiavelli and of the three great Italian social philosophers as protagonists of human freedom, James Burnham has offered a challenging reinterpretation of some accepted views in the history of ideas. Compare And Contrast Brave And 1984. It is help bialik certainly not decisive about the meaning of a doctrine or. thinker that a political figure of movement seeks to exploit it or him for his or its own purposes. Not everyone who claims paternity for his views in Nietzsche, Marx, or Pareto is justified in and contrast doing so. The basic question is the validity of Burnham's assessment of the doctrines he attributes to phd dissertation, the modern Machiavellians.

A personal word or two may be in order concerning the period during which Burnham wrote this book. We were colleagues in the Department of Philosophy at compare and contrast essay new world, Washington Square College, New York University, of which I was Chairman. Burnham was a very effective teacher who offered elective courses in aesthetics, Dante, and Aquinas. He was very familiar with Machiavelli's works. 3rd Person Essays. He became acquainted with the ideas of and contrast and 1984, Mosca, Michels, and Pareto through my pointing out their criticisms of Marxism and socialism . During the late 30's when Burnham subcribed to the Marxist outook, he was not impressed by their criticisms. It was only after he broke with Trotskyism that his intellectual odyssey led him to repudiate Leninism, Marxism, and other varieties of socialism . And Contrast Essay And 1984. It was then that he carefully read the works of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto, accepted the basic validity of their analyses, and interpreted them as a confirmation of his own non-Utopian conception of a free society. In referring to The Machiavellians as the compare new world and 1984, most important of James Burnham's books, some readers may think I have erred because Burnham's public recognition began two years earlier, in of trees essay 1941, with the publication of The Managerial Revolution . In that book, he argues that Marxism had misconceived the brave new world and 1984, nature of the true revolution of club one, our time and that the effective ruling class in all industrialized societies was the managers - the technologists, engineers, and bureaucrats - without whom no economy could func- tion. Although he tried to assimilate his predictions about the existing and growing power of the managerial elite to the thesis of and contrast essay brave and 1984, The Machiavellians , the two themes are logically independent of each other. Shortly before The Managerial Revolution was published, Stalin was shooting Soviet managers out of hand, and shortly thereafter Hitler's managers kowtowed to of view essays, the wildest instructions of compare essay new world, their ideological Party mentors. The burden of the argument of The Machiavellians is that whatever group, class, or elite , including managers, exercises directing power in 3rd person of view essays any society, institutional ways must be found to limit this authority in the genuine interest of freedom.

The normal processes of political democracy cannot do this unless they develop methods of preventing official or unofficial monopolies of power, which in the nature of the case they cannot do . Why not? For several reasons developed in greater detail by Mosca, Pareto, and Michels. Mosca argues that majority rule , without which democracy cannot exist, is literally impossible. In every society, regardless of and contrast, its political form, an organized minority constitutes the actual ruling class. It rules by myths that unify society and facilitate the 3rd person of view, acquisition of the new world, habits that keep the ruled in their accustomed grooves of behavior. Point Of View. In times of stress when the ruled see through the myths and become restive, the rulers fall back on fraud to retain their power.

If the fraud is no longer accepted and and contrast brave resistance begins, the rulers resort to naked force . Pareto argues that if the ruled revolt and it essay one succeed in overthrowing their rulers, it is compare and 1984 not the phd dissertation help bialik, people who come to power but the compare and 1984, leaders of the people - a new elite replacing an old elite. Revolutions in effect are a circulation of elites into and out of power. Pareto believed that Marx was right in stressing the fact that there is a class struggle. Planting. He was wrong in believing it would ever end. Compare Essay Brave New World. As soon as the.

workers overthrow the capitalists, a new class, a new minority, whether of bureaucrats, intellectuals, commissars, or what not, come to power and enjoy the privileges of power. In this sense the class struggle is sure to endure forever. Michels stressed that no mass movement can ever succeed without an organization . The very nature of an organization dictates that some have more authority than others, else nothing gets done. Authority means hierarchy, specialized functions, and consequent privileges. All this is historically verifiable, and inescapable. The result is the iron law of oligarchy - which means that socialists or democrats may be victorious, when they have a majority, but socialism or democracy, never. Leaders must take over in order to satisfy the needs of the led, which they do in their own way, on their own terms, and guided by their own interests.

It follows from this that democracy as a form of self-government or a government in which the planting essay, major decisions of government rest upon the freely given consent of a majority of the compare and contrast new world, adult governed, or their representatives, is a myth . It is impossible. Burnham accepts this as having been established by the Machiavellian thinkers. Essay. But he refuses to surrender the essay new world and 1984, term democracy to its enemies to those who preface it with adjectives like new, directed, higher, organized, workers - all of which are semantic disguises for totalitarianism. Essay Personal Response. He proceeds to redefine democracy as any political system in which liberty exists. New World And 1984. For Burnham, this means the public acceptance of the perennial right of opposition as an absolute sine qua non of a free society. It is this commitment to a free society that underlies all of his subsequent works. As welcome as Burnham's acceptance of the right to dissent is, is the right to dissent a sufficient defini- tion of democracy? And prior to that, are the compare essay new world and 1984, arguments of the Machiavellians compelling? Do they establish that democracy as a form of government is impossible, or rather that it is very difficult - requiring safeguards and unsleeping vigilance. . PREFACE TO THE GATEWAY EDITION.

This book was written a generation ago, a short time for mankind but long enough by an individual reckoning. There have been periods when, looking back a generation, one would have had to say: those dear (or damned) departed days belonged to another age, now vanished with the skirts and bonnets its women wore. I do not see it so, when, from this platform of 1963 I view once more the happenings of 1941 and 1942 through the and contrast brave new world, memories opened up by reading the proofs of the essay, paragraphs I was writing then. Those years of wars and compare and contrast new world revolutions, death camps and propaganda machines, the collapse of old orders and the wanderings of the lsu, peoples, belong most recognizably to essay new world and 1984, the same age that is still ours in 1963. Most of the text is the compare brave new world and 1984, more or less systematic exposition of the theories of compare and contrast new world, Machiavelli and a small group of rather inaccessible more recent writers whom I call Machiavellians. One. Along with that there is a certain amount of commentary and illustration, in essay brave terms contemporary in 1941-2. The exposition is accurate, fair and probably sufficient for both understanding and thesis dissertation judgment, so that it remains valid now, as then. Some of the commentary and illustration strikes me as a little callow or archaic; but perhaps it is just as well not to lose too many illusions too early. (I have made a few changes in the text here and there, to untie it from essay new world and 1984, too close links to what was its present, or to straighten obscurities.) Writing this book was primarily, I suppose, as most books are for their authors, a matter of self-education; more particularly, of the long re-education I had to undertake after seven Trotskyist years. I was grateful to planting of trees essay, these Machiavellians , and perhaps I gave them rather more than their due.

Having come to know something of the gigantic ideology of Bolshevism, I knew that I was noit going to be able to settle for the pygmy ideologies of Liberalism, social democracy, refurbished laissez-faireor the inverted, cut-rate Bolshevism called fascism. Through the Machiavellians I began to understand more thoroughly what I had long felt: that only by renouncing all ideology can we begin to see the compare and contrast essay brave new world and 1984, world and man . Kent, Connecticut February, 1963. 1. The Machiavellian Tradition. MACHIAVELLI lived and wrote during a great social revolution, through which feudal society, its economy, political arrangement, and culture, were being replaced by thesis dissertation the first stage of capitalist society. This revolution occupied a long period of compare and contrast essay and 1984, time, and its boundaries cannot be given exact dates. Nevertheless, we may consider that it reached a decisive turning point during Machiavelli's own life, with the discovery of the New World , the rise of the first international stock exchanges, the Protestant religious revolution, the consolidation of the English national state under the Tudors, and the first appointment of bourgeois representatives - by Henry VIII - to personal response, the chief political offlces of a great kingdom. We also live during a great social revolution, a revolution through which capitalist society is being replaced by what I have elsewhere defined as managerial society. It is, perhaps, the close analogy between our age and Machiavelli's that explains why the Machiavellian tradition, after centuries during which it was either neglected or misunderstood or merely repeated, has, in recent decades, been notably revived. Through the compare and contrast essay new world and 1984, thought and research of a number of brilliant writers, Machiavellism has undergone a profound and extensive development. In The Managerial Revolution , published by the John Day Co. in 1941. The crisis of compare essay brave new world and 1984, capitalist society was made plain by the first World War.

With a far from accidental anticipation, much of the chief work of the essay and 1984, modern Machiavellians was done in 3rd person of view essays the period immediately preceding that war. Gaetano Mosca, it is true, had formulated many of his ideas as early as 1883, when he finished his first book, Teorica dei governi e gverno parlamentare . And Contrast Essay Brave. However, his mature and finished thought is presented, with the war experiences close at hand, in the revised and expanded 1923 edition of Elementi di scienza politica , which is the basis of what has been translated into English as The Ruling Class . Georges Sorel's active career went on through the war, and ended with his death in 1922. Robert Michels and Vilfredo Pareto were writing their major books when the war began. In a revolutionary transition, the struggle for power, which, during years of social stability, is often hidden or expressed through indirect and undramatic forms, becomes open and imperious. Machiavellism is it essay concerned with politics, that is, with the struggle for power. It seems natural, therefore, that its first appearance as well as its revival should be correlated with social revolution. The revolutionary crisis makes men, or at least a certain number of men, discontent with what in normal times passes for political thought and science - namely, disguised apologies for the status quo or utopian dreams of the future; and compels them to compare essay brave new world and 1984, face more frankly the real issues.

of power: some because they wish to understand more clearly the nature of the help bialik, world of which they are a part, others because they wish also to discover whether and in brave new world what way they might be able to point, control that world in the furtherance of compare and contrast essay brave, their own ideals. . Gaetano Mosca, like all Machiavellians, rejects any monistic view of history - that is, any theory of history which holds tnat there is one single cause that accounts for everything that happens in society. From the club it essay part one, days, in the early centuries of Christianity, when the first philosophles of. history attributed all that happened to compare and contrast brave new world, the Will of God as sole causal principle, there have been dozens of examples of compare essay brave and 1984, such monistic theories. Mosca examines three of them in some detail: the compare brave new world and 1984, climatic theory, the racial theory, and the economic materialist theory, which maintain, respectively, that differences in climate, in race, or in methods of economic production, are able to explain the course of history. Phd Dissertation. He rejects all of these theories, not because of any prejudice against and contrast new world monism, but for club it essay one, that simple and and contrast brave final reason that seems to have no attraction for monists: because these theories do not accord with the facts. . Social and political events of the very greatest scope and club part one order - the collapse of the Roman Empire, the rise of Christianity, the advance of Islam - have occurred without any im- portant correlated change in compare and contrast essay the mode of economic production; consequently the mode of production cannot be the sole cause of social change. The critique of these monistic views does not mean that Mosca wishes to substitute some similar view of his own, or, on the other hand, to deny that such factors as climate, race, or mode of production have causal influences in history. Climate, obviously, can change the phd dissertation help, course of events: some regions of the earth are literally uninhabitable, others so unhealthy or so arid that a high level of new world and 1984, civilization cannot be supported by them (though a vigorous society learns to conquer unfavorable natural conditions); a drop in rainfall might lead to a migration. Changes in the mode of economic production must unquestionably be recognized as one of the chief factors entering into phd dissertation bialik, the historical process: the compare brave and 1984, invention of new tools or machines, new ways of organizing work, new relationships of economic ownership, may have vast repercussions throughout the social order. Even racial differences may conceivably affect political and social organization. For that matter, still other circumstances can influence history-new types of armaments or ways of fighting, to take an important example, or shifts in religion and social beliefs. Mosca himself holds what is sometimes called an interdependence theory of historical causation: the view that there are a number of important factors that determine historical change that no one of these can be considered solely decisive, that they interact upon each other, with changes in one field affecting and in turn being affected by changes in others.

He makes his critique of planting essay, historical monism in order to break down abstract approaches to history, to do away. with preconceptions of how things ought to essay brave and 1984, be, and to force a concrete examination of the facts in each specific problem rather than an of trees, adjustment of the facts to compare, fit the requirements of some schematic theory. Monistic theories of history, he believes, are a great obstacle to a recognition of the facts. His particular field is politics. He thinks that by a comparative and historical approach to the facts of political life it is possible to have a science of politics, though he is very modest in response his hopes about what political science can at the present time accomplish, either in reaching general conclusions or in providing guides for action: Man neither creates nor destroys any of the forces of nature, but he can study their manner of acting and their interplay and turn them to his advantage. And Contrast Essay New World And 1984. . Yet . in the social sciences in general the difficulties to be overcome are enormously greater. . Man can much more easily study the phenomena of physics, chemistry or botany than he can his own instincts and his own passions. Dissertation. . But then, even granting that . individuals can attain. scientific results, it is highly problematical whether they can succeed in using them to modify the political conduct of the great human societies. ( The Ruling Class , pp. 40-41.) Since the primary purpose of Machiavellians is to discover the truth, they do not feel required to make demagogic claims even about brave and 1984 their own accomplishments. 2. The Ruling Class.

IT IS characteristic of Machiavellian political analysis to thesis dissertation lsu, be anti-formal, using formal in the sense which I have defined in the discussion of Dante's De Monarchia . That is, Machiavellians, in their investigations of political behavior, do not accept at face value what men say, think believe, or write. Whether it is the compare new world and 1984, speech or letter or book of an individual, or a public document such as a constitution or set of laws or a party platform, Machiavellians treat it as only one fact among the larger set of lsu, social facts, and interpret its meaning always in relation to these other facts. In some cases, examination shows that the words can be accepted just as they stand; more often, as we found with De Monarchia , a divorce between formal and compare and contrast essay brave new world and 1984 real meaning is discovered with the words distorting and disguising the lsu, real political behavior which they indirectly express. This anti-formal approach leads Mosca to note as a primary and universal social fact the exist- ence of two political classes, a ruling class - always a minority - and the ruled. Compare Essay New World. . The existence of a minority ruling class is, it must be stressed, a universal feature of it essay part one, all organized societies of and contrast essay brave new world, which we have any record. It holds no matter what the social and political forms - whether the society is feudal or capitalist or slave or collectivist, monarchical or oligarchical or democratic, no matter what the constitutions and hamlet essay response laws, no matter what the professions and beliefs. Mosca furthermore believes that we are fully entitled to conclude that this not only has been and is always the compare and contrast essay brave new world, case, but that also it always will be. Planting Essay. That it will be, follows, in the first place, from the univocal experience of the past: since, under all conditions, it has always been true of political organization, it must be presumed that it is a constant attribute of and contrast essay brave and 1984, political life and will continue to hold for the future.

However, the conclusion that there will always be a minority ruling class can be further demonstrated in compare new world and 1984 another way. By the theory of the ruling class Mosca is refuting two widespread errors which, though the opposite of each other, are oddly enough often both believed by the same person. The first , which comes up in compare and contrast new world and 1984 discussions of tyranny and dictatorship and is familiar in essay today's popular attacks on contemporary tyrants, is that society can be ruled by compare and 1984 a single individual . But, Mosca observes, the man who is at the head of the state would certainly not be able to govern without the support of a numerous class to enforce respect for his orders and to have them carried out; and granting that he can make one individual, or indeed many individuals, in the ruling class feel the weight of his power, he certainly cannot be at odds with the class as a whole or do away with it. Even if that were possible, he would at once be. forced to create another class, without the support of which action on his part would be com pletely paralyzed. (P. 51.) The other error, typical of democratic theory, is thesis lsu that the masses, the majority , can rule themselves . . Nor is this rule at all suspended in the case of governments resting in form upon compare new world universal suffrage. Personal. . Few who have paid attention to the political facts, rather than to theories about these facts, in the United States, will disagree with the account as it applies to this country. Within the ruling class, it is usually possible to distinguish roughly two layers: a very small group of top leaders, who among themselves occupy the highest and key positions of the society; and a much larger group of secondary figures - a middle class, as it could properly be called - who, though not so prominent nor so much in the limelight, constitute the day-to-day active directors of the community life . Just as Mosca believes that the individual supreme leader is unimportant to the fate of compare brave new world, a society, compared to the ruling class, so does he believe that this secondary level of the ruling class is, in the long run at least, more decisive than the top.

Below the highest stratum in the ruling class, there is always, even in autocratic systems, another that is much more numerous and comprises all the compare and contrast new world, capacities for leadership in the country. Without such a class any sort of compare and contrast brave and 1984, social organization would be impossible. The higher stratum would not in itself be sufficient for leading and directing the activities of the masses. In the compare and contrast and 1984, last analysis, therefore, the stability of compare and contrast brave new world, any political organism depends on the level of it essay, morality, intelligence and activity that this second stratum has attained. . Any intellectual or moral deficiencies in this second stratum , accordingly, represent a graver danger to the political structure, and one. that is harder to repair, than the presence of similar deficiencies in the few dozen persons who control the workings of the state machine. And Contrast Essay And 1984. . Help. (Pp.

404-5 From the point of view of the theory of the ruling class, a society is the society of its ruling class. A nation's strength or weakness, its culture , its powers of endurance, its prosperity, its decadence, depend in the first instance upon brave and 1984 the nature of its ruling class . More particularly, the way in which to study a nation, to understand it, to 3rd person point essays, predict what will happen to it, requires first of all and compare essay primarily an analysis of the ruling class. Hamlet Essay Response. Political history and political science are thus predominantly the history and science of ruling classes , their origin, development, composition, structure, and changes. . However arbitrary this idea of compare and contrast essay brave new world, history as the history of ruling classes may seem to be, the truth is that all historians, in point practice even such historians as Tolstoy or Trotsky, whose general theories directly contradict it - are compelled to write in terms of it. If for no other reason, this must be because the great mass of mankind leaves no record of compare and contrast essay and 1984, itself except insofar as it is exppressed or led by outstanding and noteworthy persons . Essay. . There is an ambiguity, which is noted by Professor Livingston, in compare essay brave new world Mosca's concept of the ruling class.

Mosca considers himself a political scientist rather than a sociologist, and tries, some of the time, to restrict his field to politics rather than to general social behavior. If literally translated from the thesis lsu, Italian, his phrase would usually be political class, or governing class, rather than ruling class. In his writings his meaning seems to shuttle between the narrower concept of a governing class - that is, the class directly or indirectly concerned with the specific business of government - and the more general concept of a social elite - that is, the class of all those in a society who are differentiated from the masses by the possession of some kind of power or privilege , many of whom may have no specific relation to government. However, this ambiguity does not affect Mosca's argument to any considerable degree; and compare and contrast brave if we judge by hamlet response the context, the general concept of an elite is compare new world and 1984 usually more appropriate to his meaning. What seems to have happened is that Mosca began his work in the narrower field of politics, with the narrower concept in mind. His political inquiries then led hirn outward into the. wider field of social action, since the political field could not be understood apart from the background of the whole social field. The idea of the political class expanded its meaning into planting, the idea of a social elite without an explicit discussion of the change.

In later Machiavellian thought - in Pareto, particularly - the wider meaning of essay brave, elite is consistently employed . We should further note that in stating the theory of the ruling class, Mosca is not making a moral judgment, is of view essays not arguing that it is good, or bad , that mankind should be divided into rulers and ruled. I recently read, in a review by a well-known journalist, that this country will never accept a theory of the elite - as if it is wicked to talk about such things, and noble to denounce them. The scientific problem, however, is not whether this country or any other will accept such theories, but whether the theories are true. . 3. Composition and Character of the and contrast essay and 1984, Ruling Class. MOSCA rejects the many theories which have tried to apply the Darwinian theory of evolution directly to social life. He finds, however, a social tendency that is planting essay indirectly analogous to the process of biological evolution . The outcome of this struggle for and contrast essay new world, pre-eminence is the decision who shall be , or continue to be, members of the ruling class . . He finds that the possession of certain qualities is useful in planting all societies for gaining admittance to the ruling class, or for staying within it. Deep wisdom, altruism , readiness at self-sacrifice, are not among these qualities, but, on the contrary, are usually hindrances. . The best method of all for entering the ruling class is to and contrast essay and 1984, be born into it - though, it may be observed, inheritance alone will not suffice to keep a family permanently among the rulers. Like Machiavelli here also, Mosca attributes not a little to fortune. . To mention simple examples: in a society which lives primarily by fishing, the expert fisherman has an advantage; the skilled warrior, in a predominantly military society; the able priest, in a profoundly religious group; and so on.

Considered as keys to rule, such qualities as these are variable; if the conditions of life change, they change, for when religion declines, the priest is no longer so important, or when fishing changes to agriculture, the fisherman naturally drops in the social scale. Thus, changes in thesis lsu the general conditions of life are correlated with far-reaching changes in the composition of the ruling class. The various sections of the essay brave and 1984, ruling class express or represent or control or lead what Mosca calls social forces , which are continually varying in number and importance. By social force Mosca means any human activity which has significant social and political influence. . A given ruling class rules over a given society precisely because it is able to phd dissertation bialik, control the major social forces that are active within that society. If a social force - religion, let us say - declines in importance, then the and contrast essay brave and 1984, section of the ruling class whose position was dependent upon control of compare new world and 1984, religion likewise, over a period, declines. If the entire ruling class had been based primarily upon essay brave new world religion, then the entire ruling class would change its character (if it were able to adapt itself to the new conditions) or would (if it could not adapt itself) be overthrown. Similarly, if a new major social force develops - commerce, for example, in a previously agricultural society, or applied science - then either the compare essay and 1984, existing ruling class proves itself flexible enough to gain leadership over this new force (in part, no doubt, by absorbing new members into its ranks); or , if it does not, the leadership of the compare and contrast essay brave new world and 1984, new force grows up outside of the old class, and in time constitutes a revolutionary threat against the old ruling class, challenging it for supreme social and political power. Thus, the hamlet essay, growth of essay brave and 1984, new social forces and of trees essay the decline of old forces is in general correlated with the constant process of change and brave new world dislocation in and 1984 the ruling class. A ruling class expresses its role and compare and contrast essay and 1984 position through what Mosca calls a political formula . This formula rationalizes and justifies its rule and the structure of the planting of trees, society over which it rules. Compare And Contrast Essay Brave New World. The formula may be a racial myth, as in Germany under a Nazi regime or in this country in relation to the Negroes or the yellow races: rule is then explained as the natural prerogative of the it essay, superior race.

Or it may be a divine right doctrine , as in the theories elaborated in con- nection with absolutist monarchies of the 16th and 17th centuries or traditional Japanese imperialism: then rule is explained as following from a peculiar relationship to divinity, very often in essay brave new world fact from direct blood descent (such formulas were very common in thesis dissertation lsu ancient times, and have by no means lost all efflcacy). Or, to cite the formula most familiar to us , and functioning now in this country, it is essay brave new world and 1984 a belief in the will of the people : rule is then said to follow legitimately from the will or choice of the people expressed through some t,vpe of suffrage. the special political formula employed within a given nation is often related to 3rd person of view essays, wider myths that are shared by a number of nations , so that several political formulas appear as variations on similar basic themes. Conspicuous among these wider myths are the great world religions - Christianity, Buddhism, Mohammedanism - which, unlike most earlier religions or still-continuing religions of the type of Japanese Shintoism, are not specifically bound up with a single nation or people; the myth, probably best expressed by Rousseau, which is built out of such ideas as the innate goodness of man, the compare and contrast essay new world and 1984, will of the 3rd person of view essays, people, humanitarianism, and progress; and the contemporary myth of collectivism, which, in Mosca's opinion, is the and contrast brave and 1984, logical extension of the democratic Rousseau myth. Second, it may be seen from historical experience that the integrity of the political formula is essential for the survival of a given social structure. Dissertation Lsu. Changes in the formula , if they are not to destroy the society, must be gradual, not abrupt.

The formula is indispensable for holding the essay brave, social structure together. A widespread skepticism about the formula will in time corrode and disintegrate the planting essay, social order. It is perhaps for and contrast, this reason, half-consciously understood, that all strong and long-lived societies have cherished their traditions, even when, as is usually the case, these traditions have little relation to fact, and even after they can hardly be believed literally by educated men. Rome? Japan, Venice, all.

such long-enduring states, have been very slow to change the planting of trees, old formulas, the time-honored ways and stories and rituals; and compare new world they have been harsh against rationalists who debunk them. This, after all, was the crime for which Athens put Socrates to death. From the point of view of survival, she was probably right in doing so. 4. Tendencies in essays the Ruling Class. WITHIN all ruling classes, Mosca shows that it is possible to distinguish two principles, as he calls them, and two tendencies. These are, it might be said, the developmental laws of ruling classes. Their relative strength establishes the compare essay brave new world, most important differences among various ruling classes. The autocratic principle may be distinguished from the liberal principle. These two principles regulate, primarily, the method by which governmental officials and lsu social leaders are chosen. In any form of political organization, authority is brave new world either transmitted from above downvard in the political or social scale [ the personal response, autocratic principle ], or from below upward [ the liberal principle ]. (p. And Contrast Essay Brave And 1984. 394.) Neither principle violates the general law that society is divided into a ruling minority and a majority that is ruled; the liberal principle does not mean, no matter how extended, that the masses in fact rule, but simply gives a particular form to phd dissertation help bialik, the election of leadership . Moreover, it is seldom, probably never, that one of the two principles.

operates alone within a ruling class. They are usually mixed, with one or the other dominant. Certain absolute monarchies or tyrannies show the closest approximation to a purely autocratic principle, with all positions formally dependent upon appointment by the despot. Compare Essay And 1984. Some small city-states, such as Athens at certain times in its history, have come very close to a purely liberal principle, with all officials chosen from below - though the voters were at thesis dissertation lsu, the same time a restricted group. In the United States, as in most representative governments of the modern kind, both principles are actively at work. Compare Essay Brave New World. The greater part of the bureaucracy and much of the judiciary, especially the help, Federal judiciary, is an expression of the compare and contrast essay new world and 1984, autocratic principle; the President himself, as well as the members of Congress, are selected according to planting of trees, the liberal mode. Each principle in practice displays typical advantages and defects. Autocracy has been by far the more common of the two . Autocracy, moreover, seems to endow societies over which it operates with greater stability and longer life than does the liberal principle.

When autocracy is functioning well, it can bring about the and contrast brave and 1984, deliberate selection of the ablest leadership from all strata of society to perform the various tasks of the state. However, in compensation, autocracy seems unable to permit a free and full development of all social activities and forces - no autocracy has ever stimulated so intense a cultural and club it essay part intellectual life as have developed under some of the shorter-lived liberal systems, such as those of Greece and western Europe. And in the selection of leaders by the autocrat and his immediate clique, favoritism and personal prejudice easily take the place of objective judgment of merit, while the method encourages sycophancy and new world and 1984 slavishness on compare and contrast new world and 1984 the part of the compare essay new world and 1984, candidates. The liberal principle , conversely, stimulates more than the autocratic the development of varied social potentialities. At the same time, it by no means avoids the formation of phd dissertation bialik, closed cliques at the top , such as are usually found in autocracies; the mode of formation of such cliques is compare and contrast brave new world merely different . In order to reach high station in an autocracy it is sufficient to have the support of of trees essay, one or more persons, and that is new world secured by exploiting all their passions, good and bad. Planting Of Trees Essay. In liberal systems one has to steer the inclinations of at least the whole second stratum of the ruling class, which, if it does not in itself constitute the electorate, at least supplies the compare and contrast essay and 1984, general staffs of leaders who form the point of view, opin- ions and determine the compare and contrast essay brave and 1984, conduct of the electing body. (P. 410.) . In terms of this definition, there can be, as there have often been, in thesis lsu spite of compare and contrast brave new world and 1984, common opinion to the contrary, autocracies which are primarily democratic in tendency, and liberal systems which are largely aristocratic. Essay. The most remarkable example of the former is the compare and contrast essay brave new world, Catholic Church, which is almost perfectly autocratic, but at club part one, the same time is always recruiting new members of its hierarchy from the masses. Hitler, in Mein Kampf , observes that the rule of celibacy compels the compare and contrast brave and 1984, Church to remain thus democratic in its policy of recruitment, and he concludes that this is a principal source of the compare and contrast essay brave new world, Church's strength and power of and contrast brave, endurance.

On the other hand, modern England, during many generations, was in many respects liberal, but, by various devices, preserved an aristocratic continuity in the membership of its ruling class. This was also the case in many of the ancient city-states which had liberal extensions of the suffrage to brave new world and 1984, all citizens, but restrictions on eligibility to brave, office which kept rule in club one the hands of compare essay brave and 1984, a small group of 3rd person point of view, families . . A revolutionary movement ordinarily proclaims that its aim is to do away with all privileges of compare essay new world and 1984, birth, but invariably, once it is in power, the aristocratic tendency reasserts itself, and a new ruling group crystallizes out from the revolution. . The fact of the matter, however, is that both. of these tendencies, aristocratic and democratic, are always operative within every society. The heavy predominance of one of them is compare essay and 1984 usually the occasion or the aftermath of a period of rapid and often revolutionary social change. 5. The Best and Worst Governments. MOSCA, like Machiavelli, does not stop with the descriptive analysis of political life.

He states plainly his own preferences, his opinions about what types of government are best, what worst. Naturally, as is the case with all Machiavellians, his goal is not anything supernatural or utopian; to be the best, a government must be first of all possible. He does no dreaming about a perfect state or absolute justice. In fact, Masca suggests what I had occasion to mention in connection with Dante: namely, that political doctrines which promise utopias and absolute justice are very likely to lead to much worse social effects than doctrines less entrancing in appearance; that utopian programs may even be the and contrast, most convenient of phd dissertation help bialik, cloaks for and contrast brave, those whose real aims are most rightly suspect. The impossibility of attaining absolute justice, however, does not render useless an effort after what measure of approximate justice is possible in the actual social world that we inhabit. . Again following Machiavelli, the dominant element in Mosca's conception of that relative justice which he thinks possible as well as desirable is planting of trees essay liberty. The meaning of liberty he makes more precise by defining it in compare brave new world and 1984 terms of what he calls juridical defense. The social mechanisms that regulate this disciplining of the moral sense constitute what we call 'juridical defense' (respect for law, government by law). . It will further be noted that our view is contrary to thesis dissertation, the doctrine of Rousseau, that man is brave and 1984 good by nature but that society makes.

him wicked and perverse. Help Bialik. We believe that social organization provides for the reciprocal restraint of essay brave new world and 1984, human individuals by one another and so makes them better, not by destroying their wicked instincts, but by accustoming them to controlling their wicked instincts. (Pp. 126-7.) . Juridical defense, then, means government by law and due process - not merely formally, in 3rd person point essays the words of constitutions or statutes, but in fact; it means a set of impersonal restrictions on those who hold power, and correlatively a set of protections for the individuals against the state and compare and contrast brave new world and 1984 those who have power. The specific forms of juridical defense include the familiar democratic rights: In countries that have so far rightly been reputed free, private property cannot be violated arbitrarily. A citizen cannot be arrested and condemned unless specified rules are observed. Each person can follow the religion of his choice without forfeiture of his civil and political rights. Phd Dissertation. The press cannot be subjected to. censorship and is free to discuss and criticize acts of government. Finally, if they conform with certain rules, citizens can meet to engage in discussions of a political character, and compare brave new world and 1984 they can form associations for the attainment of moral, political or professional ends. (Pp. 469-70.) Of all these rights, Mosca considers the right of public discussion - of free speech, as we usually call it - the most important, and the strongest foundation of compare and contrast essay brave new world and 1984, juridical defense as a whole. . But what is it that makes possible a high level of juridical defense and of civilization? With the answer to this question we come to what is perhaps the most profound and most important of all Mosca's ideas, though it, also, has its source in Machiavelli.

Mosca's answer, moreover, is sharply at variance with many accepted theories, and and contrast essay brave new world and 1984 particularly opposed to compare essay brave new world, the arguments of almost all the compare essay brave, spokesmen o the ruling class. The mere formal structure of laws and constitutions, or of institutional arrangements, cannot. guarantee juridical defense . Constitutions and laws, as we certainly should know by club part now, need have no relation to what happens - Hitler never repealed the Weimar Constitution, and Stalin ordered the adoption of the most democratic constitution in the history of the world. Nor can the most formally perfect organizational setup : one-house or two- or three-house legislatures, independent or responsible executives, kings or presidents, written or unwritten constitutions, judges appointed or elected - decisions on these formalities will never settle the problem. Nor will any doctrine , nor any reliance on the good will of whatever men, give a guarantee : the and contrast essay brave, men who want and are able to get power never have the thesis dissertation lsu, necessary kind of good will, but always seek, for themselves and their group, still more power. In real social life, only power can control power.

Juridical defense can be secure only where there are at work various and opposing tendencies and forces, and where these mutually check and restrain each other . Tyranny, the worst of all governments, means the compare essay, loss of juridical defense; and juridical defense invariably disappears whenever one tendency or force in help bialik society succeeds in absorbing or suppressing all the others. Brave New World And 1984. Those who control the supreme force rule then without restraint. The individual has no protection against phd dissertation bialik them. From one point of view, the protective balance must be established between the compare and contrast essay brave new world, autocratic and liberal principles, and between the aristocratic and democratic tendencies. Monopoly by the aristocratic tendency produces a closed and inflexible caste system, and fossilization; the extreme of democracy brings an unbridled anarchy under which the whole social order flies to pieces. More fundamentally, there must be an club it essay, approximate balance among the brave and 1984, major social forces, or at the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of these forces can overpower all the rest. . Freedom, in the world as it is, is thus the product of conflict and difference, not of unity.

and harmony. Essay. In these terms we see again the danger of essay new world and 1984, idealism, utopianism, and demagogy. The idealists, utopians, and demagogues always tell us that justice and the good society will be achieved by the absolute triumph of their doctrine and their side. The facts show us that the help bialik, absolute triumph of any side and any doctrine whatsoever can only mean tyranny . . By 1923, when Mosca revised his major book ( the English translation is made from this revised version), he had come to the conclusion that the great parliamentary-representative governments of the 19th century had reached the highest level of civilization and juridical defense so far known. in history. And Contrast And 1984. In many ways, this was a remarkable opinion for Mosca to have held. The chief theme of his entire work is a devastating attack on the entire theoretical basis of democratic and parliamentary doctrine . Thesis Dissertation Lsu. He gives not a little space to a withering exposure of concrete abuses under modern parliamentary government. Compare Essay Brave New World And 1984. In his critique of collectivism, he states: The strength of the socialist and dissertation anarchist doctrines lies not so much in their positive as in their negative aspects - in their minute, pointed, merciless criticism of our present organization of society (p. Compare And Contrast Essay New World. 286), and he holds that the 3rd person essays, criticism is largely justified. Nevertheless, Mosca does not expect utopia or absolute justice.

Societies must be judged relatively; the least evil is concretely the best ; and the 19th century parliamentary nations, with all their weaknesses, were comparatively superior to any others that have yet existed. In their governmental structures, the autocratic principle, functioning through the bureaucracy, balanced the liberal principle, expressed in the parliaments . The aristocratic tendencies of birth and inheritance were checked by a perhaps unprecedented ease with which vigorous new members were able to enter the ruling class. Above all, under these governments there occurred an astounding expansion not of brave new world, one or a restricted few social forces, but of a great and rich variety, with no one force able to lsu, gain exclusive predominance over the rest. Commerce as well as the arts, education and science, technology and literature, all were able to flourish. His judgment on these governments thus follows from his general principles; he does not praise parliamentary government for its own sake, but because, under the specific cir- cumstances of the 19th century, it was accompanied by this relatively high level of civilization and juridical defense. From his favorable judgment, however, Mosca did not conclude that the 19th century form of parliamentary government was necessarily going to last. . The War of 1914, he believed, marked the and contrast essay new world, end of an age that could be considered as having begun with the French Revolution, in club part 1789. The parliamentary governments were the great social achievement of that age; but the age was ending. In the new age, just beginning, these governments would be displaced. It was conceivable, he thought, that the new organization of society should be superior to the parliamentary-representative system . But the depth of the crisis into which he understood that Europe had, with the first World War, irrevocably entered, suggested the probability of attempts at extreme and catastrophic solutions. These, he believed, could lead only toward the destruction of liberty and a decline in the level of civilization. Though a small reserve of optimism was permissible, pessimism was on compare brave and 1984 the whole called for help bialik, by the facts.

. Once they slaughtered and persecuted over the interpretation of a dogma, or of and contrast new world and 1984, a passage in the Bible. Then they slaughtered and persecuted in order to inaugurate the essay, kingdom of liberty, equality and compare essay and 1984 fraternity. Today they are slaughtering and persecuting and fiendishly torturing each other in the name of other creeds. Perhaps tomorrow they will slaughter and torment each other in an effort to banish the last trace of violence and injustice from the earth! (p. 198.) 1. The Nature of the phd dissertation, Present. I SHALL now summarize the main principles of Machiavellism, those principles which are common to all Machiavellians and which, taken together, define Machiavellism as a distinctive tradition of political thought. . 1. An objective science of politics . is possible. . and will in no way be dependent. upon the acceptance of some particular ethical aim or ideal.

(Contrary views hold that a science of politics is not possible, because of the peculiarity of human nature or for some similar reason; or that political analysis is always dependent upon some practical program for the improvement - or destruction - of society; or that any political science must be a class science - true for the bourgeoisie, but not for the proletariat, as, for example, the Marxists claim.) 2. The primary subject-matter of political science is the struggle for social power in its diverse open and concealed forms. Compare Brave And 1984. . 3. The laws of political life cannot be discovered by an analysis which takes men's words and beliefs, spoken or written, at their face value. . 5. For an understanding of the social process, the most significant social division to be recognized is that between the ruling class and the ruled, between the elite and the non-elite. . 8. The rule of the elite is based upon force and fraud. The force may, to be sure, be much of the time hidden or only threatened; and the fraud may not entail any conscious deception. . 9. The social structure as a whole is hamlet essay response integrated and sustained by a political formula, which is usually correlated with a generally accepted religion, ideology, or myth. 11. Two opposing tendencies always operate in the case of every elite: (a) an aristocratic tendency whereby the elite seeks to preserve the compare brave new world, ruling position of its members and their descendants, and to prevent others from entering its ranks; (b) a democratic tendency whereby new elements force their way into the elite from point of view essays, below. . 12. In the compare brave and 1984, long run, the second of these tendencies always prevails. From this it follows that no social structure is permanent and no static utopia is possible.

The social or class struggle always continues, and its record is history . (Contrary views conceive a possible stabilization of the social structure. The class struggle, they say, can, should, and will be eliminated in a Heaven on Earth or a classless society, not understanding that the elimination of the class struggle would, like the elimination of blood-circulation in the individual organism, while no doubt getting rid of many ailments, at the same time mean death.) 13. There occur periodically very rapid shifts in the composition and structure of elites: that is, social revolutions. 3rd Person. . 2. Essay. The Meaning of Democracy. DEMOCRACY' is usually defined in some such terms as self-government or government by the people. Club It Essay Part One. Historical experience forces us to conclude that democracy, in this sense, is impossible. . The theory of democracy as self-government must, therefore, be understood as a myth , formula, or derivation. It does not correspond to any actual or possible social reality.

Debates over the merits of the theory are almost wholly valueless in essay new world throwing light on social facts. It does not, however, follow that the theory of democracy (I continue to refer to democracy in the sense of self-government or government by the people) is without any influence on thesis the social structure. The theory does not correctly describe any social facts. No societies are governed by the people, by a majority; all societies, including societies called democratic, are ruled by a minority . . The democratic formula and and contrast brave and 1984 the practice of suffrage do not mean the self-government of the people by themselves . They do, however . exercise a particular kind of influence on compare essay new world and 1984 the selection of members of the ruling class. When, for example, there exists in society an established. ruling class that uses a non-democratic formula (an aristocratic formula, let us say) to compare, justify its position, the influence of the democratic formula and of the suffrage machinery tends to weaken the position of personal, that established ruling class. In addition, the compare brave new world and 1984, existence in society of the essay new world, suffrage machinery naturally tends to favor those individuals who are adept at using the machinery; just as, in and contrast new world a society where rule is founded directly on force, the ablest fighting men are favored against the rest.

We can see how this influence worked during the hamlet response, 18th century . At that time, there still existed in many nations an compare and contrast brave new world and 1984, aristocratic section of the ruling class which used non-democratic formulas , and neither liked nor was able to manipulate the suffrage machinery. Under those conditions, the compare and contrast essay new world and 1984, democratic formula and the introduction of wider suffrage machinery weakened the essay and 1984, position of the older , non-democratic aristocracy , and greatly aided the newer, capitalist elite . The spread of the planting of trees, democratic formula and the electoral practices were an important, even essential, factor, in the rise of the capitalists to the dominant place in the modern ruling class. . If we ask what are the primary effects in our ovn time of the and contrast brave and 1984, democratic formula of self- government and the suffrage machinery, we must reply, as we noted in Part V, that they are to strengthen the international trend toward Bonapartism. It can hardly be denied that this trend exists, that it is the most indisputable political tendency of our generation. In every advanced nation we observe the evolution of the form of club it essay part one, government toward that wherein a small group of leaders, or a single leader, claims to compare, represent and speak for the whole people . As the embodiment of the will of the 3rd person point of view essays, whole people, the leader claims an unlimited authority, and considers all intermediary political bodies, such as parliaments or local governments, to be wholly dependent on the central sovereignty which can alone stand legitinately for the people. The regime is compare essay democratically legalized by the use of the suffrage mechanism in phd dissertation help the form of plebiscites . These are the characteristics of Bonapartism . We find them completely developed in Germany and Russia ; and more and more closely approximated in England and the United States. Bonapartism is a type of compare and contrast and 1984, government very dissimilar to planting essay, what men in the 19th century ordinarily thought of as democracy.

Nevertheless, as we have already seen, Bonapartism does not violate the formula of democracy nor the place assigned to and contrast new world and 1984, suffrage. Rather can Bonapartist theory plausibly claim to be the logical as well as the thesis, historical culmination of the democratic formula , just as the plebiscite can claim to be the most perfect form of democratic suffrage. The Bonapartist leader can regard himself, and compare and contrast essay new world be regarded, as the and 1984, quintessential democrat; his despotism is simply the compare essay new world, omniotent people ruling and disciplining itself . This is just what the Bonapartist leaders themselves, and their spokesmen, argue. When democracy is defined in terms of self-government, there can be no convincing democratic answer. When we translate formal meanings into real meanings, by the method used in Part I to unravel Dante's politics, the people's century, the century of the common man, become, like the people's state and the classless society, variant expressions the and contrast and 1984, real meaning of which is the century of political Bonapartism or the Bonapartist state. Up to this point, the analysis has accepted a definition of democracy in terms of self-government or government by the people.

The. analysis holds only for democracy interpreted in this way. Essay And 1984. The truth is, however, that there are other meanings commonly associated with the word democracy, which have nothing to phd dissertation, do with self-government. . Democracy so defined , in terms of liberty , of the essay new world and 1984, right of opposition , is dissertation lsu not in the least a formula or myth . . Compare And Contrast Essay Brave New World. It is a fact that today there exists more liberty, much more, in England or the United States, than in Germany, Russia, Italy or Japan; and it is also a fact that in the United States today there is less liberty than 1 or even 2 or 3 years ago. The modern Machiavellians, like Machiavelli himself, do not waste time arguing the point of view essays, merits or demerits of the myth of democracy defined as self-government. But they are very profoundly concerned with the brave new world and 1984, reality of democracy defined as liberty . . Liberty or freedom means above all, as I have said, the existence of phd dissertation help, a public opposition to the governing elite. Compare And Contrast Brave And 1984. The crucial difference that freedom makes to a society is found in and contrast brave new world the fact that the existence of a public opposition (or oppositions) is the only effective check on the power of the governing elite. . As anyone with experience in any organization knows, even a small opposition, provided it really exists and is active, can block to a remarkable degree the excesses of the leadership.

But when all opposition is destroyed, there is no longer any limit to what power may do. A despotism, any kind of essay brave, despotism, can be benevolent only by accident . Oriental Despotism , by Karl A. Wittfogel, who acknowledges a debt to Burnham at p. 48n: wittfogel.html It may, however, be argued, as it is by club anarchists and by the sectarian wing of Marxism, that the influence of the opposition in restraining the power of the rulers is compare and contrast essay and 1984 after all of small importance to the non-elite, to the masses. When an opposition exists, this means only that there is a division in 3rd person point essays the ruling class; if an out-elite replaces the compare, governing elite, this is thesis lsu only a change in the personnel of the rulers. Essay Brave New World. The masses remain still the ruled. Phd Dissertation Help. Why should they be concerned? and of what interest is the whole process for the great majority? It is and contrast brave true that the opposition is only a section of the elite as a whole. It is also true that when the opposition takes governing power this is only a change of rulers. The demagogues of the opposition say that their victory will be the triumph of the people; but they lie, as demagogues always do.

Nevertheless, the seeming conclusion does not follow; it is not true that the compare essay brave new world, activities of the oppositions are a matter of indifference for the masses. Through a curious and brave new world and 1984 indirect route. by way of of trees, freedom, we return to self-government, which we were unable to discover by compare and contrast essay brave new world any direct path. The existence of an compare and contrast essay brave new world, opposition means a cleavage in the ruling class. Part of the struggle between sections of the ruling class is purely interna l. Maneuvers, intrigues, even assassinations take place in the course of the continual jockeying for position. When, however, the essay brave, opposition is public, this means that the conflicts cannot be solved merely by it essay one internal changes in the existing elite. The opposition is forced to undertake eternal moves, beyond the limits of the compare and contrast new world and 1984, ruling class. . Confronted with this multiple attack, the governing elite, in order to try to keep control, is in turn compelled to grant certain concessions and to correct at least some of the more glaring abuses. . It is only when there are several different major social forces, not wholly subordinated to any one social force, that there can be any assurance of liberty, since only planting of trees then is there the mutual check and and contrast and 1984 balance that is able to chain power. . From this point of view we may understand more fully the phd dissertation bialik, political direction of our democratic totalitarians . The state, they say, when it is led by compare and contrast their leader - and it will always be, because they take as their leader the one who happens to be in the saddle - is the people. Planting. Democracy is the supremacy of the people. Compare Essay New World. Therefore, democracy is the supremacy of the state. The Marists and and 1984 the democratic totalitarians claim that freedom can now be secured only by concentrating all social forces and especially economic forces in the state which, when they or their friends are running it, they identify with the people. The conservative spokesmen for the old-line capitalists claim that freedom is bound up with capitalist private property and can therefore be secured only by returning to private capitalism.

A dilemma confronts any section of the elite that tries to act scientifically. The political life of the masses and the cohesion of society demand the acceptance of myths . A scientific attitude toward society does not permit belief in the truth of the myths. But the leaders must profess , indeed foster, belief in the myths, or the fabric of society will crack and they be overthrown . In short, the leaders, if they themselves are scientific, must lie . It is hard to lie all the time in public but to keep privately an objective regard for the truth. Not only is it hard; it is often ineffective, for lies are often not convincing when told with a divided heart. The tendency is for new world, the deceivers to become self-deceived, to believe their own myths. When this happens, they are no longer scientific. Sincerity is bought at the price of truth.

(5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World , Jonathan Cape, London 1947. THE Third World War begn in April 1944 . The details of an incident tbt then took place have not been disclosed. . The Greek sailors . mutinied. It was not serious revols in either number or spirit. But the events that I hve begum by citing - the Greek mutiny and civil war, the Chinese civil war, the Iranian conflict - . are not part of the Second World War, nor of it essay one, its accompaniment nor afermath. . These tronbles are not a hangover, but the first sips in new bout. The armed skirmishes of a new war have started before the old war is finished. . The United Stites has made the irrversible jump into compare essay, world affairs. It is committed everywhere, on very contiuent, in every major field of social action, and it can never again withdraw. In the and 1984, Third World War, tbe United States, whatever the wishes of its citizcns, is one ofthe two dominating contestants.

(6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism , Jonathan Cape in assocation with Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney 1950. THE INADEQUACY OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY. AT some point during the spring of 1949, it became customary in the United States to say that 'we are winning the cold war'. And Contrast Essay. In editorials, speeches and articles, U.S. foreign policy was judged and of trees essay found not wanting.

The Soviet Union was discovered to be blocked, and communism to be receding. 'The tension had lessened'; internal affairs began to take precedence again over foreign in the business of Congress and the plans of politicians. This optimistic estimate does not seem, however, to have been supported by the facts. . In 1949, the enemy power concentration is based upon a vast territory which includes the most favourable strategic position of the world, the heartland of Eurasia. This area, with its controlled marches, has a population of more than 400 million. Though technologically backward, the enemy's military machine is also formidable, and he has at his disposal nearly all essential or important raw materials. His fifth columns, not handicapped by overt chauvinism or racialism, have penetrated deep into the tissue of all political organisms outside of his direct control, and compare brave new world are in their own right massive fighting forces. Moreover, except for the United States itself, there no longer exist any other counterbalancing power centres of any magnitude. Germany (the previous enemy concentration) and Japan have been broken; France dissolved; and Great Britain, with her Empire shorn and her economy in desperation, though by no means finished is no longer capable of independent action. (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on 3rd person of view essays the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism , Regnery Gateway, Washington 1985. But, still, the West held the power . It held the power in compare brave new world western Europe itself, original home of the civilization, and in central Europe; in both Americas; all over Africa, Oceania and much of Asia . Over the past two generations Western civilization has been in a period of very rapid decline. Planting Of Trees Essay. . Compare Essay Brave New World. In the years 1917-21 . the Bolsheviks became not merely altogether separate from planting essay, Western civilization but directly hostile. China shook off what hold the West had established on her territory. . The Indian subcontinent fell away , and step by and contrast essay new world and 1984 step the Arab crescent that runs from Morocco to Indonesia, along with the rest of the Near and club it essay Middle East. . In 1959 communism's anti-Western enterprise achieved its first beachhead within the Americas. It is like a film winding in reverse , with the West thrust backward reel by reel toward the original base from which it started its world expansion.

When the communist enterprise takes fully over, it inflicts an outright defeat on the West and destroys or drives out the representatives of Western power. I mean, rather, in part, that liberalism has come to be the typical verbal systematization of the process of Western contraction and withdrawal : that liberalism motivates and justifies the contraction , and reconciles us to it. What is certain is that a majority, and a substantial majority , of those who control or influence public opinion is liberal , that liberalism of one or another variety prevails among the opinion-makers , molders and transmitters: teachers in compare and contrast new world and 1984 the leading universities - probably the most significant single category; book publishers; editors and writers of the most inuential publications; school and college administrators; public relations experts; writers of both novels and non-fiction; radio-TV directors, writers and commentators; producers, directors and writers in movies and the theater; the Jewish and non-evangelical Protestant clergy and not a few Catholic priests and essay response bishops; verbalists in all branches of government; the staffs of the essay brave new world and 1984, great foundations that have acquired in our day such pervasive influence through their relation to research, education, scholarships and compare essay and 1984 publishing. When I state that liberalism is the prevailing American doctrine , I do not, of course, suggest that it is the only doctrine, even among those who make or influence public opinion. In order to understand what a thing is, as Spinoza insisted, we must know what it is not. In trying to understand what liberals and liberalism are, it is useful to take note of the essay new world and 1984, unambiguous examples around us of non-liberals and non-liberalism.

We are not quite all liberals, not yet at any rate. Here and there on university faculties hardy non-liberal s have planted conspicuous flags: F. A. Hayek , Leo Strauss, Milton Friedman at Chicago; David Rowe at Yale; Warren Nutter at Virginia; Karl Wittfogel at Washington; Robert Strausz-Hupe at Pennsylvania; Hugh Kenner at California; Walter Berns at Cornell; at Harvard itself, Edward C. Banfield. The company of retired generals and admirals seems to be rather an thesis dissertation lsu, assembly point for non-liberals: Generals Douglas MacArthur , Albert C. Wedemeyer, Mark Clark, Orville Anderson, Admirals Arthur Radford, Charles M. Cooke, Arleigh Burke - indeed, a random gathering of ex-general officers, even with a number of active generals and admirals included, would be one of the few occasions on which a liberal might not feel altogether at home . In political and ideological range, the tendency that Americans call liberalism corresponds roughly to what the French call progressisme, and bridges what are known in Europe and Latin America as the Left and the Center. Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have removed the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in any way. They've lined their own pockets, automated the farms, factories and compare and 1984 offices, thrown the workers to the wind, and immersed most countries in foreign debt.

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The Assignment Editing Expert may request additional time to complete the amendments and bialik this may be granted at the discretion of the Customer. If the UK Study Help agrees to refund the compare and contrast essay new world and 1984, Customer in dissertation full or part, this refund will be made using the credit or debit card that the Customer used to make their payment initially. If no such card was used (for example, where the Customer deposited the fee directly into the UK Study Help’s bank account) the UK Study Help will offer the and contrast and 1984, Customer a choice of refund via bank transfer or credit towards a future order. Point Of View? All refunds are made at the discretion of the UK Study Help. Unless payment is taken at compare essay new world, the time of placing an order, once the UK Study Help has found a suitably qualified and experienced Assignment Editing Expert to undertake the part, Customer’s order, they will contact the Customer by email to take payment. If, at and contrast essay, their discretion, the compare essay new world and 1984, UK Study Help accepts a deposit rather than the full value of the brave new world, Order, the Customer acknowledges that the full balance will remain outstanding at all times and will be paid to the UK Study Help before the delivery date for planting, the Work. The Customer agrees that once an Order is paid for then the Assignment Editing Expert allocated by the UK Study Help begins work on that Order, and essay and 1984 that the thesis dissertation lsu, Order may not be cancelled or refunded. Until payment or a deposit has been made and compare and contrast essay new world and 1984 the Order has been allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert , the Customer may choose to continue with the Order or to cancel the Order at planting essay, any time The Customer agrees to be bound by the UK Study Help’s refund policies and new world and 1984 acknowledges that due to the highly specialized and individual nature of the services that full refunds will only be given in the circumstances outlined in lsu these terms, or other circumstances that occur, in which event any refund or discount is given at compare essay brave, the discretion of the UK Study Help. UK Study Help provides well written, customer Assignment and Essay papers to the students. Papers provided are only for the reference purposes to assist the buyer by providing a guideline and it essay the product provided is and contrast essay brave new world and 1984 intended to hamlet essay response be used for research or study purposes.

The Customer acknowledges that it does not obtain the copyright to the Work supplied through the UK Study Help’s services The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help, its employees and the Assignment Editing Expert s on its books do not support or condone plagiarism, and that the UK Study Help reserves the compare new world, right to dissertation refuse supply of services to those suspected of such behavior. The Customer accepts that the UK Study Help offers a service that locates suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert s for the provision of independent personalized research services in order to help students learn and advance educational standards, and that no Work supplied through the UK Study Help may be passed off as the Customer’s own or as anyone else’s, nor be handed in as the essay brave new world, Customer’s own work, either in whole or in part. In addition, the point of view, Customer undertakes not to carry out any unauthorized distribution, display, or resale of the compare and 1984, Work and planting of trees essay the Customer agrees to handle the Work in a way that fully respects the fact that the Customer does not hold the copyright to the Work. The Customer acknowledges that if the UK Study Help suspects that any essays or materials are being used in violation of the above rules that the UK Study Help has the right to refuse to carry out any further work for and contrast essay brave, the person or organization involved and that the UK Study Help bears no liability for any such undetected and/or unauthorized use The UK Study Help agrees that all Work supplied through its service will not be resold, or distributed, for thesis dissertation lsu, remuneration or otherwise after its completion. The UK Study Help also undertakes that Work will not be placed on any website or essay bank after it has been completed. Simon Evans ( Student ) The manner UK study help has removed grammatical, spelling and and contrast new world and 1984 different mistakes from my research paper, it modified into compare brave new world, amazing. Robert Perry ( Student ) It's far absolutely a difficult mission for me to finish my assignments until the compare essay brave and 1984, professional consultants of UK study help. Jessica Rowe( Student ) I really impressed by the work quality provided by you in such economical price. We stipulate editing and essay proofreading for correction in style, citation, structure, grammatical issues, argument issues and context etc. The reference content which we deliver to the client is always authentic and and contrast proofread by relevant reference sources. Best Grade Guaranteed.

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