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IELTS & TOEFL Writing Task 2 - The Introduction

The IELTS and TOEFL essay s success is determined by its introduction. In this writing lesson we will look at

SAT Essay Intro Paragraph Structure - Magoosh

Introductory paragraph structure essay

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Biloxi Blues Lesson Plans for Teachers. Introductory Essay! The Biloxi Blues lesson plan contains a variety of teaching materials that cater to all learning styles. Inside you'll find 30 Daily Lessons, 20 Fun Activities, 180 Multiple Choice Questions, 60 Short Essay Questions, 20 Essay Questions, Quizzes/Homework Assignments, Tests, and more. Composer/Performer Of Choice! The lessons and activities will help students gain an intimate understanding of the text, while the tests and quizzes will help you evaluate how well the students have grasped the material. View a free sample. Target Grade: 7th-12th (Middle School and High School) Length of Lesson Plan: Approximately 108 pages. Page count is estimated at 300 words per page. Length will vary depending on format viewed.

Browse The Biloxi Blues Lesson Plan: The Biloxi Blues lesson plan is downloadable in PDF and Word. The Word file is viewable with any PC or Mac and can be further adjusted if you want to mix questions around and/or add your own headers for things like Name, Period, and Date. The Word file offers unlimited customizing options so that you can teach in the most efficient manner possible. Once you download the file, it is introductory essay yours to keep and on the, print for your classroom. View a FREE sample. The Lesson Plan Calendars provide daily suggestions about what to teach. They include detailed descriptions of when to assign reading, homework, in-class work, fun activities, quizzes, tests and paragraph essay, more. Use the entire Biloxi Blues calendar, or supplement it with your own curriculum ideas. Calendars cover one, two, four, and eight week units.

Determine how long your Biloxi Blues unit will be, then use one of the personal service toronto, calendars provided to plan out your entire lesson. Chapter abstracts are short descriptions of introductory essay events that occur in each chapter of Biloxi Blues . They highlight major plot events and detail the euro depot essay, important relationships and characteristics of paragraph structure important characters. The Chapter Abstracts can be used to review what the students have read, or to prepare the students for what they will read. Essays On The Poetry! Hand the abstracts out in class as a study guide, or use them as a key for a class discussion. They are relatively brief, but can serve to introductory paragraph structure essay, be an euro essay, excellent refresher of structure essay Biloxi Blues for either a student or teacher. Character and Object Descriptions. Character and Object Descriptions provide descriptions of the long range, significant characters as well as objects and places in introductory paragraph essay, Biloxi Blues . These can be printed out and used as an individual study guide for on the, students, a key for leading a class discussion, a summary review prior to exams, or a refresher for introductory paragraph structure essay, an educator. The character and object descriptions are also used in some of the quizzes and tests in this lesson plan. The longest descriptions run about 200 words. They become shorter as the importance of the character or object declines. Composer/Performer Of Choice! This section of the lesson plan contains 30 Daily Lessons.

Daily Lessons each have a specific objective and offer at least three (often more) ways to teach that objective. Lessons include classroom discussions, group and partner activities, in-class handouts, individual writing assignments, at least one homework assignment, class participation exercises and other ways to teach students about Biloxi Blues in paragraph essay, a classroom setting. You can combine daily lessons or use the ideas within them to create your own unique curriculum. Essays On The! They vary greatly from day to day and offer an array of creative ideas that provide many options for an educator. Fun Classroom Activities differ from Daily Lessons because they make fun a priority. The 20 enjoyable, interactive classroom activities that are included will help students understand Biloxi Blues in fun and entertaining ways. Introductory! Fun Classroom Activities include group projects, games, critical thinking activities, brainstorming sessions, writing poems, drawing or sketching, and countless other creative exercises. Many of the activities encourage students to interact with each other, be creative and Composer/Performer of choice, think outside of the box, and ultimately grasp key concepts from the structure essay, text by doing rather than simply studying.

Fun activities are a great way to keep students interested and engaged while still providing a deeper understanding of Biloxi Blues and its themes. Online Class! Essay Questions/Writing Assignments. These 20 Essay Questions/Writing Assignments can be used as essay questions on a test, or as stand-alone essay topics for a take-home or in-class writing assignment on Biloxi Blues . Students should have a full understanding of the unit material in order to answer these questions. They often include multiple parts of the work and ask for a thorough analysis of the structure, overall text. They nearly always require a substantial response. Essay responses are typically expected to range essay, be one (or more) page(s) and consist of multiple paragraphs, although it is possible to structure essay, write answers more briefly.

These essays are designed to Composer/Performer of choice, challenge a student's understanding of the paragraph, broad points in a work, interactions among the characters, and main points and depot essay, themes of the text. But, they also cover many of the paragraph structure essay, other issues specific to the work and to the world today. The 60 Short Essay Questions listed in this section require a one to two sentence answer. They ask students to demonstrate a deeper understanding of Biloxi Blues by describing what they've read, rather than just recalling it. The short essay questions evaluate not only whether students have read the material, but also how well they understand and euro essay, can apply it. They require more thought than multiple choice questions, but are shorter than the essay questions. Paragraph Essay! The 180 Multiple Choice Questions in personal, this lesson plan will test a student's recall and understanding of Biloxi Blues . Use these questions for quizzes, homework assignments or tests.

The questions are broken out into sections, so they focus on introductory specific chapters within Biloxi Blues . This allows you to test and review the book as you proceed through the unit. Typically, there are 5-15 questions per chapter, act or section. Use the Oral Reading Evaluation Form when students are reading aloud in class. Pass the forms out before you assign reading, so students will know what to expect. And Religion! You can use the forms to provide general feedback on audibility, pronunciation, articulation, expression and rate of speech. You can use this form to introductory essay, grade students, or simply comment on their progress.

Use the Writing Evaluation Form when you're grading student essays. This will help you establish uniform criteria for grading essays even though students may be writing about different aspects of the material. By following this form you will be able to long goals essay, evaluate the thesis, organization, supporting arguments, paragraph transitions, grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc. of introductory structure essay each student's essay. Of Choice! The Quizzes/Homework Assignments are worksheets that can be used in a variety of ways. They pull questions from the multiple choice and short essay sections, the character and introductory paragraph essay, object descriptions, and the chapter abstracts to create worksheets that can be used for pop quizzes, in-class assignments and homework. Periodic homework assignments and quizzes are a great way to encourage students to stay on top of their assigned reading. They can also help you determine which concepts and essays, ideas your class grasps and which they need more guidance on. By pulling from the paragraph structure, different sections of the women, lesson plan, quizzes and paragraph structure essay, homework assignments offer a comprehensive review of Biloxi Blues in manageable increments that are less substantial than a full blown test. Range Goals! Use the Test Summary page to determine which pre-made test is essay most relevant to your students' learning styles. This lesson plan provides both full unit tests and mid-unit tests.

You can choose from several tests that include differing combinations of multiple choice questions, short answer questions, short essay questions, full essay questions, character and and religion essays, object matching, etc. Some of the tests are designed to be more difficult than others. Some have essay questions, while others are limited to short-response questions, like multiple choice, matching and short answer questions. If you don't find the combination of questions that best suits your class, you can also create your own test on Biloxi Blues . You have the option to Create Your Own Quiz or Test. If you want to integrate questions you've developed for your curriculum with the introductory paragraph structure, questions in this lesson plan, or you simply want to create a unique test or quiz from the questions this lesson plan offers, it's easy to do.

Cut and goals, paste the information from the Create Your Own Quiz or Test page into a Word document to get started. Scroll through the sections of the introductory paragraph structure, lesson plan that most interest you and cut and paste the exact questions you want to your class, use into paragraph structure, your new, personalized Biloxi Blues lesson plan.

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Essay: Sun and essay Maximum Power Point Tracking in Solar Array Systems Using Fuzzy Controllers. Abstract: Solar energy is range goals essay viewed as clean and renewable source of introductory essay energy for the future. So the use of Photovoltaic systems has increased in many applications. That need to poetry improve the materials and methods used to harness this power source. There are two major approaches; sun tracking and paragraph structure essay maximum power point tracking. These two methods need efficient controllers.

The controller may be conventional or intelligent such as Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). FLCs have the advantage to be relatively simple to design as they do not require the knowledge of the women and religion essays, exact model and work well for paragraph essay nonlinear system. Women Essays! The proposed sun tracking controller and maximum power point tracking is tested using Matlab/ Simulink program. Keywords: photovoltaic; maximum power point tracking; buck converter; incremental inductance. Renewable energy sources play an important role in electric power generation. There are various renewable sources which used for introductory paragraph structure electric power generation, such as solar energy,wind energy, geothermal etc. Solar Energy is range a good choice for introductory essay electric power generation,since the solar energy is directly converted into electrical energy by solar photovoltaic modules. Range Goals! These modules are made up of silicon cells. When many such cells are connected in series we get a solar PV module. The current rating of the modules increases when the paragraph essay, area of the individual cells is increased, and vice versa.

When many such PV modules are connectedin series and parallel combinations we get a solar PV arrays, that suitable for obtaining higher power output. The applications for solar energy are increased, and euro essay that need to improve the materials and introductory methods used to personal editing service harness this power source. Main factors that affect the efficiency of the collection process are solar cell efficiency, intensity of source radiation and storage techniques. The efficiency of introductory a solar cell is limited by materials used in solar cell manufacturing. It is and religion particularly difficult to paragraph essay make considerable improvements in the performance of the cell, and hence restricts the efficiency of the overall collection process. Long Essay! Therefore, the increase of the introductory, intensity of radiation received from the sun is the most attainable method of improving the performance of solar power. There. are three major approaches for maximizing power extraction in solar systems. They are sun tracking, maximum power point[1],[2] (MPP) tracking or both.

These methods needs controllers, may be intelligent such as fuzzy logic controller or conventional controller such as PID controller. Composer/Performer Of Choice! The advantage of the fuzzy logic control is that it does not strictly need any mathematical model of the plant. It is based on plant operator experience, and it is very easy to apply. Hence, many complex systems can be controlled without knowing the introductory paragraph structure essay, exact mathematical model of the plant. Women! In addition, fuzzy logic simplifies dealing with nonlinearities in systems. The nice thing about fuzzy logic control is introductory structure that the linguistic system definition becomes the Control algorithm. The major things that have to be considered in development of sun and MPPT tracker are designing of PV module, DC to DC buck converter, MPPT algorithm and sun tracker.

The PV module characteristic is a non linear characteristic which depends on the reverse saturation current of the diode in parallel to the photo current source. The photon current is produced because of the photovoltaic action [3],[4]. Euro Depot! The equivalent circuit of a PV cell is as depicted in Figure 1. Paragraph! The current source Iph represents the cell photocurrent. The series and shunt resistances are represented as Rs and Rsh. The PV cells are grouped in larger units called PV modules which are further interconnected in a parallel-series configuration to form PV arraysThe current source Iph represents the cell photocurrent. Rsh and euro depot essay Rs are the intrinsic shunt and series resistances of the cell, respectively.

Usually the value of Rsh is very large and that of Rs is very small, hence they may be neglected to simplify the introductory structure essay, analysis. The PV cells are grouped in of choice larger units called PV modules which are further interconnected in introductory essay a parallel-series configuration to form PV arrays. Fig 1. Composer/Performer Of Choice! PV Cell Modelled as Diode Circuit. The photovoltaic panel can be modeled mathematically as given in equations (1) – (4) Where ‘ I’_ph is the photocurrent in (A) which is the light-generated current at the nominal condition (25’ and 1000W/m2), Ki is the introductory, short-circuit current/temperature coefficient ‘ I’_scr at (0.0017A/K), T is the actual temperature in K, ?? is the irradiation on the device surface, and women and religion essays 1000W/m2 is the nominal irradiation. Modules reverse saturation current’ I’_rs: The module saturation current I_Ovaries with the paragraph, cell temperature, which is given by:

Where I_O is the diode saturation current (A). The basic equation that describes the current output of the photovoltaic (PV) module I_PV of the single-diode model is as given in equation. Where K is the Boltzmann constant (1.38 x ’10’^(-23) JK^(-1)), q is the electronic charge (1.602 x ’10’^(-19)C), T is the cell temperature (K); A is the diode ideality factor, Rs the series resistance (??). Ns is the number of essays cells connected in introductory paragraph series. Np is the number of cells connected in parallel, V_PV=V_oc.These reference values are generally provided by manufacturers of PV modules for specified operating condition such as STC (Standard Test Conditions) for personal statement editing toronto which the irradiance is 1000 W/m2 and the cell temperature is paragraph structure essay 25’. The panel specifications are used to design the simulink module of the required panel. The major factors are the open circuit voltage and essays the short circuit current.

B. Introductory Structure! DC TO DC CONVERTER: A buck converter [5],[6]is a step-down DC to DC converter. The operation of the buck converter is fairly simple, with an inductor and two switches (transistor and diode) that control the women essays, current of the inductor as shown in Figure. Fig 2. DC to DC to paragraph structure essay buck converter. It alternates between connecting the inductor to source voltage to store energy in the inductor when the PWM signal is high and discharging the inductor into the load when the PWM signal is low. When the euro, duty cycle is in ON state, The diode become as reversed biased and the inductor will deliver current and switch conducts inductor current. The current through the inductor increase, as the source voltage would be greater. The energy stored in inductor increased when the current increase, and the inductor acquires energy. Structure! Capacitor will provides smooth out of inductor current changes into a stable voltage at output voltage. When the duty cycle is in OFF state, The diode is and religion ON and paragraph the inductor will maintains current to load. Because of Composer/Performer of choice inductive energy storage, inductor current will continues to introductory flow.

While inductor releases current storage, it will flow to the load and provides voltage to the circuit. The diode is forward biased. The current flow through the diode which is inductor voltage is equal with negative output voltage. C)FUZZY logic controller: Fuzzy Logic is a control system methodology designed for solving problems. implemented in women a widely range of systems such as: simple and small devices, microcontrollers or, on the other hand, large systems joined to networks, workstations or normal control systems. It may be developed in hardware, software, or both in combination. Fuzzy logic extends conventional Boolean logic to handle the concept of the partial truth the values falling between ‘totally true’ and ‘totally false’. These values are dealt with using degree of membership of an element to a set. The degree of membership can take any real value in the interval [0, 1].

Fuzzy logic makes it possible to paragraph imitate the and religion, behavior of human logic, which tends to work with ‘fuzzy’ concepts of truth. Fuzzy Logic shows a usual rule-based IF condition AND condition THEN action. It. approaches to paragraph a solving control problem rather than intending to model a system based on math’s. The Fuzzy Logic model is based on empiric experience, relying on a number of samples rather than some technical understanding of the problem to be solved. The basic parts of every fuzzy controller are displayed in the following Figure .The fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is composed of a fuzzification interface, knowledge base, inference engine, and defuzzification. The fuzzifier maps the input crisp numbers into essays, the fuzzy sets to obtain degrees of membership. It is needed in order to activate rules, which are in terms of the linguistic variables. The inference engine of the FLC maps the antecedent fuzzy (IF part) sets into consequent fuzzy sets (THEN part). Introductory Paragraph Structure! This engine handles the way in which the rules are combined. The defuzzifier maps output fuzzy sets into a crisp number, which becomes the output of the statement, FLC.

Fig 3: Fuzzy Logic Controller. Solar tracking system uses a stepper motor as the drive source to rotate the solar panel. The position of the paragraph essay, sun is determined by using a tracking sensor, the women, sensor reading is converted from introductory paragraph structure essay, analog to digital signal, then it passed to editing service a fuzzy logic controller. The controller output is paragraph essay connected to the driver of the stepper motor to rotate PV panel in one axis until it faces the euro depot, sun[9]-[13]. FLC has two inputs which are: error and the change in error, and paragraph essay one output feeding to the stepper motor driver. The phasor plot in Figure 5.11 explained a method used in reaching the desired degree value at the equilibrium point to satisfy the stability in the system. For example, at on the stage A the error is introductory paragraph positive (desired degree ‘actual degree) and the change error (error ‘ last error) is your class negative which means that the response is going in the right direction; hence, the FLC will go forward in this direction. Using the same criteria at stage B, the error is negative and introductory paragraph structure essay CE is bigger negative; hence, the response is going in wrong direction so FLC will change its direction to essays poetry enter Stage C, until reaching the desired degree.

Fig 4: FLC working phenomenon. E) MPPT fuzzy logic controller. The FLC examines the output PV power at each sample (time_k), and introductory paragraph structure determines the statement service toronto, change in power relative to voltage (dp/dv). If this value is structure essay greater than zero the controller change the duty cycle of the pulse width modulation (PWM) to increase the voltage until the power is maximum or the value (dp/dv)=0, if this value less than zero the controller changes the duty cycle of the depot, PWM to paragraph structure decrease the voltage until the power is maximum as shown in Figure 5: Fig 5: V-I graph for a Photo voltaic module. FLC has two inputs which are: error and the change in error, and one output feeding to euro depot the pulse width modulation to control the DC-to-DC converter [7]-[9]. The two FLC input variables error E and change of error CE at sampled times k defined by: Change _Error (k ) ”Error (k ) ‘Error (k ‘1) where P(k ) is the instant power of the photovoltaic generator. The input error (k) shows if the load operation point at the instant k is located on the left or on paragraph structure the right of the maximum power point on the PV characteristic, while the input CE (k) expresses the moving direction of this point. The fuzzy inference is carried out by using Mamdani method, FLC for the Maximum power point tracker.

III SIMULATION AND RESULTS: A: SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM. Figure 6 the Simulink block diagram for the Fuzzy controller for sun tracker system. The controller has been tested using Simulink motor module in MATLAB, by applying the step input and women essays initial degree of the introductory, rotor is -10 degree. The output step response is depot essay shown in Figures 5.17. The range from -10 to 0 degree takes 5 steps since each step in our motor is 1.8 degree, so (10/1.8)= 5 stepsThe fuzzy logic in the above block diagram shows the diagram consisting of error and essay change of error as input and your class output. The membership functions of input and structure output are shown in the below diagram. Fig 7(a),(b),(c) input and output membership functions for sun tracking FLC.

fig 8: stepper motor angle rotation for essays on the poetry tracking system. Fig 9: zoom for introductory one motor step. B: SOLAR MPPT SYSTEM: Fig 10: controlling PV power using FLC. Fig 11: generating error and change in error. Fig 12(a),(b) ,(c) input and output membership functions of MPPT FLC. Table 1. Fuzzy Rules Base.


PB ZE PS PM PB PB PB PB. Fig 13: Fuzzy MPPT Versus PO MPPT power. In this thesis, fuzzy logic controller FLC was designed to maximizing the energy received from solar cells by two methods. The first method is by implementing a sun tracker controlled by fuzzy logic controller to keep the PV panel pointing toward the Composer/Performer of choice, sun by using a stepper motor. The use of stepper motor enables accurate tracking of the sun This controller has been tested using Matlab/Simulink program.

The other proposed method is by implementing a maximum power point tracker controlled by fuzzy logic controller and using buck DC-to-DC converter to keep the PV output power at the maximum point all the time. This controller was tested using Matlab/Simulink program, and the results was compared with a perturbation and observation controller applied on the same system. The comparison show that the introductory, fuzzy logic controller was better in response and don’t depend on and religion essays knowing any parameter of PV panel. [1] Esram, T.; Chapman ,PL., ‘Comparison of paragraph structure essay photovoltaic array maximum power point tracking techniques,’ Energy Conversion ,IEEE Transactions on , vol.22, pp.439,49,2007. [2] Ali Reza Reisi.; Mohammad Hassan Moradi.; Shahriar Jamasb., ‘Classification and comparison of maximum power point tracking techniques for photovoltaic system: A review,’ Renewable and Composer/Performer of choice Sustainable Energy Reviews , vol.19, pp.433,443,2013.

[3] Salmi T.; Bouzguenda M.; Gastli A.; Ahmed Masmoudi., ‘MATLAB/Simulink based modelling of solar photovoltaic cell,’ International Journal of Renewable Energy Research ,vol.2,no.2, 2012. [4] K. Kurokawa, S. Wakamatsu, Photovoltaic system design guidebook, Ohmsha, Ltd., ISBN 4-274- 94065-9, 1994. [5] Timothy L. Skvarenina, ‘The Power Electronics Handbook, Industrial electronics series’, CRC Press, 2002. [6] Ortiz-Rivera, E.I., ‘Maximum power point tracking using the optimal duty ratio for DC-DC converters and Load matching in photovoltaic application,’ Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2008. APEC 2008. Introductory! Twenty-Third Annual IEEE , May 2008, pp. 987 – 991. [7] Amrouche.; Belhamel ,M.; Guessoum ,A., ‘Artificial Intelligence Based PO MPPT Method for Photovoltaic Systems’ Revue des Energies Renouvelables (ICRESD’07), pp.11,16,2007. [8] Femia ,N.; Petrone ,G.; G. Spagnolo .; M. Vitelli ., ‘Optimization of Perturb and Observe Maximum Power Point Tracking Method,’ Power Electronics ,IEEE Transactions on, vol. 20, pp. Composer/Performer! 963 ‘ 973, July 2005.

[9] Mahdi ,A.J.; Tang ,W.H.;Wu , Q.H., ‘Improvement of A MPPT Algorithm for introductory structure essay PV Systems and Its Experimental Validation’ International conference on renewable energies and power quality (ICREPQ’10) ,2010. [10] Algazar ,M.M.; AL-monier H.; El Kotb Salem ,M.E., ‘Maximum power point tracking using fuzzy logic control,’ Electrical power and energy systems , vol.39, pp. Statement Editing Toronto! 21,28, 2012. [11] Daniel,A., Pritchard,D. (Aug1983). Sun Tracking by essay, Peak Power Positioning for Photovoltaic Concentrator Arrays, IEEE Transactions on Control System, Volume 3, Issue3,Page(s):2-8. [12] Konar,A. Mandal,A. Microprocessor based Sun Tracker, IEEE Proceedings-A, Vol.138, No.4, Page(s):237-241.

[13] Huang,F. Tien,D. and personal statement Or,J. (Dec. Introductory Structure Essay! 1998). A microcontroller based automatic sun tracker combined with a new solar energy conversion unit, IEEE Proceedings on Power Electronic Drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth, Volume 1, 1-3, Page(s):488 – 492 . [14] Sungur,C. (2007) Sun ‘Tracking System with PLC Control for Photo-Voltaic Panels, International Journal of Green Energy, Vol.4, Page(s): 635’643. [15] Saxena,A. Dutta,V. (July 1991).

A Versatile Microprocessor based Controller for Solar Tracking, IEEE Conference, Vol. 2, 21 ‘ 25May, 1990, Page(s):1105-1109. [16] Khalil,A. El-Singaby,M. (2003). Composer/Performer! Position control of sun tracking system Circuits and introductory Systems, Proceedings of the 46th IEEE International Midwest Symposium,Vol. 3, December 27-30, , pp. 1134 ‘ 1137. [17] Wai,R. Wang,W. Jun-You,M. (Nov.

2006). Grid- Connected Photovoltaic Generation System with Adaptive Step-Perturbation Method and Active Sun Tracking Scheme, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Page(s):224 ‘ 228. [18] Lee, C. C., Fuzzy-logic in control-systems: Fuzzy logic controller., Part I. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern, vol.20,no.2, pp.404-418, 1990. [19] E H Mamdani, ‘Application of Composer/Performer Fuzzy algorithms for the control of paragraph structure a dynamic plant’ IEEE vol. 121, pp. 1585-1588, 1974. [20] Wang Li-Xin .; Mendel Jerry M. Composer/Performer Of Choice! Generating fuzzy rules by learning from examples.IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 1992;22(6):1414e27. Search our thousands of essays:

If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of introductory us is qualified to euro depot essay a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to us by a student in paragraph order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of essays on the this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Sun and introductory structure Maximum Power Point Tracking in Solar Array Systems Using Fuzzy Controllers . Available from: [05-10-17].

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The Joy Luck Club Summary and Analysis of Chapters 9-10. The third section of the novel is named American Translation . A mother complains that her daughter has placed a mirrored armoire at the foot of her and her husband's bed. Introductory Structure? The mother says the essays on the poetry, mirror will make all their happiness bounce back. To fix it, she puts another mirror at the headboard. She says it will multiply their peach-blossom luck. When the daughter asks what peach-blossom luck is, her mother tells her it is in the mirror. She says she can see her future grandchild in paragraph structure, the mirror, and range, she tells her daughter to look. When the daughter looks into the mirror, she sees her own reflection.

Lena prepares for her mother (Ying-ying) to visit the new house that she and her husband bought. Introductory Paragraph Structure? Her mother has always had Chungwan chihan , the ability to predict bad things by paying attention to signs, especially in euro depot essay, architecture and the placement of paragraph, things. Essays? Lena wonders what bad signs her mother will find in her new home. As they tour the house, her mother points out all its flaws accurately. Structure Essay? This makes Lena wonder whether her mother can see the deep flaws in her marriage too. She also remembers that when she was eight years old, her mother looked at the rice grains left in the bottom of Composer/Performer, her bowl and told her she would marry a bad man. At first, her mother was simply trying to introductory, get Lena to finish her rice at meals.

She told Lena that her future husband would have a pockmark on online class, his face for every unfinished grain of rice. Paragraph Essay? Soon the superstition grew into a mission for poetry, Lena. She was afraid that if she left rice in introductory paragraph essay, her bowl, she would marry a neighborhood boy named Arnold, who had a pockmarked face and euro depot essay, was cruel to her. An educational film about leprosy (to Lena, people with very pockmarked faces) scared Lena into structure essay, trying to kill Arnold through superstition. Long Range Essay? At meals, she left increasingly larger quantities on her plate of introductory paragraph essay, not only rice, but all kinds of food. When Lena was thirteen, she had become anorexic and ate barely any food at all. That year, her father read in the newspaper that Arnold died from complications from measles.

Lena was terrified because she thought her mother could sense that she caused Arnold's death. Class? That night, Lena binged on strawberry ice cream and then made herself vomit it. Essay? She says, I remember wondering why it was that eating something good could make me feel so terrible, while vomiting something terrible could make me feel so good. Lena's husband is named Harold Livotny. They work at Livotny Associates, the restaurant design firm he started. They met when they both worked at Harned Kelley Davis, before Lena encouraged Harold to women and religion essays, start his own firm. Essay? Now that their marriage is falling apart, Lena finds it hard to we do your, remember why she fell in structure essay, love with Harold. She feels better after talking with Rose Hsu Jordan, who is essays on the poetry already divorced from Ted Jordan. Rose tells Lena that she does not need to worry that the breakup of her marriage is her fault.

Both women have worried in the past that their headstrong ways, of which their mothers disapprove, may have contributed. Rose assures Lena that fears of inadequacy are common in her generation, and the breakup is her not fault. Throughout their marriage, Harold has insisted that he and Lena split money equally; they even have separate bank accounts. They keep a list on their refrigerator detailing how much each of them spent in introductory paragraph essay, a week, and on what. Lena is we do your class embarrassed to introductory essay, tell her mother this, so she tells her the list is of things they share.

Lena's mother is shocked to find ice cream on the list, and she reminds Lena that she has not been able to stomach ice cream since the night she learned of Arnold's death, when she binged and purged. Lena shows her mother to the guest room, where there is an unstable table Harold made when he was a student. Lena's mother uses her Chunwang chihan and says that keeping the euro depot essay, table is foolish. Lena goes downstairs and starts a fight with Harold over their splitting money. Soon they hear glass shattering upstairs; the table has fallen and broken. When Lena says she knew the table would fall, her mother says, Then why don't you stop it? Waverly is afraid to tell her mother (Lindo Jong) that she is marrying Rich Shields. Instead of telling her, Waverly brings her mother to see how she is living.

She has a wonderfully busy life with Rich and her four-year-old daughter, Shoshana. Despite Waverly's best efforts to get her mother's approval, she does not even acknowledge that Waverly and Rich have moved in together. This makes Waverly feel terrible in a familiar way. She recalls the first time her mother made her feel so. It was when Waverly was ten and told her mother not to show her off and take credit for her winning at chess. After that, her mother had refused to pay her any attention. To win back her mother, Waverly decided to quit playing chess, but she became stunned and hurt when her mother did not care. Waverly eventually started playing chess again, but she had lost her magic touch. Structure? Suddenly she was vulnerable to essays poetry, her own weaknesses instead of skillfully taking advantage of her opponent's. She was convinced that much of the structure, change had to do with the fact that her mother had stopped believing in her. She stopped playing altogether at women and religion, fourteen.

When Waverly and her first husband Marvin Chen eloped, Waverly's mother picked him apart until Waverly too saw his flaws and lost interest. She almost aborted Shoshana because she resented being pregnant. But when Shoshana was born, she knew her feelings for her were inviolable. Rich loves Waverly just as deeply as Waverly loves Shoshana. But Waverly is afraid her mother will show her everything wrong with Rich as she did with Marvin. Introductory Paragraph Structure Essay? Waverly devised a plan to get her mother to euro depot, meet Rich. She took Rich to Auntie Su's (Suyuan Woo's) house for dinner, and then told Auntie Su that Rich said hers was the best Chinese food he had ever had. Paragraph Essay? To show up Auntie Su, Waverly's mother invited Waverly and Rich over for a family dinner. Rich did not understand the Chinese customs of euro essay, politeness, and introductory structure, he unknowingly made a bad impression. The worst was when he insulted Waverly's mother's cooking.

Waverly's mother was disparaging her own favorite dish, expecting someone to euro, compliment her in return. Instead, Rich poured soy sauce all over the platter. The next day, Waverly cannot take the tension and tells her mother she and Rich are getting married. Her mother is not surprised, and she acts as though she had never tried to introductory essay, criticize Rich. Then she tells Waverly about her heritage from her mother's side, the Sun clan from Taiyuan. She says that like herself, Waverly comes from a line of strong and euro, clever women. Finally, Waverly realized that her mother was not a tricky chessboard queen, planning secret attacks on her. Introductory Paragraph Essay? She was an old, traditional woman who wanted to be loved just as much as she loved her daughter.

Waverly fantasizes about bringing her mother on her honeymoon so that she, her mother, and Rich could all put aside their differences and fly from San Francisco to China, moving West to reach the East. The third section of the novel examines how things start to come full circle for the mothers. They have begun to reach their daughters after all these years, and the daughters begin to realize how much they are like their mothers. When the euro depot, daughter in the prologue looks in the mirror, she sees not only structure essay, her own reflection but also those of all the essays poetry, women in her family's past and future, and all the faces are her own. While she is an introductory individual, she is the incarnation of long, a spirit that runs through all the women in introductory paragraph structure, her family throughout time.

This realization puts pressure on her, because she is the keeper of a powerful spirit, and statement service toronto, infinite generations depend on her. Paragraph? At the long goals, same time, it is introductory structure comforting to know that her life is fortified by a seemingly infinite number of Composer/Performer, lives. In Chapter 9, Ying-ying comes to visit Lena, and we witness a daughter's struggle to feel adult and independent in her mother's presence. Introductory Paragraph Structure Essay? Even though she is in goals, control of her household and has her own way of living, Lena feels invaded by Ying-ying. She senses that on some level, her mother decides her destiny, but she wants desperately to choose her own path. Just as when Lena was a teenager and resisted her mother's advice to disastrous effect, she resists admitting that her marriage is as unstable and makes as little sense to essay, keep as the table. When the table smashes to pieces under its own weight, Lena can no longer deny these things, which brings her closer to long, Ying-ying. Introductory Structure Essay? Still, their opinions on essays, the situation separate them.

Lena knows her marriage is beyond saving, and Rose, as a part of her generation, affirms this evaluation. Nevertheless, Ying-ying asks of the table's fall and by extension, the marriage's--why you not stop it? There are two ways to evaluate this question. The first is that Ying-ying places blame on Lena for allowing things to get so bad and wants her to fix things instead of getting a divorce. Structure? Therefore, she wants Lena to online class, answer that she will try to save her marriage. The second is essay that Ying-ying sees Lena suffering the same fate she did, losing her own identity in her marriage, and that she wants Lena to walk away from it and save herself. Goals Essay? Therefore she wants Lena to paragraph structure, answer that there is no use trying to deny Chunwang chihan and we do your online class, try to save a marriage that is doomed to collapse.

Chapters 9 and paragraph structure, 10 deal with just how American the daughters really are, as well as what is of choice lost in translation between the generations. What can the mothers never make their daughters understand, and paragraph structure, vice versa? Lena and Waverly live very American lives, complete with unhappy marriages to and religion, men who do not understand their Chinese heritage. They both try to show their mothers how happy they are by inviting them into their homes. But they forget that their mothers can read signs. The mothers see their daughters' marriages crumbling and lives losing meaning, and for once, they want them to introductory paragraph structure essay, be disobedient. They want them to harness their Chinese spirit, the long goals essay, spirit of all the women who came before them and will come after them, to prevent themselves from dissolving away. In the mothers' eyes, strength and the ability to make change have been lost between the introductory structure, generations. While they might not understand or approve of the way their daughters live, the very fact that they can live this way (which Jing-mei called the right to fall short of expectations) is something gained from being American. Therefore the online class, daughters are American translations of their mothers.

Here Tan plays on the power of language to simultaneously separate and unite people; without symbols, there is scarce communication, yet translation can complicate and limit communication. The mothers and daughters are like Chinese and American versions of the same story. They are essentially the paragraph structure, same, but it impossible to euro depot essay, make them exactly alike, like the reflections that the daughter in the prologue sees. As in introductory, literary translation, some things are lost, but new things are found through reinterpretation. At the end of each chapter, mothers and daughters have turned a corner in terms of understanding one another. Each daughter is made to realize that her mother is essays not the paragraph structure, enemy, but a courageously loving spirit to guide her through life. At the same time, the mothers accept their daughters' American lives while reminding them of their heritage, whether through Chunwang chihan or a description of the Sun clan. Waverly's coming to euro depot essay, terms with Lindo is particularly meaningful, since Waverly is the most headstrong of all the daughters. Paragraph Structure Essay? She no longer wants to compartmentalize her mother, making her the Chinese element in an otherwise American life, but she wants Lindo to women and religion, help her bridge the Chinese and American parts of herself and, furthermore, to help Rich understand her dual identity. The end of Chapter 10 is particularly important in terms of the idea of translation. Putting an original next to its translation demonstrates that many things have been lost, while many other things may be found.

Each mother's or daughter's life is clearer in contrast with the other's, different yet complementary like the white and black squares on a chessboard. Even so, things are not always black and white between the generations. When Waverly talks of introductory essay, moving West to reach East, we realize that the labels Chinese and statement editing service toronto, American, East and West, are not dichotomous but relative. It is as difficult for the daughters to introductory essay, distinguish the Chinese and American parts of and religion essays, themselves as it is for paragraph essay, them to determine in any definitive way whether China is East or West. How To Cite in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Joy Luck Club The Joy Luck Club Summary Character List Glossary Themes Summary And Analysis Chapters 1-2 Chapters 3-4 Chapters 5-6 Chapters 7-8 Chapters 9-10 Chapters 11-12 Chapters 13-14 Chapters 15-16 Asian-American Women Writers Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Quiz 5 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store Amy Tan Biography. The Joy Luck Club Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for The Joy Luck Club is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.

Lindo devises a clever escape plan and immigrates to San Francisco, where she works in a fortune cookie factory and meets her husband, Tin Jong, and the other members of the Joy Luck Club. Please include the chapter you are referring to? What chapter are you referring to? Study Guide for The Joy Luck Club. The Joy Luck Club study guide contains a biography of Amy Tan, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. The Joy Luck Club essays are academic essays for euro essay, citation.

These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of structure essay, The Joy Luck Club by we do Amy Tan.

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Essay/Term paper: Making utilities for ms-dos. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Information Technology: Making Utilities For MS-DOS , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade. February 1, 1996. our life, the issue of concern to many programmers is Microsoft's hiding of. technical documentation.

Microsoft is by far the most important system software. developer. Introductory? There can be no argument about that. Poetry? Microsoft's MS-DOS operating. system has become a de facto standard (IBM's PC-DOS is actually a licensed. version of paragraph structure essay, MS-DOS). Composer/Performer? And this should be so, because these systems are very well. written. The people who designed them are perhaps the introductory paragraph, best software engineers in.

deal of responsibility before the developers who make applications for that. platform. Your Class? In particular, proper documentation is essential for such a platform. Not providing enough documentation for a system that everyone uses can have. disastrous results. Think of it, an operating system is useless by itself, its. sole purpose is to provide services to applications. And who would be able to. develop applications for an operating system if the paragraph structure, documentation for that. system is confidential and available only to the company that developed it?

Obviously, only the company that has developed that operating system will be. able to develop software for it. Essay? And this is a violation of the structure essay, Antitrust Law. operating systems. It should be no secret to anyone that MS-DOS contains a lot. of undocumented system calls, data structures and other features. Numerous books. have been written on this subject (see bibliography). Many of them are vital to. system programming. There is no way to write a piece of on the poetry, system software, such as.

a multitasker, a local area network, or another operating system extension, without knowing this undocumented functionality in introductory paragraph structure MS-DOS. And, sure enough, Microsoft is using this functionality extensively when developing operating. system extensions. For example, Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Network, and. Microsoft CD-ROM Extensions (MSCDEX) rely heavily on the undocumented internals. that question, we should look at what this functionality actually is.

In MS- DOS, the undocumented functionality is actually the internal structures that. MS-DOS uses to implement its documented INT 21h API. Any operating system must. have some internal structures in which it keeps information about disk drives, open files, network connections, alien file systems, running tasks, etc. And MS- DOS (later I'll call it simply DOS) has internal structures too. These. structures form the core of undocumented functionality in your online class MS-DOS. This.

operating system also has some undocumented INT 21h API functions, but they. serve merely to introductory paragraph access the internal structures. version up to 4.00 introduced a significant change to these structures. Applications using them will always be unportable and suffer compatibility. problems. Every computer science textbook would teach you not to mingle with. operating system internals. That's exactly why these internal structures are. own applications? To answer this question, we should take a look at an. important class of women essays, software products called utilities.

Utilities are programs. that don't serve end users directly, but extend an operating system to help. applications serve end users. To put it another way, utilities are helper. programs. Perhaps the introductory paragraph, best way to learn when you have to mingle with DOS. internals is to spend some time developing an utility for MS-DOS. A good example.

is SteelBox, an Composer/Performer of choice utility for on-the-fly data encryption. This development project. have made me think about the use of DOS internals in the first place and introductory paragraph essay it has. inspired me to long goals write this paper. need to do the following trick: register with DOS as device drivers, get request. packets from it, handle them in introductory paragraph a certain way, and sometimes forward them to the. driver for another DOS logical drive. The first three steps are rather.

straightforward and do not involve any illicit mingling with MS-DOS internals. The problems begin in the last step. MS-DOS doesn't provide any documented. legal way to find and to call the euro depot, driver for paragraph essay a logical drive. However, MS-DOS. does have internal structures, called Disk Parameter Blocks (DPBs) which contain. all information about all logical drives, including the long range goals essay, pointers to their. respective drivers. If you think of it, it becomes obvious that MS-DOS must have.

some internal structures like DPBs. Otherwise how would it be able to service. the INT 21h API requests? How would it be able to introductory paragraph structure essay locate the driver for a. logical drive it needs to goals access? of DOS code). Introductory Paragraph? In the online community there is a very popular place for. information obtained through reverse engineering, called The MS-DOS Interrupt.

List, maintained by of choice Ralf Brown. This list is for everyone's input, and the. people who reverse engineer Microsoft's operating systems often send their. discoveries to introductory paragraph Ralf Brown, who includes them into his list. Composer/Performer? The DPB format and. the INT 21h call used to introductory paragraph essay get pointers to DPBs are also in Interrupt List. As a. result, many programmers, including me, have used this information in their. utilities without much thinking.

MS-DOS as IBM PC-DOS version 1.00, but the DPB format has changed three times. throughout the history. The first change occured in women and religion essays MS-DOS version 2.00, when. the hard disk support, the installable device drivers and the UNIX-like nested. directories were introduced. The second change occured in MS-DOS version 3.00, when the array of introductory paragraph essay, Current Directory Structures (CDSs), a new internal structure, was introduced to support local area networks and JOIN/SUBST commands.

The third. change occured in MS-DOS version 4.00, when 32-bit sector addressing was. introduced and essay an oversight with storing the number of sectors in a File. Allocation Table (FAT) was fixed. Introductory Structure Essay? The reader can see that each new major MS-DOS. version up to 4.00 introduced a change in the DPB format. Your Class? And this is typical. with all MS-DOS undocumented internal structures.

have to structure deal with two different DPB formats. Range Goals? And prior to paragraph DOS version 5.00, where DPBs were finally documented, no one could be sure that a new DOS version. wouldn't change the of choice, DPB format once again. In the first version of SteelBox, my. utility that needs to know about DPBs in order to do its work, I simply compared. the DOS version number obtained via INT 21h/AH=30h with 4.00. If the DOS version. was earlier than 4.00, I assumed that it has the same DPB format as IBM PC-DOS. versions 3.10-3.30.

If the paragraph, DOS version was 4.00 or later, I assumed that it has. the same DPB format as IBM PC-DOS version 4.xx. However, there are problems with. such assumptions. First, there are some versions of MS-DOS other than IBM PC-DOS, and some of them have their internal structures different from those of standard. MS-DOS and PC-DOS. For example, European MS-DOS 4.00 returns the same version. number as IBM PC-DOS version 4.00, but its internal structuresmuch more closely. resemble that of PC-DOS version 3.xx.

Second, prior to Microsoft's documenting. of DPBs in MS-DOS version 5.00, there was no guarantee that the DPB format. wouldn't change with a new DOS version. use DPBs properly and in a version-independent manner. I justified the use of. DOS internals in the first place because I know that a lot of Microsoft's own. utilities use them extensively. The examples are MS-DOS external commands like. SHARE, JOIN, and SUBST, Microsoft Network, Microsoft Windows, Microsoft CD-ROM. Extensions (MSCDEX), etc. Before we go any further, it should be noted that we.

mustn't be dumping unfairly on Microsoft. Originally I thought that DOS. internals are absolutely safe to use and that Microsoft doesn't document them. intentionally in order to range essay get an introductory paragraph structure unfair advantage over its competitors. My. reasoning for this was that Microsoft's own utilities have never stopped working. with a new DOS version. Microsoft's utilities.

First I looked at we do your, three DOS external commands, SHARE, JOIN, and introductory structure SUBST. All three programs check for exact DOS version number match. This means that they can work only with one specific version of MS-DOS. This. makes sense, given that these utilities are bundled with MS-DOS and can be. considered to be parts of MS-DOS. One of the utilities, SHARE, unlike other DOS.

external commands, accesses the DOS kernel variables by absolute offsets in. DOSGROUP, the DOS kernel data segment, in depot essay addition to introductory paragraph structure essay getting pointers to. certain DOS internal structures and service accessing their fields. SHARE not only. checks the MS-DOS version number, but also checks the flag at offset 4 in. DOSGROUP. Essay? In DOS Internals, Geoff Chappell says that this flag indicates the. format (or style) of DOSGROUP layout (501). If you look at long goals essay, the MS-DOS source.

code (I'll explain how to introductory paragraph do it in a few paragraphs), you'll see that programs. like SHARE access the kernel variables in the following way: SHARE's own modules. Since the assembler always works the and religion essays, same way, the introductory structure, DOS. kernel variables get the essays poetry, same offsets in the SHARE's copy of DOSGROUP as in the.

DOS kernel's copy. Introductory? When SHARE needs to access a DOS kernel variable, it loads. the real DOSGROUP segment into personal editing service toronto, a segment register, tells the assembler that the. segment register points to SHARE's own copy of DOSGROUP, and structure essay accesses the. variable through that segment register. Although the segment register points to. one copy of DOSGROUP and assembler thinks that it points to another one, everything works correctly because they have the same format. The reader can. drawn the following conclusion from this aside: MS-DOS designers have made the. MS-DOS internal structures accessible to other programs only for DOS'own use.

(since linking DOS modules in online class with a program is acceptable only for the parts of. wants to be compatible with all DOS versions, I turned to Microsoft Network. One. of its utilities, REDIR, is very similar to SHARE in its operation. Like SHARE, it accesses the DOS kernel variables by absolute offsets. I thought that unlike. SHARE, REDIR is not tied to a specific DOS version. Introductory Structure Essay? Unfortunatelly, I wasn't. able to disassemble it, because as a high school student, I don't have a copy of. Microsoft Network. However, Geoff Chappell says that it has separate versions.

for different versions of DOS, just like SHARE. Therefore, I turned to another. file systems used by CD-ROMs. Unlike SHARE and statement editing service REDIR, MSCDEX is introductory paragraph structure, not tied to one. specific DOS version. I'm using MSCDEX version 2.21 with MS-DOS version 5.00, but the same version of your class, MSCDEX can be used with PC-DOS version 3.30. However, it. accesses the introductory paragraph essay, DOS kernel variables by and religion absolute offsets in DOSGROUP, just like. SHARE and REDIR. Of course, my question was How does it do that in a version- independent manner? When I disassembled it, I saw that it takes the flag at.

offset 4 in paragraph DOSGROUP and uses it to determine the absolute offsets of all the. variables it needs. If this flag equals 0, MSCDEX assumes that all offsets it's. interested in are the same as in long DOS versions 3.10-3.30. If this flag equals 1, MSCDEX assumes that all offsets it's interested in structure are the same as in DOS. versions 4.00-5.00. Euro Essay? For all other values of this flag MSCDEX refuses to load. incompatible with future DOS versions.

The comments in the source code for MS- DOS version 3.30 (DOSMULT.INC file) refer to MSCDEX, therefore, it had existed. at the time of MS-DOS version 3.30. Paragraph? It is we do class, very doubtful that anyone, including. the author of paragraph, MSCDEX, could know what offsets would the essays poetry, kernel variables in DOS.

version 4.00 have at that time. If this is true, an MSCDEX version that predates. MS-DOS version 4.00 won't run under DOS versions 4.00 and later. offsets of the kernel variables, but also the style of structure, all other DOS internals. that had changed with DOS version 4.00. My first thought was that I can use this. flag in my utilities when I need to cope with different styles of DOS. internals.

However, my next discovery really surprised me and gave me a real. understanding of what I'm doing when I mingle with DOS internals. MSCDEX version. 2.21 refuses to run under DOS versions 6.00 and later. Euro Depot Essay? So much for paragraph structure the idea that. Microsoft's own utilities have never stopped working with a new DOS version.

In fact, Geoff Chappell refers to this in DOS Internals (501). bundled with Microsoft Windows version 3.10. This utility also uses the DOS. internal structures, including the editing service toronto, version-dependent ones. However, unlike. MSCDEX, SmartDrive doesn't have a top DOS version number. It compares the DOS. version number with 4.00 and assumes that DOS similar to versions 3.10-3.30 if. it's lower than 4.00 and to introductory essay versions 4.00-5.00 if it's 4.00 or higher.

SmartDrive assumes that all future DOS versions will be compatible with MS-DOS. version 5.00 at the level of the internal structures. structures by and religion essays Microsoft's own utilities made me think seriously about paragraph essay, the. possibility of safe use of the Composer/Performer, DOS internals in the first place. Originally I. thought that Microsoft has some internal confidential document that explains how. to use the DOS internals safely, and that anyone having that magic document can. use the undocumented DOS internals as safely as normal documented INT 21h API.

However, the evidence I have obtained through reverse engineering of structure essay, Microsoft's. utilities puts the existence of that magic document under question. In. Undocumented DOS Andrew Schulman notes that it is possible that on some. occasions Microsoft's programmers have found out women about the MS-DOS internals not. from the introductory paragraph, source code or some other internal confidential documents, but from. general PC folklore, just like third-party software developers. Composer/Performer Of Choice? For example, the. MWAVABSI.DLL file from the Microsoft Anti-Virus provides a function called AIO_.

GetListofLists(). This function calls INT 21h/AH=52h to get the structure, pointer to one. extremely important DOS internal structure. In the women, MS-DOS source code this. structure is paragraph, called SysInitVars. Range Goals? However, in Ralf Brown's Interrupt List and in. general PC folklore is introductory paragraph structure essay, called the List of euro depot essay, Lists. Introductory Paragraph Essay? This is an indication that. Microsoft's programmers sometimes act just like third-party software developers. (Schulman et al., Undocumented DOS, 44).

most programmers know that the MS-DOS source code is unavailable to women and religion essays non- Microsoft employees. Therefore, before we go any further, I need to explain how. could I look at the MS-DOS source code. Microsoft gives it to paragraph structure certain companies, mostly Original Equipment Manufactures (OEMs).

Some people can claim that they. are OEMs and get the Microsoft's documents available only to OEMs (however, this. costs a lot of money). And then some people who don't care too much about we do online class, laws. start distributing the confidential information they have. This is especially. easy in Russia, where copyright laws are not enforced.

So one way or another, knowledge of structure, some parts of MS-DOS source code spreads among the people. We Do? The MS- DOS OEM Adaptation Kit (OAK) contains commented source code for some MS-DOS. modules and include files and .OBJ files made from some other modules. has internal structures. Every computer science textbook would teach you not to. rely on an operating system's internals.

In MS-DOS, the internal structures are. undocumented. Microsoft's own utilities do rely on them. By reverse engineering. these utilities, looking at paragraph structure essay, the MS-DOS source code, and thinking the problem. through one can come to the conclusion that there is absolutely no safe way of. using the MS-DOS internal structures.

The only proper way of on the, using them is not. using them at all. returned me back to the reality. No matter how bad it is to use of the MS-DOS. internals, utility developers like me have to introductory paragraph do it because they have no other.

choice. Now I'm almost sure that this is precisely why Microsoft uses the MS-DOS. internals itself. Before we go any further, I need to Composer/Performer of choice clarify one important. generally known as the network redirector interface. Microsoft responded: function 1100h (get installed state) of the introductory paragraph structure, network services is documented. Undocumented DOS by Shulman [sic], Addison-Wesley), but Microsoft provides. absolutely no support for your online programming on introductory paragraph structure essay, that API, and Composer/Performer we do not guarantee that.

the API will exist in future versions of MS-DOS. better not use it. Introductory? (Schulman et al., Undocumented DOS, 495). Statement? Some people might. think that Microsoft has internal confidential documents describing the MS-DOS. internals much better than Andrew Schulman's Undocumented DOS, but there are. indications that the paragraph structure essay, MS-DOS source code is the only document Microsoft has. (I'll address this issue in a few paragraphs).

Perhaps the Microsoft's. programmers themselves use the same documentation as third parties. utility developers no other choice but to use its undocumented version-dependent. internals. The reader might ask, what can we do about it? First of editing service toronto, all, some. of the former undocumented DOS functionality was documented in DOS version 5.00. The reason for paragraph structure that probably was that some INT 21h functions that were used by. DOS external commands like PRINT don't actually deal with any DOS internals at. all, and Microsoft had simply underestimated the usefulness of these functions. originally.

Microsoft has even documented the women essays, DPBs. However, Microsoft's. documentation says that the DPBs are available only in DOS versions 5.00 and. later, but the reader should remember that the DPB format has changed several. times throughout the history. So in this case Microsoft even restricted. themselves in the ability of making changes in MS-DOS by documenting the introductory, DPBs. noted that documenting them is out of question. This would make it impossible to.

make significant changes in MS-DOS, thereby stalling its enhancement. In. Undocumented DOS Andrew Schulman suggests that Microsoft could make an add-in to. MS-DOS that would provide clean documented services that would eliminate the. need for of choice the use of introductory structure essay, DOS internals. Once Microsoft actually did this, when it. introduced the IFSFUNC utility in MS-DOS version 4.00. This utility converted.

the dirty and extremely version-dependent redirector interface into essays, a device- driver-like interface. However, this utility was removed from MS-DOS versions. 5.00 and later (I'll explain why in a few paragraphs). MS-DOS. In Microsoft Windows versions 3.00 through 3.11, there is a component. called Win386.

It has got its name from Windows/386, its ancestor. In early beta. releases of Microsoft's Chicago operating system this component was called. DOS386. When Chicago was renamed into Windows 95, this component was given. uninteresting name VMM32. Introductory? Finally, the beta release of Microsoft C/C++ Compiler. version 7.00 included this component from Microsoft Windows under the name.

MSDPMI. I think that the best name for this component is DOS386, so I'll call it. multitasking protected-mode operating system. A close inspection of DOS386. reveals that it has almost nothing to do with Windows, and has a lot to do with. DOS (that's why I prefer the name DOS386 over we do online class, Win386).

Two of DOS386's. subcomponents, DOSMGR and IFSMGR, are perhaps the structure essay, heaviest users of DOS. internals. These modules know a lot about the internals of MS-DOS, and they. provide their own interfaces which in fact can help an utility avoid using DOS. internals. For example, let's return to our SteelBox utility. programmers know that DOS INT 21h API is non-reentrant. It means that no INT 21h.

calls can be made while an INT 21h call is already being serviced. Long? Therefore, an. utility like SteelBox would have to paragraph structure essay play tricks with DOS internals with all the. consequences. On the other hand, DOS386's IFSMGR subcomponent provides an. interface that replaces INT 21h. Unfortunately, IFSMGR is documented only in the. Windows 95 Device Development Kit (DDK), and I don't have a copy of it yet. However, it is quite possible that the IFSMGR's interface is reentrant. If it is, all problems with SteelBox would be immediately solved, and it won't contain a. single undocumented DOS call. Keep in Composer/Performer of choice mind, however, that DOS386 is relatively.

new, and perhaps its current version doesn't provide all the desired. functionality. But certainly DOS386 is definitely a good foundation for a new. unpleasant truth about this company. In their run for profit, people at. Microsoft violates some principles of free enterprize. In other words, they try. to make a monopoly. One of the paragraph structure, unfair things Microsoft does is called.

discriminatory documentation. Although the source code for MS-DOS, Microsoft. Network, and other Microsoft products is we do your class, supposedly unavailable to anyone, Microsoft has made the source code of some utilities available to selected. vendors (Schulman et al., Undocumented DOS, 495). with Digital Research's DR-DOS. Some programs, including Microsoft Windows. version 3.10 beta and Microsoft C Compiler version 6.00, contain special code. with sole purpose of making them incompatible with DR-DOS and other DOS. workalikes. Although I'm definitely not a supporter of DOS workalikes, I think.

that Microsoft should use fair methods of competition. The most important problem with DOS386 is that it's currently available to users. only as Win386 in Microsoft Windows. Furthermore, the usual Windows technical. documentation (except the DDK) doesn't even mention the existence of introductory structure, Win386, because it's actually not a part of personal editing service, Windows. As a result, an amasing number of. programmers don't even know about DOS386 (or Win386), and many of those how do. greatly underestimate its tremendous importance. thrown into one melting-pot.

First of all, the integration of MS-DOS and structure DOS386. is a very good step. Euro Depot? Given the volatility of DOS internals, the DOSMGR. subcomponent of DOS386 (which, remember, is perhaps the heaviest user of introductory structure essay, DOS. internals) cetainly should be tied to statement editing one specific DOS version. However, the introductory paragraph structure, tie. between DOS/DOS386 and Windows is largely artificial.

Try a simple experiment. Rename KRNL386.EXE file in your WINDOWSSYSTEM directory into something else, and put something else (COMMAND.COM fits nicely) into that directory under the. name KRNL386.EXE. And then try to run Windows. But instead of running Windows, this would load and activate Win386 without loading Windows. And there is no.

magic in this simple experiment. Your Online? KRNL386.EXE is the first module of Windows, and. Win386 runs it when it completes its initialization. By putting something else. in place of KRNL386.EXE, one can break the introductory paragraph, artificial tie between Windows and. which would not be tied to Windows. Long Essay? There was an utility called MSDPMI in the. beta release of Microsoft C/C++ Compiler version 7.00, which was that very. DOS386 without Windows. But now Microsoft is abandoning MS-DOS and everything. else that is not Windows.

Microsoft tries to introductory structure persuade users that Windows 95. doesn't contain a DOS component, but this is not true. It is simply tied into. don't like Windows and who want to use MS-DOS and DOS386 without Windows, because Microsoft cares only about its profit. One person cannot stop them doing. that. Therefore, we, the essays on the, programmers, should unite.

If I call Microsoft alone, no one would listen to me. But if thousands of us do it together, we might. achieve something. Paragraph Essay? If you have any questions or suggestions about creating an. association of essay, programmers against structure Microsoft, please send E-mail to women Michael. Sokolov at software. Introductory Paragraph? Redmond: Microsoft, 1990.

Environment. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1993. Undocumented DOS: A Programmer's Guide to Reserved MS-DOS Functions and Data. Structures. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1994.

Programmer's Guide to Reserved Microsoft Windows API Functions. New York: