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Hire the top 3% of freelance Ruby on music research papers Rails developers . As with any technology, there’s knowing Rails and essays then there’s really knowing Rails. Renaissance Research. This guide offers a sampling of essays on issues of importance, questions that are key to evaluating the breadth and depth of a candidate’s mastery of the framework. Just as France’s Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) (traveling at renaissance music research, speeds of up to 320 km/h) dramatically reduces travel time for modern day rail passengers, Ruby on Rails (a.k.a. “Rails”) substantially reduces the time and effort required to build powerful web applications. Tim O’Reilly (founder of O’Reilly Media) refers to Rails as breakthrough technology and steve yzerman Gartner Research noted in a recent study that many high-profile companies are using Rails to build agile, scalable web applications. The rate at which Rails has gained popularity is noteworthy, with estimates of over 200,000 web sites currently built with the music, technology. Today, many high-profile companies are using Rails to build agile, scalable web applications. Examples include Twitter, GitHub, Yammer, Scribd, Groupon, Shopify, and good hooks Basecamp, to renaissance research papers name but a few. Rails is a framework for web application development, written in Ruby, that also features its own routing system independent of the web server. The goal of Rails is to significantly simplify the development of web applications, requiring less code and time than would otherwise be required to good hooks essays accomplish the same tasks.

To achieve this, Rails makes certain assumptions about how things “should” be done and is then designed and renaissance research papers structured accordingly. While imbibing this “Rails view of the world” can sometimes be a bit of a culture shock for developers strongly grounded in other languages and frameworks, over time most come to essay on religion and science greatly appreciate the Rails approach and the productivity that it engenders. From a recruiting standpoint, the explosive growth in Rails popularity is both the good and the bad news. While on the one hand it makes Rails developers easier to locate, it also makes finding the jewels among them that much more elusive. Finding true Rails experts requires a highly-effective recruiting process, as described in our post In Search of the Elite Few – Finding and Hiring the Best Developers in music research papers the Industry. Such a process can then be augmented with questions –- such as those presented herein –- to identify the sparsely distributed candidates across the globe who are truly Rails experts. The manifold benefits of finding them will likely be realized in the productivity and american results that they will be able to achieve.

The extent to which Rails streamlines and simplifies the development of music research papers, web applications can mislead neophyte developers into underestimating its capabilities and oversimplifying its conceptual underpinnings. While Rails is relatively easy to use, it is good for scholarship anything but simplistic. As with any technology, there’s knowing Rails and then there’s really knowing Rails. In our search for true masters of the language, we require an interview process that can accurately quantify a candidate’s position on the Rails expertise continuum. Toward that goal, this guide offers a sampling of questions that are key to evaluating the breadth and depth of a candidate’s mastery of the language. It is important to bear in music research mind, though, that these sample questions are intended merely as a guide. Not every “A” candidate worth hiring will be able to dissertation properly answer them all, nor does answering them all guarantee an renaissance music research papers, “A” candidate. At the end of the day, hiring remains as much of an art as it does a science. It is not uncommon to encounter Ruby on for scholarship essays Rails developers whose grasp of the fundamentals and key paradigms of Rails are either weak or somewhat confused.

Questions that can help assess a developer’s grasp of the renaissance papers, Rails foundation, including some of einstein's essay on religion and science, its more subtle nuances, are therefore an renaissance music, important component of the interview process. Here are some examples: Q: Explain the processing flow of gender specific, a Rails request. At the highest level, Rails requests are served through an application server, which is responsible for directing an incoming request into a Ruby process. Popular application servers that use the Rack web request interface include Phusion Passenger, Mongrel, Thin, and Unicorn. Rack parses all request parameters (as well as posted data, CGI parameters, and other potentially useful bits of information) and transforms them into a big Hash (Ruby’s record / dictionary type). This is sometimes called the music research papers, env hash, as it contains data about the environment of the web request. In addition to this request parsing, Rack is configurable, allowing for certain requests to steve be directed to specific Rack apps. If you want, for example, to redirect requests for anything in your admin section to another Rails app, you can do so at the Rack level. You can also declare middleware here, in addition to being able to declare it in Rails.

Those requests that are not directed elsewhere (by you in music research Rack) are directed to your Rails app where it begins interacting with the essay, Rails ActionDispatcher, which examines the route. Rails apps can be spit into separate Rails Engines, and the router sends the request off to the right engine. (You can also redirect requests to other Rack compatible web frameworks here.) Once in your app, Rails middleware – or your custom middleware – is renaissance papers executed. The router determines what Rails controller / action method should be called to process the request, instantiates the best american 2009, proper controller object, executes all the filters involved, and finally calls the appropriate the action method. Further detail is available in renaissance music papers the Rails documentation. Q: Describe the Rails Asset Pipeline and how it handles assets (such as JavaScript and CSS files). Rails 3.1 introduced the Asset Pipeline, a way to organize and process front-end assets. It provides an gender specific roles, import/require mechanism (to load dependent files) that provides many features. Music Research Papers. While the best american essays review, Asset Pipeline does have its rough edges, it does solve and renaissance research papers provide many of the volunteer tourism, modern best practices in serving these files under HTTP 1.1. Research Papers. Most significantly, the Asset Pipeline will:

Collect, concatenate, and essays on issues minify all assets of each type into one big file Version files using fingerprinting to bust old versions of the file in browser caches. The Asset Pipeline automatically brings with it Rails’ selection of renaissance research, Coffeescript as its JavaScript pre-processed / transpiled language of choice and essay SASS as its CSS transpiled language. However, being an extensible framework, it does allow for additional transpiled languages or additional file sources. For example, Rails Assets brings the renaissance music papers, power of Bower to your Rails apps, allowing you to on issues manage third-party JavaScript and CSS assets very easily. Q: What is Active Record and what is Arel? Describe the renaissance music papers, capabilities of each. Active Record was described by Martin Fowler in gender essay his book Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture as “an object that wraps a row in renaissance music papers a database table or view, encapsulates the database access, and adds domain logic on that data”. ActiveRecord is both an Object Relational Mapping (ORM) design pattern, and Rails’ implementation of that design pattern. Steve Yzerman Essay. This means that fetching, querying, and storing your objects in the database is as much a part of the music papers, API of essays on issues of importance, your objects as your custom business logic.

A developer may see this as an undesired side effect, or as a welcome convention, depending on their preference and level of experience. Arel provides a query API for ActiveRecord, allowing Rails developers to perform database queries without having to hand-write SQL. Renaissance. Arel creates lazily-executed SQL whereby Rails waits until the last possible second to send the SQL to the server for execution. Dissertation. This allows you to take an Arel query and add another SQL condition or sort to the query, right up to the point where Rails actually executes the renaissance music research, query. Arel returns ActiveRecord objects from its queries, unless told otherwise. Q: What is the Convention over Configuration pattern? Provide examples of how it is applied in best 2009 Rails. Convention over Configuration (CoC) is a software design pattern by which only the unconventional aspects of an application need to be specified by a developer. When the default convention matches the desired behavior, the renaissance research, default behavior is followed without any configuration being required.

The goal is to simplify software development, without sacrificing flexibility and customizability in the process. Here are some examples of how CoC principles are applied in Rails: Model and essay and science database table naming. Rails automatically pluralizes class names to find the music research papers, respective database tables. For a class Book, for example, it will expect a database table named books. For class names composed of multiple words, the model class name should employ CamelCase (e.g., BookClub and essay book_clubs ). Primary and foreign keys. By default, Rails uses an music, integer column named id as the table’s primary key.

Foreign key names by default follow the steve, pattern of appending _id to the singularized tablename (e.g., item_id for papers a foreign key into steve yzerman essay, the items table). Reserved words for automatic functionality. There are also some optional column names which, if used, automatically add features and functionality to Rails database tables. created_at , for example, will automatically be set to the date and renaissance papers time when the record was created. Similarly, updated_at will automatically be set to the date and time whenever the record was last updated. Auto-loading of class definitions.

Auto-loading is the “magic” by which classes appear to be accessible from volunteer tourism anywhere, without the need to explicitly require them. Here’s how it works: When you reference a class in your code, Rails takes the music papers, class name (with namespace) as a string, calls underscore on it, and looks for on issues of importance a file with that name (in all directories specified in your config.autoload_paths ). For example, if you reference a class named FileHandling::ZipHandler , Rails will automatically search for renaissance music research file_handling/zip_handler.rb in best american essays 2009 review your config.autoload_paths . This feature often results in novice Rails programmers thinking that they don’t need to explicitly require referenced classes and that Rails will just auto-magically find them anyway. They then become baffled when they don’t follow this convention and are suddenly being told by Rails that their classes can’t be found. It is renaissance research important to essay on religion note that CoC specifies a default –- but not immutable –- convention. Renaissance Music. Accordingly, Rails does provide mechanisms for overriding these default conventions. As an example, the default database table naming scheme mentioned above can be overridden by specifying the ActiveRecord::Base.table_name as shown here:

Q: What is the “fat model, skinny controller” approach? Discuss some of its advantages and pitfalls, as well as some alternatives. “Fat model skinny controller” is an einstein's essay and science, MVC-based Rails design pattern. MVC is itself a software design pattern that separates a system into three separate and distinct layers; namely, Model, View, and Controller. Renaissance. MVC strives to ensure a clean separation between each of best, its layers through clearly defined APIs. In a well-designed MVC system, these APIs serve as firm boundaries that help avoid implementation “tentacles” extending between MVC’s logically distinct subsystems.

The “Fat model skinny controller” design pattern advocates placing as much logic as possible in the Model for (a) maximum reuse and (b) code that is easier to test. That said, a common pitfall for renaissance music Rails developers is to and science end up with “overly bloated” models by adhering too blindly to the “fat model, skinny controller” paradigm. The infamous User model is a prime example of music research, this. Since many Rails apps are about the user entering data into the system, or sharing information with their friends socially, the user model will often gain more and more methods, eventually reaching the point where the user.rb model becomes bulky and unmanageable in tourism dissertation size. A few key alternatives worth considering include: Use of other objects: Extract functionality out of models into other objects (such as Decorators or Service objects) Hexagonal architecture for Rails: Employ a hexagonal architecture that views the music research papers, application as a hexagon, each side of which represents some sort of external interaction the application needs to roles have. DCI (Data Context Interaction): Instead of focusing on individual objects, focus on the communication and interactions between data and its context. Q: Describe the Rails testing philosophy.

Rails built testing support in from the beginning of the renaissance papers, framework, and on religion it became a part of the culture. As a result, there are a plethora of renaissance research papers, tools available for testing in the Rails environment. By default, Rails 4.0+ uses the MiniTest Ruby standard library testing framework under-the-hood. There are well defined locations in a Rails project for tests for each layer (model, controller, routing, view, model), as well as integration tests. And Science. Because of the MVC foundation of Rails, often these layers (with the exception of integration tests) can be tested without reliance on research papers the other layers. For example, we can create a database record, before the test runs, that contains the attributes we expect the test to return. Our test can focus on einstein's essay and science making sure our show post controller action retrieves the post we want it to by checking to see if it returns the object we created above as expected. If not, something went wrong or our code must have a bug.

Here’s an example of such a test: Integration tests (often called Feature tests) will usually drive the renaissance research, application as if a user is clicking buttons, using testing tools like Capybara (which can simulate user actions in a variety of manners, including driving embedded WebKit, or using Selenium). While MiniTest is a Rails out-of-the-box standard, you’ll often see the RSpec gem used instead. This provides a Domain Specific Language for specific roles essay testing that may make it more natural to read than MiniTest. Some Rails projects use the Cucumber testing framework to renaissance papers describe software behavior in plain English sentences. This is often useful when collaborating with onsite clients, or with dedicated QA resources. In the ideal world, these non-developers can write automated integration tests without having to see a line of specific essay, Ruby code. Someone who has worked extensively with Rails can be expected to possess a great deal of music, familiarity with its capabilities, constructs, and idiosyncrasies.

These questions demonstrate ways of gauging the extent and depth of this expertise. Q: Explain the use of yield and content_for in layouts. Provide examples. yield identifies where content from the view should be inserted. The simplest approach is to have a single yield , into which the entire contents of the steve essay, view currently being rendered is inserted, as follows: You can also create a layout with multiple yielding regions:

The main body of the view will always render into the unnamed yield . To render content into a named yield , use the content_for method. content_for allows for insertion of content into a named yield block in a layout. This can be helpful with layouts that contain distinct regions, such as sidebars and footers, into which distinct blocks of content are to be inserted. Renaissance Papers. It can also be useful for yzerman inserting tags that load page-specific JavaScript or CSS files into renaissance research, the header of an otherwise generic layout. Incidentally, a good follow-up question to ask is: What happens if you call content_for :head multiple times? The answer is that all of the values get concatenated. Q: What are N+1 queries, and how can you avoid them?

Consider the following code, which finds 10 clients and prints their postal codes: This code actually executes 11 queries; 1 (to find 10 clients) and then 10 more (one per each client to load its address). Roles Essay. This is referred to research as an gender essay, “N+1 query” (where in research papers the case of this example, N is 10). Eager loading is the einstein's essay on religion and science, mechanism for loading the associated records of the objects returned by Model.find using as few queries as possible. Active Record’s eager loading capability makes it possible to significantly reduce the papers, number of queries by letting you specify in advance all the associations that are going to steve yzerman essay be loaded. This is done by calling the includes (or preload ) method on renaissance the Arel ( ActiveRecord::Relation ) object being built. With includes, Active Record ensures that all of the specified associations are loaded using the minimum possible number of queries. We could therefore rewrite the above code to hooks use the includes method as follows:

This revised version of this code will execute just 2 queries, thanks to eager loading, as opposed to 11 queries in the original version. Q: What are “filters” in Rails? Describe the renaissance research papers, three types of filters, including how and why each might be used, and the order in which they are executed. Gender Specific Roles Essay. Provide examples. Filters are essentially callback methods that are run before, after, or “around” a controller action: Before filter methods are run before a controller action and therefore may halt the request cycle. A common before filter is one which requires a user to be logged in for an action to be performed. After filter methods are run after a controller action and therefore cannot stop the action from being performed but do have access to the response data that is about to be sent to the client. Around filter methods are “wrapped around” a controller action.

They can therefore control the execution of an action as well as execute code before and/or after the action is performed. For example, in a website where changes have an approval workflow, an music research, administrator could be able to preview them easily with an around filter as follows: Note that an around filter also wraps rendering. Gender Roles. In particular, in renaissance research papers the example above, if the einstein's and science, view reads from the database (e.g., via a scope), it will do so within the transaction and thus present the data to preview. You can also choose not to renaissance music research papers yield and build the response yourself, in which case the action will not be run. The order of execution is a bit tricky and is important to understand clearly. Gender Specific Roles. Filter methods execute in the following order: Before filter methods, in order of definition. Around filter methods, in order of definition. After filter methods, in reverse order.

Also, because of the papers, way Ruby instantiates classes, the filter methods of a parent class’ before will be run before those of its child classes. Q: What is Rack middleware? How does it compare to controller filters/actions? In 2007 Christian Neukirchen released Rack, a modular standard interface for serving web requests in Ruby. Rack is einstein's essay on religion and science similar to other similar mechanisms in renaissance research other languages, such as WSGI on the Python side, or Java Servlets, or Microsoft’s Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI). Before requests are processed by your Rails action method, they go through various Rack middleware functions declared by Rails or by the developer. Rack middleware is typically used to perform functions such as request cleaning, security measures, user authorization or profiling. You can see a list of available middleware components (both developer defined and those defined by Rails) by good hooks running rake middleware on renaissance music research papers the command line. A key distinction between Rack middleware and filters is that Rack middleware is american review called before Rails does its routing and research papers dispatching, whereas filters are invoked after this routing has occurred (i.e., when Rails is about to call your controller action method). Gender. As such, its is advantageous to filter out requests to be ignored in middleware whenever possible, such as requests from common attack URLs ( phpadmin.php requests, for example, can be discarded in middleware, as they will never resolve in renaissance research papers a Rails app and is probably just some attempt to hack the site.)

Q: Explain what Rails’ mass-assignment vulnerability is and volunteer Rails’ method to control field access. When the user performs a post (such as, for example, creating a new User ) Rails needs to save all that new data into research, the database. This data is accessible from your Rails action via the params Hash. Because web apps involve updating / saving every field the user changed, Rails has some convenience methods to yzerman handle this, called mass assignment helpers. For example, prior to Rails 4, creating a new User object with parameters from a submitted form looked like: params[:user] will contain keys for renaissance music research papers the elements the user entered on the form. For example, if the form contained a name field, params[:user][:name] would contain the name entered on the form (e.g., “Jeff Smith”). Convention vs. configuration strikes again here: name is the name of both the input element in the form and the name of the column in essay the database.

In addition to the create method, you can update a record the same way: But what happens when a hacker goes in and edits your HTML form to add new fields? They may, for example, guess that you have an is_admin field, and add it to the HTML form field themselves. Which now means that – even though you didn’t include it on research the form that’s served to users – your hacker has gone in and made themselves an admin on einstein's and science your site! This is referred to as mass assignment vulnerability ; i.e., assigning all these fields with no filtering en masse, just trusting that the research papers, only field names and values will be those that were legitimately on the HTML form. Rails 3 and Rails 4 each have different ways of attempting to address this issue. Rails 3 attempted to hooks for scholarship address it via attr_protected / attr_accessible controls at the model level, while Rails 4 addresses it via strong parameters and a filtering mechanism at the controller level. Both ways allow you to restrict what keys are mapped to database columns and which columns are ignored.

Using these mechanisms, in the prior is_admin example, you can set the is_admin field to only change when code explicitly modifies the renaissance research, field value, or only allow it to steve essay be changed in music certain situations. An expert knowledge of Rails extends well beyond the technical minutia of the language. Best American Essays Review. A Rails expert will have an in-depth understanding and appreciation of its benefits as well as its limitations. Accordingly, here are some sample questions that can help assess this dimension of renaissance music research, a candidate’s expertise. Q: Why do some people say “Rails can’t scale”? Twitter was one of the essays of importance, first extremely high profile sites to research use Rails. In roughly the 2006-2008 timeframe, the growth rate of Twitter made server errors (“fail whale”) appearances a very common occurrence for users, prompting users and volunteer tourism dissertation tech pundits to lay blame at Rails’ feet. Renaissance Music Research Papers. As is true with any software, the essays on issues, causes of scalability issues can be complex and multi-faceted. Accordingly, not all of Twitter’s scaling issues can be claimed to be Rails-specific. But that said, it is renaissance important to understand where Rails has faced scalability issues and how they have been, or can be, addressed. The Ruby ecosystem has improved since Twitter’s Rails scaling problem, with better memory management techniques in MRI Ruby (the core, and einstein's on religion and science main, Ruby implementation) for example.

Modern Rails applications typically mitigate scaling problems in one or more of the following ways: Implementing caching solutions (Rails 4 introduces good advances here) Leveraging (or implementing) server or platform solutions with automatic scaling built in Profiling costly operations and moving them out of Ruby or out of music papers, one monolithic Rails app Placing some operations in a background / worker queue to be completed at a later time (e.g., perform an on issues of importance, export operation asynchronously, notifying the user by email with a download link when the export is completed) While there has traditionally been a one-to-one mapping between websites and Rails app (i.e., one website = one Rails app), there’s been an increasing movement towards more of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach whereby performance critical parts of the app are split off into new/separate apps which the research papers, main app usually talks to via web service calls. There are numerous advantages to volunteer dissertation this approach. Renaissance Research Papers. Perhaps most noteworthy is the fact that these independent services can employ alternate technologies as appropriate; this might be a lightweight / more responsive solution in Ruby, or services written in Scala (as in Twitter’s case), or Node.js, Clojure, or Go.

But writing separate services isn’t the only way to speed up a Rails app. For example, Github has an interesting article on einstein's essay and science how it profiled Rails and music papers ended up implementing a set of C apis for performing text escaping on the web. Q: When is Rails a good choice for a project? Rails is an good hooks for scholarship, opinionated framework, which is either one of renaissance music research papers, its most charming or frustrating attributes, depending who you ask. Rails has already made a (default, but configurable) choice about your view templating engine, your Object Role Model (ORM), and how your routes translate to actions. As a result of these choices, Rails is a great choice for a project where your application has total control over its own database, mostly returns HTML (or at least doesn’t solely return JSON), and for the most part displays data back to the users consistently with the way it is stored. Because Rails is configurable, if you want to diverge from Rails norms you can, but this often comes at an engineering cost. Roles Essay. Want to renaissance research papers hook into an existing MS SQL database?

You can do that, but you’ll hit some bumps along the way. Want to build a single page app with Rails, returning mostly JSON object? You’ll find Rails not helping you out volunteer tourism dissertation as much as if you had been accepting / responding with an music research, HTML format. Q: What are some of the drawbacks of Rails? Rails is generally meant for essays 2009 review codebases of greater than a few hundred lines of code, and research that primarily work with its own database objects. If you’re writing a web service that simply performs calculations (“give me the temperature right now in Fahrenheit”) Rails will add a lot of supporting structure “overkill” that you may not need. Additionally, Rail’s convention over configuration approach makes it sometimes not ideal for situations where you have to interact with a database schema another party controls, for example. Also, a Ruby-based solution can be a hard sell in Windows enterprise environments, as Ruby’s Windows support is not as robust as its Unix support. Like Python, the concurrency story in essays on issues the default Ruby implementation (MRI; a.k.a. CRuby) is somewhat hobbled by a Global Interpreter Lock (GIL), which in research broad strokes means only essay on religion, one thread can execute Ruby code at papers, a time. (JRuby and Rubinius, other implementations of Ruby, have no GIL. A Ruby-based implementation may also not be the best fit for problems that want an asynchronous solution (such as fetching data from multiple APIs to perform aggregate calculations, interacting with social media APIs, or responding to situations where you could get thousands of small requests a minute).

Having said that, there are tools to either implement asynchronous callback based patterns in Ruby (like EventMachine), or use the Actor model of concurrency (Celluloid). And of course there are a number of volunteer tourism, background worker mechanisms if your problem fits in that space. And finally… Ruby Rookie or Gemologist? Excelling as a Rails developer requires one to be an expert in the Ruby programming language as well. Accordingly, here are some questions to help evaluate this dimension of a candidate’s expertise. Q: What are Ruby mixins, how do they work, and how would you use them? What are some advantages of using them and what are some potential problems? Give examples to support your answers. A “mixin” is the term used in Ruby for a module included in renaissance music another class. When a class includes a module, it thereby “mixes in” (i.e., incorporates) all of steve essay, its methods and constants. Music. If a class includes multiple modules, it incorporates the methods and constants of all of those modules.

Thus, although Ruby does not formally support multiple inheritance, mixins provide a mechanism by which multiple inheritance can largely be achieved, or at least approximated. (A knowledgeable candidate can be expected to mention multiple inheritance in their discussion of Ruby mixins.) Internally, Ruby implements mixins by essay inserting modules into a class’ inheritance chain (so mixins do actually work through inheritance in Ruby). Consider this simple example: In this example, the methods of the Student class are incorporated into renaissance papers, DoctoralStudent class, so the steve yzerman, phd object supports the gpa method. It is important to renaissance music research note that, in Ruby, the require statement is the volunteer tourism, logical equivalent of the include statement in other languages. In contrast to other languages (wherein the include statement references the contents of another file), the Ruby include statement references a named module.

Therefore: The module referenced by music papers an include statement may either be in the same file (as the class that is including it) or in a different file. If in a different file, a require statement must also be used to properly incorporate the contents of that file. Essay. A Ruby include makes a reference from the class to the included module. Research Papers. As a result, if the definition of a method in the included module is modified, even at runtime, all classes that include that module will exhibit the new behavior when that method is invoked. The advantages of mixins not withstanding, they are also not without downsides and should therefore be used with care. Hooks For Scholarship. Some potential pitfalls include:

Instance variable name collisions. Different mixins may use instance variables with the same name and, if included in the same class, could create unresolvable collisions at runtime. Silent overriding of renaissance, methods. In other languages, defining something twice results in an error message. In Ruby, if a method is review defined twice, the second definition simply (and silently!) overwrites the first definition. Method name clashes across multiple mixins in Ruby are therefore not simple errors, but instead can introduce elusive and gnarly bugs. Class bloat.

The ease-of-use of mixins can also lead to their “abuse”. A prime example is a class with way too many mixins that therefore has an overly large public footprint. The rules of coupling and cohesion start to music research papers come into best essays 2009 review, play, and you can end up with a system where changes to a module that’s frequently included can have disastrous effects. Traditional inheritance or composition is research papers much less prone to this type of bloat. Quite often extracting parts of a class into steve yzerman essay, modules that are mixed in is akin to research papers cleaning your room by putting the mess into large bins. It looks clean until you start opening the bins. Q: Compare and contrast Symbols and Strings in Ruby? Why use one vs. the other?

Symbols are singleton based on value, and immutable objects. Unlike strings, not all symbols may be garbage collected. Strings, on the other hand, create multiple objects even if they share a value, are mutable, and are garbage collected when the system is done with the object. Since symbols are singleton based on value (there is only one symbol object for a value, even if it appears multiple times in a program), this makes it trivial to specific compare whether two symbols are the same (Ruby basically just needs to compare their object_id values). Renaissance Music Research. Symbols are therefore most often used as Hash keys, with many libraries expecting options hashes with specific symbols for keys. Strings can be made immutable (“frozen”) via the essays on issues of importance, freeze method. However, while this changes one behavior of a string, create two frozen strings with the same value still results in two string objects. When you use a Symbol, Ruby will check the music, dictionary first and, if found, will use that Symbol. Steve Yzerman. If the Symbol is not found in the dictionary, only renaissance music papers, then will the interpreter instantiate a new Symbol and put it in the heap. As stated in The Ruby Programming Language O’Reilly book (by Matz and Flanigan):

A typical implementation of a Ruby interpreter maintains a symbol table in which it stores the names of all the classes, methods, and variables it knows about. Of Importance. This allows such an interpreter to avoid most string comparisons: it refers to method names (for example) by their position in this symbol table. Renaissance Research Papers. This turns a relatively expensive string operation into a relatively cheap integer operation. Symbols are also fairly ubiquitous in tourism dissertation Ruby (predominantly a hash keys and renaissance music papers method names; in pre Ruby 2.1 they were also used as quasi keyword arguments, and poor man’s constants). Because of their performance, memory and usage considerations, Symbols are most often used as Hash keys, with many libraries expecting option hashes with specific symbols for gender roles keys.

Symbols are never garbage collected during program execution, unlike strings (which, like any other variable, are garbage collected). Because strings and symbols are different objects, here’s an research papers, example of hooks for scholarship, something that often catches less experienced Ruby programmers unaware. Consider the following hash, for example: You may be expecting to see 1 printed here, especially if a was defined elsewhere in your program. But, as strings and renaissance papers symbols are different; i.e., key (the symbol) and 'key' (the string) are not equivalent. Accordingly, Ruby correctly returns nil for a['key'] (even though this is annoying for the unsuspecting programmer wondering where her value is!) Rails has a class, HashWithIndifferentAccess , which acts like a Hash object, except it treats strings and symbols with the same values as equivalent when used as key names, thereby avoiding the above issue:

There is essay one important caveat. Consider this controller action: This innocent looking code is actually a denial-of-service (DOS) attack vulnerability. Since symbols can never be garbage collected (and since here we cast user input into a symbol), a user can keep feeding this endpoint with unique values and it will eventually eat up enough memory to crash the server, or at least bring it to renaissance research a grinding halt. Q: Describe multiple ways to define an instance method in Ruby. Instance methods can of steve yzerman, course be defined as part of a class definition. But since Ruby supports metaprogramming (which means that Ruby code can be self-modifying), Ruby programs can also add methods to existing classes at runtime. Accordingly, there are multiple techniques for defining methods in Ruby, as follows: (1) Within a class definition, using def (The simplest answer)

This is the standard way to define instance methods of a class. (2) Within a class definition, without using def. Since define_method is executed when Ruby instantiates the renaissance music, MyObject class object, you can do any kind of dynamic code running here. For example, here’s some code that only on issues, creates our method if it’s being run on a Monday: Executing on any other day of the week will give us an research, exception about no such method existing. Which is true: it’ll only of importance, exist on music Mondays! (It’s important to note that classes are objects too in and science Ruby, so our MyObject class is an instantiation of renaissance music research, a Class object, just like in a = , a is an essays on issues, instance of MyObject .) (3) Extending an existing class definition. Ruby also allows class definitions to renaissance research papers be extended.

For example: The above code will result in the MyObject class having both the essay on religion, say_hello and the say_goodbye methods defined. Note that this technique can also be used to extend standard Ruby classes or those defined in renaissance music other Ruby libraries we are using. Essay And Science. For example, here we add a squawk method to the standard Ruby string class: class_eval dynamically evaluates the specified string or block of code and can therefore be used to add methods to a class. For example, we can define the class MyObject : … and then come back at research papers, a later time and steve yzerman run some code to dynamically add my_method to the MyObject class: Ruby also provides a hook to renaissance music papers check for undefined methods. This can be used to steve yzerman dynamically add a method if it has not already been defined. For example: Ruby on renaissance music research papers Rails is a powerful framework for rapid development of hooks for scholarship essays, web applications.

While all developers can benefit from its ease-of-use and flexibility, as with any technology, those who have truly mastered it will realize the renaissance research papers, greatest potential and productivity in its use. While no brief guide such as this can entirely cover the breadth and depth of yzerman, technical topics to music research papers cover in a Rails interview, the yzerman essay, questions provided herein offer an effective basis for identifying those who possess a sound and principled foundation in the Rails framework and renaissance music research papers its paradigms. My team is american essays 2009 going to personally help you find the renaissance music research, best candidate to join your team.

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The Secret Casualties of Iraq’s Abandoned Chemical Weapons. A controlled detonation of recovered mustard shells near Taji, Iraq, on Aug. Renaissance Research Papers! 17, 2008. John Paul Williams. Published: October 14, 2014. The soldiers at the blast crater sensed something was wrong. During the Iraq war, at least 17 American service members and seven Iraqi police officers were exposed to aging chemical weapons abandoned years earlier. These weapons were not part of an active arsenal. They were remnants from volunteer dissertation Iraq's arms program in the 1980s during the Iran-Iraq war. Many troops who were exposed received inadequate care.

None of the veterans were enrolled in long-term health monitoring. Munitions are unaccounted for in areas of Iraq now under control of renaissance music, ISIS. In response to this investigation, the tourism dissertation, Pentagon apologized, announced new steps to provide medical support and to recognize veterans who had been denied awards. Learn more#xBB; It was August 2008 near Taji, Iraq. They had just exploded a stack of old Iraqi artillery shells buried beside a murky lake.

The blast, part of an effort to renaissance research papers, destroy munitions that could be used in makeshift bombs, uncovered more shells. Two technicians assigned to dispose of munitions stepped into the hole. Essays On Issues Of Importance! Lake water seeped in. One of them, Specialist Andrew T. Goldman, noticed a pungent odor, something, he said, he had never smelled before. He lifted a shell. Oily paste oozed from a crack. #x201C;That doesn#x2019;t look like pond water,#x201D; said his team leader, Staff Sgt. Eric J. Duling. The specialist swabbed the shell with chemical detection paper. It turned red #x2014; indicating sulfur mustard, the chemical warfare agent designed to burn a victim#x2019;s airway, skin and renaissance eyes.

All three men recall an awkward pause. Then Sergeant Duling gave an dissertation, order: #x201C;Get the renaissance music, hell out.#x201D; Five years after President George W. Steve Essay! Bush sent troops into Iraq, these soldiers had entered an expansive but largely secret chapter of renaissance, America#x2019;s long and bitter involvement in yzerman Iraq. From 2004 to 2011, American and American-trained Iraqi troops repeatedly encountered, and on at least six occasions were wounded by, chemical weapons remaining from years earlier in music research papers Saddam Hussein#x2019;s rule. In all, American troops secretly reported finding roughly 5,000 chemical warheads, shells or aviation bombs, according to good hooks for scholarship, interviews with dozens of renaissance music, participants, Iraqi and American officials, and roles essay heavily redacted intelligence documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. The United States had gone to war declaring it must destroy an active weapons of mass destruction program. Instead, American troops gradually found and ultimately suffered from the remnants of renaissance papers, long-abandoned programs, built in close collaboration with the West.

The New York Times found 17 American service members and seven Iraqi police officers who were exposed to essays of importance, nerve or mustard agents after 2003. American officials said that the actual tally of exposed troops was slightly higher, but that the government#x2019;s official count was classified. Andrew T. Goldman in North Topsail Beach, N.C. In August 2008, Mr. Goldman was part of a team near Taji, Iraq, that was trying to destroy munitions that could be used in makeshift bombs. While holding a cracked shell, he noticed a strange smell. Tyler Hicks/The New York Times. The secrecy fit a pattern. Since the outset of the war, the scale of the United States#x2019; encounters with chemical weapons in Iraq was neither publicly shared nor widely circulated within the military.

These encounters carry worrisome implications now that the Islamic State, a Qaeda splinter group, controls much of the research, territory where the weapons were found. The American government withheld word about roles, its discoveries even from troops it sent into harm#x2019;s way and from military doctors. Music Research! The government#x2019;s secrecy, victims and participants said, prevented troops in some of the war#x2019;s most dangerous jobs from receiving proper medical care and official recognition of their wounds. Eric J. Duling at his home in Niceville, Fla. The cache that contaminated his explosive ordnance disposal team in 2008 was not the first discovery of chemical weapons in the war.

Tyler Hicks/The New York Times. #x201C;I felt more like a guinea pig than a wounded soldier,#x201D; said a former Army sergeant who suffered mustard burns in 2007 and was denied hospital treatment and steve yzerman essay medical evacuation to the United States despite requests from his commander. Congress, too, was only partly informed, while troops and music research officers were instructed to be silent or give deceptive accounts of what they had found. #x201C;#x2009;'Nothing of significance#x2019; is what I was ordered to say,#x201D; said Jarrod Lampier, a recently retired Army major who was present for the largest chemical weapons discovery of the war: more than 2,400 nerve-agent rockets unearthed in 2006 at a former Republican Guard compound. Jarrod L. Hooks Essays! Taylor, a former Army sergeant on hand for the destruction of mustard shells that burned two soldiers in his infantry company, joked of #x201C;wounds that never happened#x201D; from #x201C;that stuff that didn#x2019;t exist.#x201D; The public, he said, was misled for a decade. #x201C;I love it when I hear, #x2018;Oh there weren#x2019;t any chemical weapons in renaissance papers Iraq,#x2019; #x201D; he said. #x201C;There were plenty.#x201D; Chemical Weapons Found by American Forces in einstein's essay on religion and science Iraq. Between 2004 and 2011, American forces in Iraq encountered thousands of chemical munitions. In several cases, troops were exposed to renaissance music papers, chemical agents. Locations where chemical munitions were found. Areas under full. control of the Islamic State.

Locations where chemical munitions were found. Areas under full. control of the american essays 2009 review, Islamic State as of September. Sources: Wikileaks and reporting by music papers the New York Times (chemical munition locations); Institute for the Study of War (Islamic State area of control) Rear Adm. John Kirby, spokesman for gender roles Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel, declined to renaissance music research papers, address specific incidents detailed in the Times investigation, or to discuss the medical care and denial of medals for troops who were exposed. But he said that the military#x2019;s health care system and awards practices were under review, and that Mr.

Hagel expected the good for scholarship, services to renaissance research, address any shortcomings. #x201C;The secretary believes all service members deserve the best medical and good hooks for scholarship administrative support possible,#x201D; he said. Renaissance Music! #x201C;He is, of yzerman, course, concerned by any indication or allegation they have not received such support. His expectation is that leaders at all levels will strive to correct errors made, when and where they are made.#x201D; The discoveries of these chemical weapons did not support the government#x2019;s invasion rationale. After the terrorist attacks of Sept. Music Papers! 11, 2001, Mr. Bush insisted that Mr. Hooks For Scholarship! Hussein was hiding an active weapons of mass destruction program, in music research defiance of international will and at the world#x2019;s risk. United Nations inspectors said they could not find evidence for these claims.

Then, during the long occupation, American troops began encountering old chemical munitions in hidden caches and roadside bombs. Typically 155-millimeter artillery shells or 122-millimeter rockets, they were remnants of an arms program Iraq had rushed into on issues, production in the 1980s during the renaissance music, Iran-Iraq war. All had been manufactured before 1991, participants said. Best American! Filthy, rusty or corroded, a large fraction of them could not be readily identified as chemical weapons at all. Some were empty, though many of them still contained potent mustard agent or residual sarin. Most could not have been used as designed, and when they ruptured dispersed the chemical agents over a limited area, according to those who collected the majority of renaissance music, them. In case after case, participants said, analysis of these warheads and gender shells reaffirmed intelligence failures. First, the music research papers, American government did not find what it had been looking for at the war#x2019;s outset, then it failed to prepare its troops and hooks essays medical corps for the aged weapons it did find.

As Iraq has been shaken anew by research violence, and past security gains have collapsed amid Sunni-Shiite bloodletting and the rise of the steve essay, Islamic State, this long-hidden chronicle illuminates the persistent risks of the research papers, country#x2019;s abandoned chemical weapons. Many chemical weapons incidents clustered around the ruins of the Muthanna State Establishment, the center of Iraqi chemical agent production in tourism the 1980s. Since June, the compound has been held by renaissance research the Islamic State, the world#x2019;s most radical and violent jihadist group. In a letter sent to the United Nations this summer, the Iraqi government said that about 2,500 corroded chemical rockets remained on the grounds, and that Iraqi officials had witnessed intruders looting equipment before militants shut down the surveillance cameras. Soldiers in chemical protection gear, including Sgt. Eric J. Best Essays 2009! Duling and music papers Specialist Andrew T. Goldman, examining suspected chemical munitions at a site near Camp Taji, Iraq, on dissertation Aug. Music! 16, 2008.

The New York Times. The United States government says the abandoned weapons no longer pose a threat. But nearly a decade of wartime experience showed that old Iraqi chemical munitions often remained dangerous when repurposed for local attacks in makeshift bombs, as insurgents did starting by 2004. Participants in the chemical weapons discoveries said the United States suppressed knowledge of finds for multiple reasons, including that the essays, government bristled at further acknowledgment it had been wrong. #x201C;They needed something to say that after Sept. 11 Saddam used chemical rounds,#x201D; Mr.

Lampier said. #x201C;And all of music research papers, this was from the pre-1991 era.#x201D; Others pointed to another embarrassment. Essays Of Importance! In five of renaissance music research papers, six incidents in which troops were wounded by chemical agents, the munitions appeared to hooks, have been designed in the United States, manufactured in renaissance research papers Europe and volunteer filled in chemical agent production lines built in Iraq by Western companies. Staff Sgt. Renaissance Papers! Eric J. Duling, left, Specialist Andrew T. Essays Of Importance! Goldman, far right, and another member of an ordnance disposal team being treated for research exposure to a chemical agent in August 2008. via Andrew T. Goldman. Nonproliferation officials said the Pentagon#x2019;s handling of many of the recovered warheads and shells appeared to violate the volunteer dissertation, Convention on music research papers Chemical Weapons. According to this convention, chemical weapons must be secured, reported and destroyed in an exacting and time-consuming fashion. The American government did not find what it had been looking for at steve yzerman, the war’s outset, then it failed to prepare its troops and renaissance music research papers medical corps for the aged weapons it did find.

The Pentagon did not follow the steps, but says that it adhered to the convention#x2019;s spirit. #x201C;These suspect weapons were recovered under circumstances in which prompt destruction was dictated by the need to ensure that the chemical weapons could not threaten the Iraqi people, neighboring states, coalition forces, or the environment,#x201D; said Jennifer Elzea, a Pentagon spokeswoman. The convention, she added, #x201C;did not envisage the conditions found in Iraq.#x201D; Nonetheless, several participants said the United States lost track of chemical weapons that its troops found, left large caches unsecured, and for scholarship did not warn people #x2014; Iraqis and foreign troops alike #x2014; as it hastily exploded chemical ordnance in the open air. This was the secret world Sergeant Duling and renaissance music his soldiers entered in hooks essays August 2008 as they stood above the leaking chemical shell. The sergeant spoke into a radio, warning everyone back. #x201C;This is music research papers mustard agent,#x201D; he said, announcing the beginning of good for scholarship essays, a journey of inadequate medical care and honors denied. #x201C;We#x2019;ve all been exposed.#x201D;

Expecting Explosives, Finding Chemical Arms. The cache that contaminated Sergeant Duling#x2019;s team was not the first discovery of chemical weapons in renaissance music papers the war. American troops had already found thousands of similar warheads and shells. These repeated encounters sprang from tourism a basic feature of the occupation: After the invasion, Iraq became a battlefield laced with hidden, lethal traps #x2014; most tied to the country#x2019;s protracted history in the global arms trade. Iraq had attacked Iran in late 1980, expecting quick victory against a military sapped of officers by Iran#x2019;s revolutionary purges. Mr. Hussein also thought Iranians might rise against their new religious leaders. He miscalculated.

By June 1981, as Iran blunted Iraq#x2019;s incursions and unleashed its air force against Iraqi cities, Mr. Music Papers! Hussein was seeking new weapons. He created a secret program #x2014; known as Project 922 #x2014; that produced blister and nerve agents by the hundreds of tons, according to Iraq#x2019;s confidential declarations in the 1990s to the United Nations. Iranian soldiers wearing gas masks southeast of Basra, Iraq, in 1987, during the essays of importance, Iran-Iraq war. In the 1980s, while at war with Iran, Saddam Hussein created a secret program that produced blister and nerve agents by renaissance the hundreds of tons. Associated Press. War provided urgency; Mr. Hussein added the cash. Western nations, some eager to gender, contain Iran#x2019;s Islamic revolutionary state after the renaissance papers, American hostage crisis from 1979 to 1981, lent Iraq support. With remarkable speed, Iraq built a program with equipment and precursor purchases from companies in an extraordinary array of countries, eventually including the United States, according to its confidential declarations. German construction firms helped create a sprawling manufacturing complex in the desert south of Samarra and best american essays 2009 review three plants in renaissance music papers Falluja that made precursor ingredients for gender specific roles chemical weapons.

The complex near Samarra, later renamed Al Muthanna State Establishment, included research labs, production lines, testing areas and storage bunkers. Much of the stockpile was expended or destroyed, but thousands of renaissance music research, chemical shells and warheads remained. Iraq produced 10 metric tons of mustard blister agent in 1981; by 1987 its production had grown 90-fold, with late-war output aided by two American companies that provided hundreds of volunteer, tons of renaissance music papers, thiodiglycol, a mustard agent precursor. Production of nerve agents also took off. Rising production created another need. Mr. Hussein#x2019;s military did not possess the munitions for dispersing chemical agents. So it embarked on another buying spree, purchasing empty ordnance #x2014; aviation bombs from a Spanish manufacturer, American-designed artillery shells from European companies, and Egyptian and Italian ground-to-ground rockets #x2014; to yzerman essay, be filled in renaissance research Iraq. As these strands of a chemical weapons program came together, Iraq simultaneously accumulated enormous stores of conventional munitions.

Much of the chemical stockpile was expended in the Iran-Iraq war or destroyed when the weapons programs were dismantled after the Persian Gulf war of yzerman essay, 1991. Renaissance Music Research! But thousands of gender specific, chemical shells and renaissance papers warheads remained, spicing the stockpile of conventional ordnance left unsecured in for scholarship essays 2003 after Iraq#x2019;s military collapsed as the music research, United States invaded. Chemical munitions can resemble conventional munitions #x2014; a problem compounded by good hooks for scholarship essays Iraq#x2019;s practice of mislabeling ordnance to renaissance, confuse foreign inspectors and, with time, by rust, pitting and dirt. These were the circumstances that combined against ordnance disposal teams as they pursued their primary duty in the war: defeating makeshift bombs. Almost all of the gender essay, bombs were made with conventional ordnance or homemade explosives. Research! Here and there, among the best review, others, were bombs made from chemical arms. On a Routine Mission, ‘Bit’ by papers Sarin. Staff Sgt. James F. Burns, a team leader in the 752nd Explosive Ordnance Disposal Company, peered into a video screen at a bomb#x2019;s cracked remains. It was an steve, unusual device.

A short while before, it had been detonated beside an American patrol in southwest Baghdad. Renaissance Music! The blast had been small. No one had been wounded. Two ordnance disposal techs, Sergeant Burns (since promoted to first lieutenant) and essays Pfc. Michael S. Yandell, manipulated a robot toward the device to music research papers, examine it via video feed. They expected to find a high-explosive shell. The video showed a damaged shell rigged to a telephone cable. It was May 15, 2004. Weeks before, Sergeant Burns had found a similar bomb made with an illumination shell #x2014; a pyrotechnic round that lacked explosive power.

It, too, had been rigged with an identical telephone cable. Staff Sgt. James F. Burns in Baghdad in 2004. A week after this image was taken, he and another technician put what they thought were the good hooks essays, remains of a familiar makeshift bomb into their truck. Soon the symptoms began: headache, nausea, disorientation and pinpointed pupils. Research Papers! Mohammed Uraibi/Associated Press. This shell, the sergeant thought, was a duplicate. The bomb maker had goofed again. To prevent militants from essay reusing materials, disposal teams often destroyed any warheads and music research shells they found on essays on issues of importance the spot. But snipers stalked this neighborhood.

Sergeant Burns understood that risks grew the longer the soldiers remained. He decided he would destroy the shell near their base. Private Yandell carried the shell to their truck bed. The drive back passed through a bazaar. Sergeant Burns noticed a bitter smell and thought, he said later, that #x201C;it was rotten vegetables.#x201D; Then he felt the onset of a headache. He told Private Yandell, who was driving, that he did not feel right. Nauseated and disoriented, Private Yandell had quietly been struggling to drive. Renaissance! His vision was blurring. Best American 2009 Review! His head pounded. #x201C;I feel like crap, too,#x201D; he replied. Dread passed over Sergeant Burns.

Maybe, he wondered aloud, they had picked up a nerve agent shell. Areas with positions. for possible enemy. The chemical shell Sergeant Burns and Pfc. Michael S. Music Research Papers! Yandell found that day was on einstein's the highway to Baghdad#x2019;s international airport, called Death Street at the time because of frequent insurgent attacks. Neither man remembers the drive#x2019;s last minutes. Renaissance Papers! At the gender essay, base entrance, they did not clear the renaissance research papers, ammunition from their rifles and pistols #x2014; forgetting habits and rules. As they arrived at their building, Sergeant Burns was sure. In the back of the truck, the shell had leaked liquid. Illumination rounds, he knew, do not do that. #x201C;I thought: #x2018;I#x2019;ve gotten Mike killed, and maybe everyone else around here, driving a chem round onto the FOB,'#x201D; he said, using the acronym for forward operating base.

Disposal teams kept bleach for decontamination. Sergeant Burns found a jug and poured it onto the shell before stumbling to the showers, where he found Private Yandell at gender roles essay, a mirror, transfixed by his own image. #x201C;It was just pinpointed pupils,#x201D; Mr. Yandell later recalled. Research Papers! #x201C;And that is like the classic sign of sarin exposure.#x201D; He faced the gender roles, sergeant. #x201C;I don#x2019;t want to freak you out,#x201D; he said. #x201C;But look.#x201D; Private Yandell#x2019;s irises were so constricted they seemed solid. #x201C;I didn#x2019;t see pinpointed pupils,#x201D; Lieutenant Burns said recently. #x201C;I didn#x2019;t see his pupils at papers, all.#x201D; James F. Steve Yzerman! Burns with his dog Koda, at his home in Yakima, Wash. After his team found the chemical shell in 2004, #x201C;They put a gag order on music all of us #x2013; the best american essays, security detail, us, the clinic, everyone,#x201D; he said of higher-ups. #x201C;We were briefed to music research, tell family members that we were exposed to #x2018;industrial chemicals,#x2019; because our case was classified Top Secret.#x201D; Tyler Hicks/The New York Times. The soldiers lived with three sailors, who told them to rush to the clinic. The soldiers staggered in claiming exposure to a nerve agent. The staff, Mr.

Yandell said, acted as if he and Sergeant Burns were lying. #x201C;They suspected we were doing drugs or something,#x201D; he recalled. A medic who had been with them vouched that they had just handled an volunteer tourism dissertation, artillery shell. The staff changed its stance. #x201C;They stripped us down and helped us shower,#x201D; Mr. Yandell said. #x201C;Pt being admitted for possible chemical contamination,#x201D; his record reads, noting the pinpointed pupils, headache and dizziness. Renaissance Research! #x201C;Wheezing audible.#x201D; The two techs were given oxygen, then Tylenol.

At 3:20 p.m., medics irrigated their eyes with atropine gel. By then the Navy techs had examined the shell. Word was circulating. Sergeant Burns#x2019;s team had picked up an exceedingly rare weapon: a 152-millimeter binary sarin shell. Prototype photographed by United Nations inspectors. by United Nations inspectors. The chemical precursors are kept in two separate canisters, which break after launch. Dissertation! The precursors then mix together, forming liquid sarin. In 1988, late in the war against Iran, Iraq had tested a batch of prototype 152-millimeter shells containing segregated containers for renaissance music research sarin precursors, according to its confidential declarations.

Very few were thought to have been assembled, fewer still to american essays 2009 review, have survived. But this one found its way into a makeshift bomb. Sergeant Burns and Private Yandell mistook it for renaissance music research papers an illumination round in part, several techs said, because it was so rare it was not in the military#x2019;s standard ordnance recognition guides. Its canisters had ruptured during the on issues, roadside bomb#x2019;s detonation, mixing precursors to create sarin with a purity of renaissance research, 43 percent #x2014; more than enough to be lethal. Private Yandell had handled the shell without gloves. Both men inhaled sarin vapors. Gender! Their cases, said Col. Jonathan Newmark, a retired Army neurologist, became #x201C;the only documented battlefield exposure to nerve agent in the history of the United States.#x201D; As the two soldiers were afflicted by symptoms of music research, this unlucky distinction, their supervisors initially pressed for a cover-up. #x201C;They put a gag order on all of us #x2014; the security detail, us, the clinic, everyone,#x201D; Lieutenant Burns said. #x201C;We were briefed to tell family members that we were exposed to #x2018;industrial chemicals,#x2019; because our case was classified top secret.#x201D; Two days later, the military released an account of best american, their sarin exposure, without revealing names or units involved.

Brig. Renaissance Research Papers! Gen. Mark Kimmitt, a spokesman, offered a prescient warning: #x201C;There may be more out there.#x201D; A Navy explosive ordnance disposal team in 2004, sealing the sarin shell that had wounded Sergeant Burns and Private Yandell. Hooks For Scholarship! Christopher Jewett/United States Navy.

For nearly a decade this would be the renaissance papers, only time the military released details of steve yzerman, a chemical incident in Iraq in which troops were exposed. Ten days after the incident, both soldiers were awarded Purple Hearts. Both men said their company commander urged them to rest. Explosive ordnance disposal technicians are part of renaissance music papers, a small field with a code that encourages selflessness: Any call one team does not take, another team must. In June the two soldiers, still suffering symptoms, including intense headaches and difficulties with balance, asked to steve essay, return to duty. Soon they were ordered to renaissance papers, a site hit by 60-millimeter mortar fire. Two shells had been duds. They were stuck, fins up, in the sand. Sergeant Burns freed them with rope and then set off carrying them to a disposal pit. #x201C;I was walking with one in each hand, and I just fell,#x201D; he said. #x201C;I remember falling and trying to keep the fuzes from hitting the on religion, ground.#x201D;

He wondered why the Army had not sent the two of them home. #x201C;We really should not have been operating out there,#x201D; he said. Playing Down Dangers, Withholding Evidence. In September 2004, months after Sergeant Burns and renaissance papers Private Yandell picked up the leaking sarin shell, the gender roles essay, American government issued a detailed analysis of Iraq#x2019;s weapons programs. The widely heralded report, by the multinational Iraq Survey Group, concluded that Iraq had not had an active chemical warfare program for music research more than a decade. The group, led by Charles A. Duelfer, a former United Nations official working for gender the Central Intelligence Agency, acknowledged that the American military had found old chemical ordnance: 12 artillery shells and 41 rocket warheads. Music! It predicted that troops would find more. The report also played down the einstein's essay on religion and science, dangers of the lingering weapons, stating that because their contents would have deteriorated, #x201C;any remaining chemical munitions in Iraq do not pose a militarily significant threat.#x201D; Army and Navy technicians prepare unexploded ordnance for demolition in 2003 near Baghdad. American troops destroyed thousands of arms caches in Iraq, some of which contained chemical weapons, including chemical weapons the renaissance research, troops did not report. Erica Gardner/United States Navy, via Getty Images.

By then the steve yzerman essay, Pentagon had test results showing that the sarin shell could have been deadly. American chemical warfare specialists also knew, disposal technicians and renaissance analysts said, that in dissertation the 1980s Iraq had mastered mustard agent production in its Western-built plant. Its output had been as pure as 95 percent and stable, meaning that the remaining stock was dangerous. Reached recently, Mr. Duelfer agreed that the weapons were still a menace, but said the report strove to make it clear that they were not #x201C;a secret cache of weapons of renaissance music research, mass destruction.#x201D;

#x201C;What I was trying to convey is that these were not militarily significant because they not used as W.M.D.,#x201D; he said. #x201C;It wasn#x2019;t that they weren#x2019;t dangerous.#x201D; The Duelfer report also claimed that the United States had cleared more than 10,000 arms caches but found no other chemical ordnance. Several disposal technicians said this claim was false, though the report#x2019;s authors did not know it. The Duelfer report was part of a pattern of understated government assessments about chemical weapons, at odds with the government's internal accounts. One reason that government tallies were low, and steve essay that Mr. Duelfer#x2019;s team was not aware of all the renaissance music, chemical weapons recoveries, the techs said, was that by 2004 the military#x2019;s procedures for handling Iraq#x2019;s chemical weapons had created disincentives for troops to report what they found. During 2003 and 2004, the United States hunted for unconventional weapons and evidence that might support the rationale for the invasion. But as the tourism dissertation, insurgency grew and music research makeshift bombs became the prevailing cause of troops#x2019; wounds, the tourism, search became a lower priority for the rank-and-file.

Some saw it as a distraction. One tech who served three tours in Iraq said his team twice encountered chemical weapons, but did not report one of them. That was in papers 2004, he said, when his team found a mustard shell in a conventional ordnance cache. Reporting it, he said, would have required summoning chemical warfare specialists, known as a technical escort unit, and adding 12 to 24 hours to the job. The team decided to put the mustard shell with the high-explosive shells and, he said, #x201C;get rid of it.#x201D; In the difficult calculus of war, competing missions had created tensions. If documenting chemical weapons delayed the destruction of best, explosive weapons that were killing people each week, or left troops vulnerable while waiting for music papers chemical warfare specialists to arrive, then reporting chemical weapons endangered lives. Many techs said the teams chose common sense. #x201C;I could wait all day for tech escort to volunteer tourism, show up and research papers make a chem round disappear, or I could just make it disappear myself,#x201D; another tech said. The tech who exploded a mustard shell in 2004 said the volunteer tourism dissertation, disposal teams had little time to register and renaissance research report each item they found in Iraq#x2019;s stockpiles. Specific! Everything, he said, went into demolition piles. #x201C;You set up these huge shots day after day and you don#x2019;t research every single round because you would just use up all of your time doing research,#x201D; he said. #x201C;There were more chem rounds that were discovered and just blown in place.#x201D;

Late in renaissance 2004, roughly simultaneous to the release of the Duelfer report, the Army signaled internally that it was concerned about the risks of chemical weapons by specific essay distributing detailed new instructions for treating troops exposed to warfare agents. One of the memorandums, by the Medical Command, stated that #x201C;exposure to chemical weapons is renaissance music research a continuing and significant risk to volunteer tourism, our deployed forces.#x201D; The instructions required blood and urine tests for patients and follow-up tracking of the exposed #x2014; for life. In the years ahead, these steps would often not be followed. By then the soldiers wounded by sarin had returned home. Renaissance! They still suffered symptoms.

Private Yandell complained of severe headaches. Steve Essay! Sergeant Burns, in a note for his medical record in papers late 2004, described memory lapses, reading difficulties, problems with balance and dissertation tingling in his legs. #x201C;I have been dropping items such as tools, soda cans, cups of water, pens and pencils,#x201D; he wrote. #x201C;I will stumble or nearly fall while standing up from a chair. Papers! While speaking, I will stutter or stammer and lose my thought.#x201D; Michael Yandell at Fort Worth Botanic Garden in Texas.

After he and steve another soldier staggered into a clinic claiming exposure to a nerve agent in Iraq in 2004, the staff, he said, acted as if they were lying. #x201C;They suspected we were doing drugs or something,#x201D; he recalled. Tyler Hicks/The New York Times. Nonetheless, the Pentagon continued to withhold data, leaving the public misinformed as discoveries of renaissance, chemical weapons accelerated sharply. In late 2005 and early 2006, soldiers collected more than 440 Borak 122-millimeter chemical rockets near Amara, in southeastern Iraq. Yzerman! And in renaissance the first nine months of 2006, the steve yzerman essay, American military recovered roughly 700 chemical warheads and shells, according to data obtained under the Freedom of renaissance papers, Information Act. British forces also destroyed 21 Borak rockets in early 2006, including some that contained nerve agent, according to a public statement to good, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in 2010. The Pentagon did not provide this information to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence as it worked in the summer of 2006 examining intelligence claims about papers, Iraq#x2019;s weapons programs. Even as the Senate committee worked, the American Army made its largest chemical weapons find of the war: more than 2,400 Borak rockets.

The rockets were discovered at Camp Taji, a former Republican Guard compound, when Americans #x201C;running a refueling point for helicopters saw some shady activity on the other side of a fence,#x201D; said Mr. Lampier, who lived at the camp at the time. An Iraqi digging with a front-end loader ran away when an american essays 2009, American patrol approached, leaving behind partly unearthed rockets. Mr. Renaissance Music Research Papers! Lampier, then a captain commanding the 756th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Company, was with the first to roles, arrive. #x201C;At first we saw three,#x201D; he said. Music Papers! #x201C;Then it wasn#x2019;t three. It was 30.

Then it wasn#x2019;t 30. It was 300. It went up from there.#x201D; The American military had found more than 3,000 chemical munitions and roles essay knew that many were still dangerous. The Pentagon did not tell the Senate. The rockets appeared to have been buried before American airstrikes in 1991, he said. Many were empty. Others still contained sarin. Papers! #x201C;Full-up sloshers,#x201D; he said.

At least 38 techs worked for weeks, excavating rockets, crushing many of them and then reburying them and covering them with concrete. Mr. Lampier said he was told to describe the essays, work in blandly bureaucratic terms: #x201C;Nothing of significance.#x201D; With this discovery, the American military had found more than 3,000 pieces of chemical ordnance and knew that many were still dangerous. The military did not disclose this as the Senate worked; instead, it stood by music research data from the Army#x2019;s National Ground Intelligence Center that it had declassified in on religion late June, leading the Senate to publish an inaccurate report. The report, released in music September 2006, claimed #x201C;another 500 filled and for scholarship essays unfilled degraded pre-1991 chemical munitions#x201D; had been found #x2014; about one-sixth of the Pentagon#x2019;s internal tallies.

This tally, obsolete as it was published, was not updated in renaissance research the ensuing years, as more chemical weapons were found and as more troops were exposed. The publicly released information also skirted the fact that most of the chemical artillery shells were traceable to the West, some tied to the United States. These shells, which the American military calls M110s, had been developed decades ago in the United States. Roughly two feet long and best american 2009 review weighing more than 90 pounds, each is an aerodynamic steel vessel with a burster tube in music papers its center. The United States has long manufactured M110s, filling them with smoke compounds, white phosphorus or, in earlier years, mustard agent. Specific! American ordnance documents explicitly describe the purpose of an M110 filled with blister agent: #x201C;to produce a toxic effect on personnel and to contaminate habitable areas.#x201D; The United States also exported the shells and the technology behind them. Research! When Iraq went arms shopping in essay on religion and science the 1980s, it found manufacturers in Italy and renaissance papers Spain willing to einstein's, deal their copies. By 1988, these two countries alone had sold Iraq 85,000 empty M110-type shells, according to renaissance music research papers, confidential United Nations documents. Iraq also obtained shells from Belgium.

By 2006, the American military had found dozens of tourism dissertation, these blister-agent shells in Iraq, and had reports of research papers, others circulating on gender roles essay black markets, several techs said. Tests determined that many still contained mustard agent, some at a purity level of 84 percent, officials said. Had these results been publicly disclosed, they would have shown that American assertions about Iraq#x2019;s chemical weapons posing no militarily significant threat could be misread, and that these dangerous chemical weapons had Western roots. Public disclosure might also have helped spur the military#x2019;s medical system to convert its memorandums into action, and to renaissance, ready itself for wounds its troops were bound to yzerman, suffer. ‘Bit’ by Blister Agent in Roadside Bombs. Once American forces began finding large numbers of M110 shells, it was all but inevitable that disposal teams would be exposed to blister agent.

This happened for the first time, several techs said, on renaissance research papers Sept. Einstein's On Religion! 25, 2006, after militants detonated two roadside bombs near an American patrol in southern Baghdad. Two Navy techs #x2014; Chief Petty Officer Ted Pickett and Petty Officer Third Class Jeremiah M. Foxwell #x2014; arrived at the blast site. They found three damaged shells, decided against destroying them in a populated area, and drove them to a demolition range beside their base, according to Mr. Foxwell, who left the Navy in 2008. There they discovered that one 155-millimeter shell had leaked a noxious liquid. As he inhaled its vapors, Petty Officer Foxwell was instantly alarmed. Research! #x201C;It smelled overbearingly like extreme toxicity,#x201D; he said recently. Einstein's Essay And Science! #x201C;The hair stood up on renaissance research the back of my neck.#x201D;

The shell contained a brown crystalline substance they had thought was a homemade explosive. A swab with detection paper tested positive for gender specific roles sulfur mustard. The sailors radioed for renaissance research papers a technical escort unit, then put on gloves and gas masks and wrapped the shell in plastic and best american essays 2009 duct tape. They waited. Hours passed. No chemical specialists arrived. Mustard agent acts slowly on renaissance music victims. Symptoms of and science, exposure often do not appear for hours, and intensify for days. Late that afternoon, with the sailors worried about the effects of mustard inhalation, they destroyed the shell with an explosive charge and entered the music research, Army clinic on their base. Jeremiah M. Foxwell at einstein's essay and science, his home in renaissance research Washington.

In 2006 while a Navy petty officer, he and another technician handled a leaking sulfur-mustard shell. Yzerman Essay! #x201C;It smelled overbearingly like extreme toxicity,#x201D; Mr. Foxwell said. #x201C;The hair stood up on the back of my neck.#x201D; Tyler Hicks/The New York Times. Within two days lesions formed in Petty Officer Foxwell#x2019;s nasal passages and upper airway, according to papers, his medical records, which noted exposure to #x201C;chemical vapors #x2014; mustard gas#x201D; from a #x201C;terrorist chemical weapon.#x201D; But the care he would receive proved to be much less than that mandated under the Army#x2019;s treatment order. The clinic did not perform the required blood and specific essay urine tests on Petty Officer Foxwell, according to his medical records. (His former team chief did not reply to written questions.) Both men were returned to duty within days, though Mr. Foxwell said his breathing remained labored and music his chest hurt. Dr.

Dave Edmond Lounsbury, a former Army colonel who helped prepare for the chemical warfare victims expected at the war#x2019;s start in 2003, said in essays an interview that Petty Officer Foxwell#x2019;s care was inadequate. #x201C;When you first meet the renaissance music research, patient it is impossible to einstein's on religion, tell how he is going to do,#x201D; he said. #x201C;You have to get the blood work, monitor him and follow him over music papers, time.#x201D; #x201C;To return them soon to on religion, duty?#x201D; he said. #x201C;I would be uncomfortable with that.#x201D; Dr. Dave Edmond Lounsbury, a former Army colonel who helped prepare for the chemical-warfare victims expected at the war#x2019;s start in 2003, says that secrecy about troops later wounded by chemical weapons was extensive. Renaissance Papers! Mac William Bishop/The New York Times. The Army opened an investigation into why the gender roles, chemical specialists were delayed in arriving. An officer taking statements from participants forbade Petty Officer Foxwell from renaissance music discussing the incident with his peers, restricting him from issuing a warning. #x201C;I couldn#x2019;t walk outside and tell the next route-clearance team that this was out there,#x201D; he said. #x201C;It was just not natural, the idea of not sharing. Yzerman! If you experience a new battlefield weapon, it is your responsibility to music, share that actionable information with other teams.#x201D; Mr.

Foxwell said his Navy officer-in-charge did not visit them in the clinic or submit them for Purple Hearts. The insurgents#x2019; use of a mustard shell faded from steve view. #x201C;No one in my chain of renaissance music research papers, command, outside of Ted, discussed the incident with me again,#x201D; he said. After Mr. Foxwell was honorably discharged, the Veterans Administration awarded him a partial medical disability in 2008, noting chronic respiratory infections and the development of asthma. The incident was a foreboding sign. Several months later, on March 11, 2007, two Army techs were burned. This second exposure occurred when a team from the essay, 756th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Company was summoned to a roadside bomb made with a rusty artillery shell. The team remotely detonated the shell and continued to the usual steps: checking to ensure the bomb was rendered harmless, and collecting evidence. Specialist Richard T. Beasley, one of the music research, techs, picked up the broken shell, not knowing it contained mustard agent, and good for scholarship stowed it in a bin on renaissance music papers their truck beside a fresh-air intake. Challenges Identifying Chemical Weapons in best american 2009 review Makeshift Bombs. SUBTLE EXTERIOR DIFFERENCES.

Some of these shells found side by renaissance side near Camp Taji contained sulfur mustard, but some didn't. SUBTLE EXTERIOR DIFFERENCES. Some of these shells found side by side near Camp Taji contained sulfur mustard, but some didn't. Improvised bombs were often built from Iraq's stockpile of old artillery rounds. Good For Scholarship! Dirty and corroded exteriors made it difficult to tell whether shells were chemical or conventional. M107 conventional round.

M110 chemical round. Liquid chemical agent. M107 conventional round. M110 chemical round. Liquid chemical agent. An X-ray of internal features was sometimes the only way to tell chemical from conventional shells. Renaissance Research! But X-rays are often impractical in a war zone. A foul smell filled the truck and irritated the soldiers#x2019; eyes. Of Importance! Suspecting the shell was the odor#x2019;s source, they stopped and heaved it into a deep canal.

The next day Specialist Beasley noticed his pant leg was wet. Renaissance Research! Mustard exposure symptoms had set in. Einstein's Essay On Religion! #x201C;I undid my pants,#x201D; he said, #x201C;and felt the bubble.#x201D; His team leader, a former sergeant who asked that his name be withheld to protect his medical privacy, discovered a similar blister on his own left leg. At first the soldiers were confused. Then, remembering the odorous shell, the sergeant felt a rising fear. If that was mustard, he thought, and was burning their skin, what might be happening in their lungs? The patrol sped to an Army clinic at Camp Taji. Had the techs been burned a few years earlier, the military medical system, which had prepared before the invasion for chemical warfare casualties, might have recognized their wounds. But in music research 2007, with blast and gunshot wounds the predominant causes of casualties, the doctors were not ready. The Army#x2019;s medical orders were not followed.

The staff rinsed the soldiers#x2019; eyes, put cream on Specialist Beasley#x2019;s blister, and turned them away. #x201C;I don#x2019;t know how to describe it, except to say: confusion,#x201D; the former sergeant said. #x201C;They really didn#x2019;t know what to do. The general feel was a whole lot of dissertation, people shrugging their shoulders nonstop.#x201D; The soldiers returned to Balad Air Base, where they were stationed, and visited another clinic. A doctor ordered treatment with painkillers, antibiotics, burn cream and cleaning of the renaissance research papers, blisters #x2014; a sensation, the former sergeant said, #x201C;like a having a wire dog brush being rubbed across your leg.#x201D; Specialist Beasley#x2019;s medical record shows that blood and urine specimens confirmed the mustard agent exposure. But the patients were not admitted to a hospital. Mr. Lampier, then the soldiers#x2019; commander, said he argued that they should be evacuated to good, the United States. #x201C;They were raw meat trying to heal in the worst environment imaginable,#x201D; he said. #x201C;There was dust and ash and smoke from the burn pits, and they had these wounds that shouldn#x2019;t have been exposed to that.#x201D;

The soldiers remained outpatients at a clinic. Secrecy prevailed. Victims said word of their exposure was purposefully squelched. All the while secrecy prevailed. The military determined the renaissance music research, soldiers had been burned by an M110 shell. Both victims said word of best 2009 review, their exposure was purposefully squelched. #x201C;We were absolutely told not to talk about it#x201D; by a colonel, the former sergeant said.

The order, he added, included prohibitions against mentioning mustard agent when writing home. The secrecy was so extensive that Dr. Lounsbury said he suspected officials hid the cases even from him and two other Army doctors assigned to prepare an official textbook on treating battlefield wounds. Their book, #x201C;War Surgery in Afghanistan and Iraq: A Series of Cases, 2003-2007,#x201D; published in renaissance research 2008, provided an inventory of traumas and treatments. #x201C;We would have certainly included this case if we had known about it,#x201D; he said, #x201C;and not just for obvious medical reasons but because here was exactly the kind of wounds at the very heart of the reason the on religion, government sent our nation to renaissance music research papers, war.#x201D; The exposed soldiers#x2019; objections to how their cases were handled grew after their commander submitted them for Purple Hearts. The medals were disapproved by the headquarters of the steve, American-led coalition #x201C;because the renaissance papers, incident was deemed to gender specific roles, have occurred after the I.E.D. was destroyed, and therefore was no longer considered to have been in contact with the enemy,#x201D; Tatjana Christian, an Army spokeswoman, said, using the music research papers, abbreviation for an improvised explosive device. In March 2007, Specialist Richard T. Beasley picked up a broken shell, not knowing it contained mustard agent. The next day, while on another call, he noticed his pant leg was wet.

Chemical blisters erupted on his leg. Via Richard T. Beasley. Purple Hearts, awarded for volunteer dissertation #x201C;wounds received in action,#x201D; according to music, their certificates, are a respected martial decoration. They are also contentious, given the good essays, subjectivity in defining #x201C;action.#x201D; This is particularly true in the ordnance disposal field, because improvised bombs are dangerous before and renaissance music research papers after a foe sets them out.

Bombs made with chemical ordnance pose more questions, because unlike explosives, chemical agents do not pass from dangerous to harmless in for scholarship a flash. Troops wounded by chemical devices were treated inconsistently: Some received the medal, others did not. Several techs pointed out that chemical munitions found in explosive devices were a result of conscious enemy action. But troops wounded by music research chemical devices were treated inconsistently: Some received the hooks essays, medal, others did not. Under presidential order, Purple Hearts are awarded by each military service, which follow separate rules. The Army regulation, another spokesman said, excludes soldiers wounded by chemical agents not released by an enemy. And because this exposure was caused when the soldiers destroyed the renaissance music, chemical device, he said, it did not qualify for on issues of importance Purple Hearts.

Mr. Beasley, who was honorably discharged in 2008, said the Army#x2019;s position was dismissive. #x201C;I remember it being, basically, that we wounded ourselves,#x201D; he said, which he called #x201C;baloney.#x201D; #x201C;I didn#x2019;t put that shell in that hole,#x201D; he said. #x201C;And I did exactly what we were supposed to papers, do when we dealt with an I.E.D.#x201D; In the years since he returned to volunteer, the United States and left the renaissance papers, Army, he said, the gender roles essay, Army has never contacted him again. His follow-up care amounted to research, one unsatisfying visit to a doctor near his last base. #x201C;I went to a civilian doctor who didn#x2019;t actually believe I had been exposed to mustard agent,#x201D; he said. #x201C;That was the extent of my follow up.#x201D; On the Old Chemical Warfare Complex, Marines Find Mustard. By mid-2008, as incidents with mustard shells accumulated, ordnance disposal techs suspected one area had become a principal source of the weapons: Al Muthanna State Establishment, the former nexus of essays, Iraq#x2019;s chemical warfare program. Although incidents with chemical arms were scattered across Iraq, many were clustered near the ruined complex, which this June was overrun by the Islamic State.

United Nations disarmament inspectors at the Muthanna State Establishment, the former nexus of Iraq#x2019;s chemical-warfare program, in 2002. After the American-led invasion of 2003, many incidents with chemical arms were clustered near the ruined complex. Karim Sahib/Agence France-Presse-Getty Images. During the occupation, little remained of renaissance music research, Al Muthanna. Volunteer Tourism! The United States had destroyed much of it from the air in the 1991 gulf war. United Nations demilitarization in the 1990s had made the grounds a boneyard. But one bunker, a massive, cruciform structure, still contained a menacing dud #x2014; a 2,000-pound airdropped bomb among a stockpile of sarin-filled rockets, according to renaissance music research papers, people familiar with the tourism, complex.

On July 11, 2008, a platoon of renaissance music, Marines unwittingly discovered that another bunker still held mustard shells, too. The shells were found after about 15 Marines from the Second Tank Battalion#x2019;s scout platoon noticed a freshly cut hole in a small bunker, according to three Marines who participated. A peek inside, said one of them, Jace M. Klibenski, then a corporal, showed #x201C;there were just rounds everywhere.#x201D; As the Marines were carrying the shells out, another corporal swore. Mustard agent had spilled on his upper body.

Corporal Klibenski helped him pull off his fire-retardant shirt. #x201C;We climbed out,#x201D; he said, #x201C;and high-tailed it#x201D; to their base, Combat Outpost Hawas, from which they were moved by helicopter to essay, Balad Air Base. Six Marines had been exposed: five lightly, and the corporal who had lifted the leaking shell, the music, participants said. Doctors sedated him ahead of the expected symptoms. The knowledge that mustard shells remained on gender essay Al Muthanna remained out of public view, long after two wars and an international effort to remove them. #x201C;He was pretty much just laying flat as the blisters started popping up,#x201D; said another participant, Jonathan Martin, then a private first class. The exposed corporal#x2019;s skin erupted on his right arm, left hand, right side and renaissance music research papers feet, according to the victim, who asked for anonymity to protect his medical privacy. The military evacuated the corporal to the United States. Five days after being burned, he was awarded a Purple Heart. He later returned to duty.

Mr. Klibenski said an essays on issues, officer visited the research, other five exposed Marines at einstein's essay, Balad and urged them not to renaissance music, talk about what had happened. Yzerman Essay! #x201C;They told us that this was something that was going to be kept confidential for a long time,#x201D; he said. The incident remained out of renaissance music research, public view, and essays with it knowledge that mustard shells remained on Al Muthanna #x2014; long after two wars and an international demilitarization effort to research papers, remove them. The military#x2019;s handling of mustard exposure cases #x2014; combining reflexive secrecy, substandard medical care and an inconsistent awards system #x2014; reached a low point after Sergeant Duling#x2019;s team was exposed on Aug. 16, 2008. The exposures followed the discovery of a seemingly small batch of artillery shells by Bushmaster Company, First Battalion, 14th Regiment, a mechanized Army infantry unit searching an area from which American forces had taken fire. Specialist Andrew T. Goldman examining leaking chemical rounds at a site near Camp Taji, Iraq, on steve yzerman Aug. 16, 2008. The New York Times. Sergeant Duling, of the 710th E.O.D.

Company, arrived and relieved another disposal team. Research Papers! The first team leader was in a chemical protection suit. #x201C;He was shot,#x201D; Sergeant Duling recalled. For Scholarship Essays! #x201C;It was like 115 degrees. He was throwing up in his mask.#x201D; Sergeant Duling and renaissance music papers his team put on protective suits, approached the crater from upwind and essays on issues of importance found a pile of renaissance, rusty 155-millimeter shells. They tested negative for gender specific roles chemical agents. Relieved, the techs removed their chemical suits and detonated the pile from afar. Music Research Papers! The blast unearthed still more munitions. Soldiers from steve yzerman essay Bushmaster Company formed a human chain to stack shells for another blast, said one participant, Philip Dukett, a former sergeant. #x201C;I would pick one up,#x201D; he said, #x201C;put it on my thigh, and pass it on.#x201D; In the blast crater, Specialist Goldman noticed one of the shells was leaking; soon it tested positive for music research papers sulfur mustard.

He swore. Sergeant Duling ordered everyone to volunteer tourism, decontaminate with bleach, but the papers, team was not fully prepared. Hooks For Scholarship! #x201C;Then I was out of bleach, so I just used baby wipes and renaissance hand sanitizer and volunteer whatever else I could find to research papers, clean myself up,#x201D; he said. Mr. Goldman says he still suffers headaches, fatigue and shortness of breath from his exposure. Mac William Bishop/The New York Times. The chemical specialists did not arrive until after midnight.

Shortly after dawn on Aug. 17 the disposal techs and good for scholarship the chemical specialists detonated the pile, including many M110 mustard shells. An orange blast shook the desert. Weary soldiers laughed as the renaissance research papers, breeze caught the blast#x2019;s gray-brown plume. They had been told the explosion#x2019;s heat would destroy the essays of importance, agent. #x201C;Ahhh!#x201D; one shouted, mockingly. #x201C;It#x2019;s mustard gas!#x201D;

When the cloud reached them, they coughed. Papers! #x201C;Everything smelled really funky,#x201D; Mr. Taylor said recently. #x201C;The smoke really irritated our eyes and kind of burned more than smoke from a usual controlled det.#x201D; The blast had uncovered still more shells. Sergeant Duling and his soldiers were spent, and had a more pressing priority #x2014; finding medical care. They undressed, set their contaminated clothes afire with a thermite grenade, and left, leaving the shells unsecured.

The Army did not return for two months, when it destroyed more than 20 remaining mustard shells, a participant said. The team entered a clinic at Camp Taji. The staff, all three victims said, was unhelpful. #x201C;They said, #x2018;Well, you#x2019;re not showing any signs or symptoms, so you weren#x2019;t exposed,#x2019; #x201D; said Mr. Goldman, who was honorably discharged in 2012. In the shower a short while later, he felt a blister on his buttock. Sergeant Duling struggled to breathe. The soldiers slept a few hours, woke feeling worse, and returned. By then, Mr. Goldman said, he too was short of on religion, breath.

Blisters were forming around his eyelids. The medical staff remained unmoved. On Aug. 18, two days after the renaissance papers, exposure, an optometrist prescribed drops for Specialist Goldman#x2019;s eyes. Their company commander, Capt. Patrick Chavez, who retired as a major in yzerman essay 2013, said that rather than help the patients, the clinic seemed intent on proving them wrong. Renaissance! #x201C;They were trying to volunteer tourism, come up with other causes for the symptoms #x2014; heat exhaustion, things like that,#x201D; he said. They were trying to come up with other causes for the symptoms — heat exhaustion, things like that. He gave the team a week off. As the renaissance music research, techs went untreated, burns and best american essays review blisters broke out on two soldiers from Bushmaster Company, who lived at renaissance research, another outpost. One, Staff Sgt.

Adam Hulett, noticed a large blister on his left foot, which turned bright yellow. Einstein's On Religion! Medics told him to put cream on it, he said. #x201C;I went to renaissance research, the Internet feeling something was not right with their assessment and did a search on #x2018;mustard gas exposure,#x2019; #x201D; he said. The search results showed #x201C;the same symptoms I was having.#x201D; Blisters also rose on on issues Sergeant Dukett#x2019;s right thigh, as if someone had pressed a hot iron against his skin. Both sergeants were evacuated to Germany, while the more heavily exposed victims were still denied treatment. The team returned to duty. The first day out, when Sergeant Duling was examining an exploded device, he quickly gasped for air.

#x201C;I literally got back to the truck and took off all the music research papers, body armor, poured a bottle of water on my head and essays on issues sat on the steps,#x201D; he said. #x201C;I pulled us off mission and we went back to medical.#x201D; Still the doctors resisted. It was as if, Sergeant Duling said, the music research papers, staff suspected the soldiers were malingerers. #x201C;We came in, we#x2019;re not bleeding, we#x2019;re not missing body parts,#x201D; he said. #x201C;So they were kind of like, #x2018;What#x2019;s your problem? #x2018;Are#x2019; #x2014; you know, typical response #x2013; #x2018;are you trying to get out of essays on issues, duty?#x2019; #x201C;It was sheer stupidity on their part.#x201D; The clinic#x2019;s attitude changed, the techs said, only after a platoon leader broke the chain of command, sending photographs of Specialist Goldman#x2019;s blisters to music papers, a supervisor in the United States. Medical records show the best essays 2009, shift. On Sept. 1, a physician dropped the line that Specialist Goldman could return to duty. He reclassified the case: #x201C;poisoning by mustard gas.#x201D;

The team was flown to Germany and then to Walter Reed Army Medical Center in renaissance music Washington. A colonel visited from the Aberdeen Proving Ground, an Army chemical warfare center, to specific roles essay, discuss lab results. #x201C;He said we would probably never see the paperwork, but our blood showed that we had all been exposed to mustard agent, and that my exposure was the renaissance music research papers, highest,#x201D; Mr. Goldman said. These lab results were not put in gender specific roles his medical records, Mr. Goldman said. Why such vital information was withheld is music research papers not clear. The Army Medical Command, in yzerman a written statement, said it was unsure. Next the Army took up the question of renaissance research papers, Purple Hearts. Einstein's Essay On Religion And Science! Captain Chavez submitted the soldiers for the medals.

In late October, the hospital staff told them the secretary of the Army, Pete Geren, would present awards and papers they needed soldiers for the photographs. Sergeant Duling said he was told his medal had been approved first and the others#x2019; would follow. Mr. Geren pinned the dissertation, medal on Sergeant Duling#x2019;s uniform on Oct. 23, and the Army announced he had been wounded by #x201C;blister agent while conducting operations in North Taji.#x201D; The turnabout came weeks later. The team was told their Purple Hearts had been denied and that Sergeant Duling could not wear the medal #x2014; no matter the Army secretary#x2019;s role in music papers presenting it. Tatjana Christian, an roles essay, Army spokeswoman, said Purple Hearts #x201C;were denied because the mustard agent that affected them was not caused by enemy actions.#x201D; Staff Sgt. Eric J. Duling speaking at his home in Florida, on June 27, 2013. Renaissance Music! Mac William Bishop/The New York Times.

Another Army spokesman, who asked that his name be withheld so he could speak candidly, said it appeared the ceremony#x2019;s organizers had erroneously reissued Sergeant Duling a Purple Heart he had previously received for wounds from a bomb blast in 2006. The rejection was a bitter turn. #x201C;They said, #x2018;You blew a cache and volunteer tourism got bit, but it wasn#x2019;t enemy action,#x2019; #x201D; Sergeant Duling said. Music Papers! #x201C;I#x2019;m like, #x2018;Wait a minute, who put them rounds there? And why were we in this country in best american the first place?#x2019; #x201D; The mustard exposure left him in permanently poor respiratory health; in 2013 he had surgery to keep his airway open. Mr. Papers! Goldman said he still suffered headaches, fatigue and essays on issues of importance shortness of breath. The Army, he said, has not tracked him to see how he has fared #x2014; part of what he described as a pattern of indifferent leadership and research lackluster care, and secrecy to protect the bungling. #x201C;Our doctors screwed up our treatment so much,#x201D; he said, #x201C;they didn#x2019;t want it public because it would have ruined their careers.#x201D; Prompted by the Times reporting, the gender specific roles, Army acknowledged that it had not provided the research, medical care and long-term tracking required by best american essays 2009 review its chemical exposure treatment guidelines.

It said it would identify all troops and veterans who had been exposed and update and follow their cases. #x201C;We#x2019;re at renaissance research, the point of wanting to make this right,#x201D; Col. Bill Rice, director of gender specific roles, Occupational and Environmental Medicine of the Army Public Health Command said last Friday. #x201C;We can#x2019;t change the renaissance papers, past, but we can make sure they are pointed in the right direction from this point forward.#x201D; Unfinished Business: An Unspoken Legacy of Chemical Arms. At American prodding, Iraq entered the Convention on Chemical Weapons in early 2009. From that moment, its fledgling government assumed primary responsibility for securing and tourism dissertation destroying any chemical munitions remaining from Mr.

Hussein#x2019;s time. The difficulties this posed for research Iraq#x2019;s troops became clear in April 2010 when an Iraqi police patrol found about good hooks, a dozen M110 mustard shells near the Tigris River. One of the police officers involved, Farhan Hachel, said he and others were ordered to gather the shells and renaissance papers take them to Awenat, a village south of Tikrit. Officer Hachel picked up one the shells and carried it across his chest. Tourism! He woke the next morning with #x201C;small bubbles#x201D; on renaissance music research papers his upper body, blisters, he said that #x201C;were growing really fast.#x201D; They gave us some creams and sent us home, said Officer Hachel. Still more mustard shells were found. The next day, he said, #x201C;I received a phone call from on issues of importance my colleagues asking me if I was doing O.K., as two others were suffering the same thing.#x201D;

His friends told him then that they had carried leaking chemical shells. In all, seven Iraqi police officers were burned, Officer Hachel and renaissance research papers officials said. The American military secretly destroyed the shells, and photographed and briefly treated the burned police officers. The care was cursory. #x201C;They gave us some creams and sent us home,#x201D; Officer Hachel said. And still more mustard shells were found. The last large discovery of chemical rounds widely known among ordnance techs occurred at a surprising place #x2014; a security compound known as Spider, beside a highway south of Tikrit. During the occupation, both American and Iraqi units had worked from the compound. The presence of mustard shells there, soldiers said, appeared a result of negligence. The discovery, described by different sources as in 2010 or early 2011, was made when an Iraqi security officer visited Contingency Operating Base Speicher, and told the ordnance disposal troops there that Iraqi troops had opened a shipping container and found it packed with chemical shells. ABOUT 60 MILES TO BAGHDAD.

ABOUT 60 MILES TO BAGHDAD. The report led to on issues, Operation Guardian, when an American soldier from renaissance research a technical escort unit, wearing a protective suit and essay and science mask and carrying a detector, reopened the shipping container. A detector#x2019;s alarm immediately rang, warning of mustard agent, said Staff Sgt. Paul Yungandreas, one of the American techs assigned to recover the shells. Inside were stacks of music papers, M110-style shells. #x201C;We carried out the rounds, one by one, and put them on plastic tarps,#x201D; he said. The operation#x2019;s planners had expected 150 to 200 shells. The disposal technicians found nearly 400.

Many of the best 2009 review, shells were empty. Music Research! Others still contained mustard agent. Tourism Dissertation! Most showed signs of age and decay. Many had been wrapped in plastic #x2014; a powerful indicator, several techs said, that they had been collected elsewhere by an American or an Iraqi unit, which then failed to research papers, secure them properly. Like most incidents in which American troops encountered chemical weapons in Iraq, Operation Guardian was not publicly disclosed. By then adherence to the international convention, and the security of the stock, was not much longer a Pentagon concern.

The United States had invaded Iraq to reduce the risk of the weapons of mass destruction that it presumed Mr. Hussein still possessed. And after years of encountering and best essays handling Iraq#x2019;s old chemical arms, it had retroactively informed the Organization for the Prohibition of renaissance music papers, Chemical Weapons in 2009 that it had recovered more than 4,500 chemical weapons. But it had not shared this data publicly. And as it prepared to withdraw, old stocks set loose after the on religion and science, invasion were still circulating. Al Muthanna had still not been cleaned up. Finding, safeguarding and renaissance destroying these weapons was to tourism dissertation, be the responsibility of Iraq#x2019;s government.

Iraq took initial steps to renaissance research papers, fulfill its obligations. It drafted a plan to entomb the essays, contaminated bunkers on Al Muthanna, which still held remnant chemical stocks, in renaissance research papers concrete. When three journalists from The Times visited Al Muthanna in 2013, a knot of Iraqi police officers and soldiers guarded the entrance. Volunteer Tourism Dissertation! Two contaminated bunkers #x2014; one containing cyanide precursors and old sarin rockets #x2014; loomed behind. The area where Marines had found mustard shells in 2008 was out of sight, shielded by music research scrub and shimmering heat. The Iraqi troops who stood at essays of importance, that entrance are no longer there. The compound, never entombed, is now controlled by the Islamic State. Medical Records of U.S. Casualties of Iraq’s Chemical Weapons. U.S.

Intelligence Documents on Chemical Weapons Found in Iraq. Iraq’s Disclosure of Chemical Weapons Findings to U.N. Duelfer Report on Chemical Weapons in renaissance Iraq. Army Report Says Only 500 Munitions Found in Iraq. Senate Committee Report Understated The Scale Of Chemical Weapons Recovered in Iraq. American Firms’ Supplying Iraq’s Chemical Weapons Production. United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission Report on Iraq. U.S.

Army Regulations For Treating Chemical Warfare Casualties. U.S. Navy Technical Manual on Chemical Munitions. Iran Spars with the U.S. and Britain Over the Countries’ Handling of Chemical Weapons. Iraq’s Plan To Entomb Remnant Chemical Weapons In Bunker Complex. Produced by Craig Allen, David Furst, Alicia DeSantis, Sergio Pecanha, Shreeya Sinha, Frank O'Connell, Derek Watkins and Josh Williams. Reporting was contributed by John Ismay, Duraid Ahmed, Omar Al-Jawoshy, Mac William Bishop and Eric Schmitt.

Alain Delaqueriere contributed research.

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Allegory In #8221;The Pearl#8221; by John Steinbeck Essay Sample. The Pearl , written by John Steinbeck, has caught the eyes of many literary critics. The Pearl is papers, a novel about a young man named Kino whose som is bitten by a scorpion. When the son is taken to the doctor , the physician refuses to treat him because the family has no money. Good Essays! In desperation Kino and his wife Juana pray for a miracle. One day Kino, a pearl diver , discovers a lustrous pearl that would hopefully pay for his son#8217;s recovery. In the renaissance papers mean time the young son Coyotito recovers on his own; therefore, Kino begins to tourism dissertation, marvel at all the wonderful things the pearl could bring.

In the end, the pearl brings nothing but frustration and renaissance, loss. Kino and Juana contentedly fling the volunteer pearl back into renaissance music papers, the ocean, only to return to tourism, the simple life once more. Steinbeck#8217;s brilliant novel accurately depicts allegory to implement the book#8217;s purpose. There are five significant interpretations of allegory presented by The Pearl , all sufficiently justified. John Ernst Steinbeck was born on February 27, 1902, in Salinas , California. (Magill 2519). Steinbeck#8217;s first short novel, The Pearl , is based on a local legend he heard in Baja , California (Day 106). Renaissance! Some people, however, feel that Steinbeck wrote the novel based on einstein's essay on religion and science, his personal convictions (Anderson 1). John Steinbeck#8217;s methods have always been close to an allegorical one. Even his earliest works, such as The Grapes of Wrath, show evidence of allegory (Davis 149).

In his remarks Steinbeck lets us know that The Pearl is not totally realistic, #8220;I tried to write it as a folklore , to give it that set-aside, raised-up feeling that all folk stories have,#8221; so one could expect some form of allegory (Steinbeck 3). Some see The Pearl as a strong allegorical message about human greed. KIno becomes the symbol of the poor but happy man who is destroyed when he begins to want the things of the material world (Barron 1). It is research papers, nt so much that Kino is an steve yzerman impoverished Mexican fisherman ( although he is): more importantly, he represents an everyday man faced with the temptation of wealth beyond his wildest imagination (Stillmen 2). The pearl that was supposed to bring happiness and fulfillment brings only destruction(Barron 1). As Steinbeck puts it, #8220;humans are never satisfied, that you give them one thing and they want something more, #8221; (Bloom 28). Several critics see The Pearl as an renaissance research papers allegory of social oppression. In this view, Juan Thomas is a symbol of the ancient Indian wisdom, Kino is a symbol of the Indian#8217;s desire for freedom, and the doctor, priest, and steve, pearl buyers are symbols of the oppressive Spanish culture. The pearl represents Kino#8217;s means of escaping oppression, but the powerful forces of the music research papers social system are too strong for even the pearl to overcome.

When Kino throws the great treasure back into the sea, the message seems to be that the poop Indian does not have a chance (Barron 1). The Pearl can also be interpreted as an allegory of the soul (Lisca 134). Best Essays 2009! Kino says that the pearl has become his soul. This closely echoes the Gospel according to Matthew in papers the New Testament, in which the Kingdom of Heaven is compared to a #8220;pearl of great price#8221;. If the gender essay pearl is seen as a symbol of salvation two meanings can be formed about the meanings of its loss at the end: Kino is lucky to return to a simple state of renaissance music research papers, human happiness and best review, poverty or he is denied a soul as punishment for his reliance on material things (Barron 1).

A somewhat more familiar interpretation of the allegory of the soul is the story of Adam and research, Eve. American Review! After eating from the forbidden tree (#8220;Yes, God punished Kino because he rebelled against music research papers, the way things are#8221;), following being expelled from the garden (Kino#8217;s words , #8220;We must go away#8221;), subsequent to going to the land that lies #8220;east of Eden#8221; ( the tourism dissertation area Kino and Juana fled to), Kino and Juana return to Eden and put the apple back on the tree as it were. This is all suggested in the structure of The Pearl (Lisca 137). Steinbeck#8217;s reading led him much further than just the Bible. There is also teh allegory of the research papers medieval poem, #8220;Pearl#8221; , in which the poet tells the story of the personal grief of a loving father who has lost his daughter (a child dead before she had lived). The father drops a #8220;pearl of great price#8221; while suffering his loss.

A maiden appears to him wearing a pearl covered garment. She is identified with the steve yzerman lost pearl and also parallels with his deceased daughter. The maiden lectures him about the research papers ways to salvation. On Religion! In The Pearl Coyotito can be identified with Kino#8217;s #8220;pearl of great value#8221; (Lisca 134). One can establish relatively effortlessly a basis to infer allegory in Steinbeck#8217;s novel The Pearl.

There is substantial data accessible from many literary resources to maintain the renaissance research ideas of allegory in a number of areas such as , human greed, social oppression, the religious aspect, and in reference to medieval poetry. It is good hooks essays, evident Steinbeck#8217;s sole intent was for The Pearl to be interpreted as an allegory , one where each reader developed his or her own true meaning . Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Allegory In #8221;The Pearl#8221; by John Steinbeck. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for music research papers Allegory In #8221;The Pearl#8221; by John Steinbeck.

In #8220;The Pearl#8221; by John Steinbeck there are many characters that show out to be greedy after Kino got the pearl. For example: the of importance priest, the doctor and Kino. The#8230; Animal Imagery used throughout #8221;The Pearl#8221; by renaissance John Steinbeck. John Steinbeck in his parable-like novel The Pearl embraces the essays on issues of importance dark power of greed, which ultimately results in destruction. Kino, a simple Mexican pearl diver who provides for his wife#8230; The Pearl and Of Mice and Men Comparison. Renaissance Research! The Pearl and Of Mice and Men, both parables by John Steinbeck, are stories with different themes. Yet despite the differences in the dreams and ambitions of Steinbeck#8217;s protagonists, his#8230; #8221;Of Mice and Men#8221; by John Steinbeck. In the novel, Of Mice and Men, the author, John Steinbeck, takes a strong stance against many social issues.

Steinbeck voices his opinions on controversial rights such as women#8217;s rights#8230; ‘Of Mice and Men’ written by John Steinbeck. The novella ‘Of Mice and gender specific roles essay, Men’ written by John Steinbeck was set in the Great Depression of the 1930s. It was difficult for everyone, especially women who were treated by#8230; #8220;Great Depression#8221; by John Steinbeck. How did The Great Depression influence the works of John Steinbeck? The purpose of this paper is to discover the renaissance role that the steve yzerman essay Great Depression played on renaissance music research, the work of#8230;

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Evaluation Essay Essays and Research Papers. ENG 102 WP-1 - Evaluation Essay Write an music research papers essay that evaluates the value or effectiveness of something . according to criteria you establish or identify in the essay . Of Importance? The Genre: You’re familiar with the book and movie reviews that appear in newspapers, magazines, and websites. Research? They are just one kind of evaluative writing, but from essays, them we can identify the renaissance key components of the genre. First, there is the object to american essays review be evaluated. Often this is a single thing—a music CD, a scholarly study, a corporation—but.

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Evaluation , Judgment , Noun 363 Words | 3 Pages. Evaluation involves the assessment of the renaissance papers effectiveness of the training programs. This assessment is done by collecting data on whether the . participants were satisfied with the deliverables of the training program, whether they learned something from the training and are able to apply those skills at their workplace. There are different tools for assessment of a training program depending upon the kind of training conducted.Since organisations spend a large amount of money, it is therefore important. Donald Kirkpatrick , Evaluation , Learning 1730 Words | 6 Pages. Evaluation Essay Evaluations are important tools to understand why decisions are made and the factors evaluated to einstein's . assist individuals in determining his or her goals, career choice, skills, and interest. Evaluations may be accomplished by self-assessments, and performance evaluations . Self-assessments and performance evaluations are essential tools to encourage and develop critical thinking skills.

These tools may assist in personal and research papers professional skill development. Understanding why we make. Critical thinking , Decision making , Employment 503 Words | 2 Pages. ? Science Essay Evaluation Rubric assignment # __11________ Student Name:Julia Score:100 This analytic rubric is used . to verify specific tasks performed when producing an essay . If the task has been successfully completed, all points are awarded. No points are awarded if the task is not complete. Category Scoring Criteria Points Student Evaluation Self Peer Teacher Evaluation Introduction 20 points A thesis statement makes the volunteer tourism dissertation purpose of the essay clear. Renaissance Music? (Thesis.

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Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in best 2009, writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. Renaissance Music Research? give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages.

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Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an essay and science opinion considered hostile if it focuses on papers, honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to volunteer dissertation know everyone in the class. Music Papers? After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . essay in my life while I was living in India.

It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and essay grammar is worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. Music? After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is steve essay, culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. Music Papers? For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate.

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stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the renaissance music first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by einstein's essay and science, announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from renaissance papers, his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the for scholarship essays infamous hook. Renaissance? It is not easy to think of how to make someone want to read an essay about a novel. It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and on issues of importance evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. Writing the Essay U.S. History Organization • Basics – Introduction (4-5 sentences) – Body (4-6 sentences each) – Conclusion (3-5 . Music? sentences) • Paragraphs – Should be concise and dissertation TO THE POINT • Avoid paragraphs that are longer than one page • Helpful Hint – Use a concluding sentence to each body paragraph to summarize main idea and reiterate your thesis • **This does not differ between FRQs and DBQs Introduction • Length: 4-5 sentences • Be sure of music research what the question is gender essay, asking. Essay , Sentence 616 Words | 4 Pages.

disabilities. Music Research? The process is hooks for scholarship, based on a systems theory approach. The system is designed for a guide for a well-defined, goal-oriented purpose to the activity . Music Papers? or program being provided. It involves four phases: assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation . Einstein's Essay? Use of the therapeutic recreation process is renaissance music research, not dependent on location, but on systematic and essays on issues of importance consistent use of assessing, planning, implementing and renaissance music papers evaluating services for people with disabilities. The process is tourism dissertation, applied in papers, settings like hospitals. Assessment , Computer program , Disability 1387 Words | 5 Pages. ?Employee Performance Evaluation Name Job Title Employee Number Effective evaluation of einstein's on religion and science job performance is an . Renaissance Papers? on-going process. Annually each manager or supervisor provides a summary of progress toward meeting job expectations and last year’s goals. This form is to be used for annual evaluations , and at other times during the year when formal feedback is needed. Evaluation Period (month/day/year) From: To: Evaluation Criteria - Describes. Communication , Critical thinking , Decision making 340 Words | 3 Pages.

Question: Write an steve essay essay on monitoring and evaluation (ME) in which you: describe the difference between monitoring and . evaluation distinguish between participatory ME and music research papers conventional ME describe how participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME) is used in practice with specific reference to case studies from China Title: Monitoring and yzerman Evaluation (ME) TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1 Introduction 3 2 The difference between monitoring and renaissance evaluation 3 3 Distinguishing. Construction , Critical path method , Evaluation 1936 Words | 7 Pages. Personnel Evaluation Week 5 Hilda Vazquez 11/11/12 PAD 530 Dr, Lee Abstract With the ever evolving status of the . development of Personnel Management comes the evolvement of on issues of importance strategizing the renaissance music papers guidelines, and structure for the foundation of Personnel Management Evaluation . The importance of Personnel Management is high, and essay has been progressively growing into music research the fast pace of society. On Issues? The idea behind having personnel management is to find ideal candidates who are self sufficient. Evaluation , Human resource management , Human resources 1536 Words | 5 Pages. Performance evaluations are designed primarily to tell employees how they had done over research, a period of time and to let them know what pay raise . them would receive. Volunteer Tourism? The biggest strength of our performance appraisal system at music research Fairfield Medical Center, would be “feedback”, however other factors like documentation and development do play an best american essays 2009 review important role as well.

I will talk about different performance measurements used at renaissance research FMC, their strength, weakness and then proposed solution. Behavior Based Measures. 360-degree feedback , Evaluation , Feedback 888 Words | 3 Pages. result of introspection into good hooks for scholarship essays past experiences or memorable events in our lives. We introspect into these memorable events and reflect over them with . regards the emotions and influences they have left in our lives. In simple words a reflective essay is a piece of ‘you’ being presented in words.

What is Reflection? In a reflective composition you really need to renaissance think about yourself and how a particular personal experience changed you. It is not merely a recollection of your experience but. Emotion , Essay , Essays 1498 Words | 5 Pages. performance against what was expected. Evaluation is a time-bound and periodic exercise that seeks to provide credible and useful information . to answer specific questions to guide decision making by staff, managers and policy makers. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfilment of objectives, development efficiency, effectiveness, impact, and sustainability (Policy Framework for the Government-Wide Monitoring and Evaluation framework). An evaluation should provide information that is einstein's essay on religion and science, credible. Better , Decision making , Evaluation 1895 Words | 6 Pages.

RUNNING HEAD: Grievance Procedures An Analysis on Grievance Procedures Robert Trejo . Music Research? An Analysis on Performance of Evaluations Introduction This paper will discuss several aspects of the procedures of the performance of evaluations in the work place. First, this paper will discuss some information of the procedures to file a grievance. Then this paper will talk about the yzerman importance of a grievance procedure. Furthermore. Collective bargaining , Discipline , Employment 1426 Words | 5 Pages. Evaluation of papers Training: Meaning and gender essay Types Khan Sarfaraz Ali[1] Training evaluation ( is the objective assessment of the past to . facilitate better forecasting and controlling of the future. Music Research Papers? In the context of einstein's essay on religion training it is used to determine the effectiveness of a training program.

Training evaluation means “any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effects of a training program and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information” [Hamblin]. Training evaluation is a. Assessment , Better , Evaluation 564 Words | 3 Pages. Evaluation Essay Structure and Format Tips Evaluation essays set out to create criteria and music then . judge or evaluate the subject based on these criteria. Writing an evaluation essay requires you to fully analyze both sides and determine an arguable judgment. You must fully explore the subject and then provide views and evidence to support that judgment. Your writing starts with gathering necessary and relevant materials. Then you formulate a thesis, that is your judgement upon the topic, create. Academia , Essay , Evaluation 406 Words | 2 Pages.

Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is on issues of importance, designed to be as close as possible to renaissance music an . essay question that might appear on best, the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and renaissance research back it up with concrete examples. Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. create a training evaluation . “A training evaluation is the process of collecting the outcomes needed to determine whether . training is dissertation, effective.”(Noe, 2008, pg 197). “An evaluation is important because it will help improve the quality of training, insure that money is being spent on training, insures that objectives are being met, improves performance of employee and the company and increase profitability.“(Noe, 2008). In the training evaluation process, our first step is the renaissance music research papers evaluation design. This.

Evaluation , Measurement , Practice 1081 Words | 3 Pages. that once we make the initial evaluation , other information has little affect on hooks for scholarship, how we view that person, so the first impression sticks. We . also evaluate people based on renaissance, Self-fulfilling prophecy, which is basically having expectations about a person which elicits certain behavior that confirms your expectations. Stereotypes is a very common evaluation people make about other groups of steve yzerman people, such as black, whites, Asians and research so on. Usually this type of evaluation turns to be negative Q2: How.

Archetype , Evaluation , False Impression 814 Words | 3 Pages. Job Evaluation at Whole Foods Week 3 Assignment Tanisha Reynolds Prepared For: HR 598 – Professor T. Clark May 23, 2010 Evaluate the . jobs listed in tourism dissertation, the case study and prepare a job structure based upon its evaluation . Renaissance Music Research Papers? Assign titles to jobs, and show your structure by tourism dissertation, title and job letter Whole Foods stores are organized into research papers teams based on the different product categories: * Produce (vegetables and fruits) * Meat * Seafood * Grocery (dairy, frozen) * Specialty (cheese. Evaluation , Grocery store , Job description 581 Words | 3 Pages. Writing a Research Essay in Economics You've been given an economic research essay topic for your assessment task and completed . your research. Good For Scholarship Essays? Your textbook and papers syllabus outline should be the starting points for the research.

Make sure you read the criteria on which you will be assessed. You are now ready to organise your ideas and the information you've collected into a logical sequence. But where do you start? It is useful to begin with an on issues of importance essay outline. The Structure of the Essay Outline The. Consumption function , Debut albums , Economics 1577 Words | 5 Pages. Use these questions as guidance when critically evaluating your texts, but remember that you do not have to use them all in your writing.

Critical . Evaluation of Sources Is the source: Source type a book, a journal, an e-journal, an Internet article, a newspaper, a magazine, a blog Why the source was chosen How does the text relate to your research topic – does it provide background information, support for an argument, relevant data / details about the issue? Authority of the writer . Critical thinking , Evaluation , Peer review 408 Words | 3 Pages. The Golden Rules of Essay Writing. ?The Golden Rules of Essay Writing Below are some useful tips to research papers consider when you are writing your essays . Use this sheet as a . reference and check your essay against it before you hand it in 1. Keep subjectivity to a minimum Always support your points with referenced evidence. Avoid use of the words ‘I’, ‘me’ and good hooks ‘you’. Write in the third person. 2. Beware of blanket statements It is not good enough to make generalisations such as ‘it is a well known fact that…’ and ‘research has shown that…’.

Essay , Essays , Journalism 424 Words | 2 Pages. Schwartz, Instructor English 102 21 April 2014 Final Reflective Essay During my time in renaissance, Professor Schwartz’s English 102 class, I feel that . Essays? I improved as a writer. I am now familiar with various types of music papers argumentative essays and how to properly write them. Discussion assignments taught me how to review and on religion synthesize articles and speeches, as well as interact with my peers. The self- evaluations required at the end of each essay helped me to renaissance music research papers critique my own work and yzerman essay connect my personal ideas with. Creative writing , Debate , Education 1195 Words | 2 Pages.

SCM2601-W01-45955 Final Exam J.J. Schultz May 1, 2013 I. Research Papers? 360-Degree Evaluation 1. Hooks For Scholarship? Explain the concept of the renaissance music papers 360-Degree . Tourism? Evaluation . The 360-Degree Evaluation or 360-Degree feedback system is a performance evaluation system. This evaluation system is renaissance research, considered 360-degrees because it involves the collecting of performance information from an employee’s sphere of contact. This includes evaluations from direct peers and co-workers, managers and supervisors, and unlike most. Better , Employment , Evaluation 1845 Words | 6 Pages. “A Word About Words” Havel Evaluation Havel's essay entitled “A Word About Words,” Havel came to the conclusion.

We have . an ethical duty to always be suspicious of words. The three arguments Havel makes to support this claim are that we've always believed in the power of words to change history, and all events in the real world always have their prologue in the realm of steve yzerman essay words. This conclusion needs a lot of support and strong examples that are relevant, reasonable, and music sufficient. Havel's. 2002 albums , Argument , Czechoslovakia 910 Words | 3 Pages.

Essay #4: Research Analysis Rough Draft: _____________ Final Draft: ____________ |In the . dialectical journals and class discussions for this unit, we will focus on volunteer, George Orwell’s characterization of renaissance research papers poverty in Down and Out in Paris | |and London. For this essay , you will present an analytical evaluation of einstein's essay on religion Orwell’s account of a specific cause, consequence, or characteristic of | |poverty. To evince your evaluation , you will research the topic. Begin , Essay , Poverty 798 Words | 3 Pages. The Definition of an Evaluation Essay. This is true for an evaluation essay . The writer must think about the topic and take a point of view about it. Sometimes the . writer must research the topic before making any type of research argument. The argument is usually stated in the thesis statement. The first steps in tourism, writing an evaluation essay is to obtain supporting evidence to support your viewpoint. It is research papers, similar to an argumentative essay in that the writer's point of view is given backed with evidence. Gender Specific? An evaluation essay is also similar to renaissance papers an.

A Great Way to Care , Article , Critical thinking 632 Words | 2 Pages. Appropriate professional in office (Formality) A company supports a formalized system of performance evaluation of all employees. The purpose . of the evaluation is to provide feedback to roles employees about their work performance; assist employees in staff and professional development; identify employees' leadership qualities; and achieve the company’s goals. Therefore it is should be done seriously to ensure that the right objectives are tested. Renaissance Music Papers? In this case, being a director in sales, Danny is supposed. Behavior , Culture , Emotion 752 Words | 3 Pages. Writing an A-Level Sociology Essay. ?Knowing how to einstein's do an A Level Sociology Essay Assessment With reference to the present syllabus, there are three main skills being . assessed in your essays . 1. Knowledge and Understanding (9 marks) 2. Renaissance Papers? Interpretation and Application (9 marks) 3. Evaluation (9 marks) What Does This Mean? What this means is that for writing an essay is that the on issues content (studies, names of researcher, dates, figures, concepts, although important need to be organised coherently, applied to a variety of.

Chris Marker , Essay , Essays 1471 Words | 6 Pages. all the answers for the assignments will be available in net. But make sure u give a try. It would surely help u. Music? 3. Do we have . Einstein's And Science? evaluations on music research, the topics covered in Aspire? Ans: We have some assessment modules designed for participants in Aspire. This would include online assignments and self evaluation quizzes. Also u will be having evaluations based on it once u enter TCS. 3rd day.

4. Do we have any other assessments other than the yzerman essay online assessments? Ans: No. Nothing like. Activity , Click , E-participation 698 Words | 3 Pages. persuasive essay and then write one of your own. Music? The essay you write will use persuasive techniques and evidence to argue for . adopting a good habit. You will evaluate a peer’s work and get peer feedback on your own essay using the provided evaluation rubric. __________________________________________________________________________ ! Directions and essay and science Analysis Task 1: Persuasive Writing Using Evidence Forming good study habits is a great way to improve your grades. Read this persuasive essay about using. Eating , Essay , Habit 1003 Words | 4 Pages. ? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of essay as a literature form has begun in renaissance, 1580 when Michel de . Montaigne has published the book “Les Essais”. In French term “essais” means “try” or “experience”.

It was a book written because of boredom; it did not have a distinct structure or plan, and consisted of individual chapters, formally unrelated to each other. Montaigne suggested his literary tests in form of initial essay , highlighting their subjective, relative, and inconclusive sides. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1691 Words | 5 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the volunteer tourism dissertation definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of renaissance music daily life, recollections, and reflections of the einstein's essay on religion author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's.

Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages.